z- Test #4 Values

Na+ Critical Values 120 > < 160 Na+ Normal Values 137 – 145 K+ Normal Values 3.6 – 5 K+ Critical Values 2.8 > < 6.2 Cl- Critical Values 80 > < 120 CO2 Critical Values 10 > < 40 pH Normal Values 7.35-7.45 pCO2 Normal Values 35-45mmHg pO2 Normal Values 80-100mmHg HCO3- Normal Values […]

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z- Test #4 Lab Measurements

Sodium You need a heparinized plasma tube (green top tube) or serum must be separated from the cells; NO HemolysisUse ISE (ion-selective electrode) to measure the amount of electrolyte present Chloride Serum preferred NO hemolysis seperated from cells no contact with air because of