z- Vitamin Table

Vitamin A o   General Roles §  Vision, Growth, Reproduction o   Symptoms or Deficiency of Disease §  Nyctalopia, xerophthalmia, keratomalacia   Vitamin D2, D3 o   General Roles §  Modulation of Ca2+ metabolism, calcification of bone and teeth o   Symptoms or Deficiency of Disease §  Rickets (young), Osteomalacia (adult) Vitamin E o   General Roles §  Antioxidant for […]

z- Test #4 Values

Na+ Critical Values 120 > < 160 Na+ Normal Values 137 – 145 K+ Normal Values 3.6 – 5 K+ Critical Values 2.8 > < 6.2 Cl- Critical Values 80 > < 120 CO2 Critical Values 10 > < 40 pH Normal Values 7.35-7.45 pCO2 Normal Values 35-45mmHg pO2 Normal Values 80-100mmHg HCO3- Normal Values […]

z- Test #4 Lab Measurements

Sodium You need a heparinized plasma tube (green top tube) or serum must be separated from the cells; NO HemolysisUse ISE (ion-selective electrode) to measure the amount of electrolyte present Chloride Serum preferred NO hemolysis seperated from cells no contact with air because of CO2 and bicarbonate interferences Coulometric or Amperometric Titration: based on titration, […]

z- Test #4 Electrolytes

Electrolytes Molecules that become ionized in solution such as– Na+, K+, Cl- & CO2 Cations negatively charged ions that moves toward the Cathode Anions positively charged ions that moves toward the Anode Sodium (Na+) -major extracellular cation-responsible for half of the osmolality of the plasma-sodium reabsorption in the distal tubules occurs w/ aid of Aldosterone […]

z- Test #4 Disorders

Hyponatremia (hypoaldosteronism)? Deleptional (Addison’s Disease)• Due to diet (potassium azide )• Excessive Sweat• Prolonged vomiting• Persistent diarrhea• Deficiency in absorption• Net loss of Na+? Dilutional• Retention of H2O• Pregnancy• Edema• the amount of sodium you have doesn’t change but the water volume increases Hypernatremia ? Net gain of Na+ in plasma• During sweating• Vomiting• Diarrhea• […]

z- Pentose Phosphate Pathway

G6P to 6-Phosphoglucono-lambda-lactone glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase 6-Phosphoglucono-lambda-lactone to 6-Phosphogluconate 6-phosphoglucono lactonase 6-Phosphogluconate to Ru5P 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase G6P to 6-Phosphoglucono-lambda-lactone Side product: NADP+ –> NADPH + H+ 6-phosphoglucono lactonase 6-Phosphoglucono-lambda-lactone to 6-Phosphogluconate Side product: H20 –> H+ 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase 6-Phosphogluconate to Ru5P Side product: NADP+ –> NADPH + H+

z- minerals and bone metabolism (ch-38)

Calcium Functions Calmodulin (made up of 4 Ca2+ ions) – it activates adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesteraseCalcium binds to a protein to form Troponin – found in cardiac muscleCell communicationControls endocrine gland secretionNeeded for blood coagulation Calmodulin (made up of 4 Ca2+ ions) – it activates adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase Phosphate Function Part of the cell […]

z- Glycolysis

Regulation Step PFK (Phosphofructo Kinase) Glucose to G6P Hexokinase + Mg2+ + ATP G6P G6P to F6P PGI (phosphoglucose isomerase) F6P to FBP PFK (Phosphofructo Kinase) + Mg2+ + ATP ONE WAY (regulation step) FBP to DHAP + GAP Aldolase DHAP to GAP TIM (Triose Phosphate Isomerase) GAP to 1,3 BPG GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) + […]

z- Glycolysis and Fructose metabolism Enzymes

Hexokinase Glucose to G6P(Mg2+ ATP –> ADP) and Fructose to F6P Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) G6P to F6P Phosphofructo kinase (PFK) F6P to FBP(Mg2+ ATP –> ADP)Main regulation step Adolase FBP to GAP + DHAP Triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) DHAP to GAP Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) GAP to 1,3 BPG(NAD+ + pi -> NADH + H+) Phosphoglycerate Kinase […]

z- Fructose Metabolism

Fructose to F6P Hexokinase (Muscle) Fructose to Fructose-1-phosphate Fructokinase Fructose-1-phosphate to Glyceraldehyde Fructose-1-phosphate aldolase Glyceraldehyde to GAP Glyceraldehyde Kinase Glyceraldehyde to Glycerol Alcohol Dehydrogenase(NADH –> NAD+) Glycerol to Glycerol-3-phosphate Glycerol Kinase Glycerol-3-Phosphate to Dihydroxy acetonephosphate Glycerolphosphate Dehydrogenase Dihydroxyacetone phosphate to GAP Triosephosphate Isomerase (TIM)

Zero Rules (chemistry)

zeros in between other numbers are ALWAYS significant zeros in front of numbers are NEVER significant (hold place) zeros in scientific notation are ALWAYS significant zeros at end of number after decimal ARE significant to show a guess or give information (not just place holders) zeros at end of number before decimal are MAY OR […]

Zeltner Periodic Table

mendeleev He’s given credit for making the first periodic table. Atomic Mass Average mass of all isotopes of that element. Atomic Number The modern periodic table is aranged in order of increasing the Atomic Number. elements A substance that cannot be broken down into any other substances by chemical or physical means periodically The table […]

z-Test #1 – Chemistry

Describe Southern Blotting 1. Gel electrophoresis of DNA fragments2. NaOH denature and blot into nitrocellulose filter3.Incubate the nitrocellulose bound DNA with 32P labeled DNA or RNA of specific sequences complimentary to DNA4. Wash unbound probe away Sucrose Hetero: aGlucose 1->2 bFructose Lactose Hetero: bGalactose 1->4 bGlucose Cellulose Homo: bGlucose 1->4 bGlucose Chitin Homo: bNAcetylGlucose 1->4 […]

z-Test 2 Protein

?-1 Band Antitrypsin (AAT)Acid glycoprotein (AAG)Lipoprotein A (Apolipoprotein A)Fetoprotein (AFP) ?-2 Band Haptoglobin (HAP)Ceruloplasmin (CER)Macroglobulin (AMG) ?-1 Band Transferrin (TRF)Hemopexin (HPX)Lipoprotein B (Apolipoprotein B)C4 ?-2 Band FibrinogenC3Microglobulin ?- Band ImmunoglobulinsC-reactive protein (CRP) ?-1 Band Antitrypsin: Makes up 90% of the alpha bandFunction: neutralizes lysosomal elastases during phagocytosisUses: evaluates lung and liver diseaseAcid glycoprotein:Has a large […]

z-Test 2 Carbs

Cortisol Source: Adrenal CortexIncreases gluconeogenesisIncreases plasma glucose Epinephrine (Adrenaline) Source: Adrenal MedullaIncrease glycogenolysisIncrease plamsa glucose Thyroxine (T4) Source: ThyroidIncrease glycogenolysisIncrease plasma glucose Glucose Hyperglycemia: >140mg/dLHypoglycemia:

z-Test 1 Slides

Osmolality Moles of solute/kg solvent Flame emission Spectroscopy lithium=red, sodium=yellow, potassium = violet, magnesium =blue. Red and Gold top tubes Serum tube1-3 minutes blood will clotAfter 3 minutes centrifuge (you will only see two layers)Collect top layer: serum which contains everything except coagulation factors Lavendar and Pink top tubes plasma tubeContains ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid EDTA binds […]

z-Test 1 Definitions

Selectivity Analyzers that can analyze individual test on a given sample and multiple tests at the same time. Discreetness Ability to dispense and mix each sample with its respective reagent for each test in a separate reaction cup. Continuous flow Continuous pumping of fluid to avoid air bubbles. Batching Running the same text on a […]


E = hc/(lambda) Find energy with planck’s constant, the speed of light and the wavelength rate = k[A]^x [B]^y rate reaction A = Ao -(ko)(t) Zero order rate reaction k = M/sec At = Ao E^-kt First order k = 1/sec rate = k [A] [B] Second order rate reaction k = 1/M sec kc= […]

z-Ch.8 Carbs

Dihydroxy acetone [image] D-Fructose [image] D-Galactose [image] D-Mannose [image] D-Glucose [image] D-Ribose [image] D-Glyseraldehyde [image] Sucrose [image] Lactose [image] Cellulose [image] Chitin [image] Starch [image]

z-Ch.4 Amino Acids

Alanine -CH3 Ala A nonpolar Glycine -H Gly G nonpolar Valine -CH(CH3)2 Val V nonpolar Leucine -CH2-CH(CH3)2 Leu L nonpolar Isoleucine -CH(CH3)-CH2-CH3 Ile I nonpolar Methionine -CH2-CH2-S-CH3 Met M nonpolar Proline [image] Pro P nonpolar Phenylalanine -CH2-C6H5 Phe F nonpolar Tryptophan [image] Trp W nonpolar Serine -CH2-OH Ser S uncharged polar Theronine -CH(OH)-CH3 Thr T […]

z-Ch.1 – Chemistry

H MW= 1 C MW= 12 N MW= 14 O MW= 16 Na MW= 23 P MW= 31 S MW= 32 Cl MW= 35.5 K MW= 39 Ca MW= 40 R-NH-C(=N(+)H2)-NH2 Guanino ATP [image]

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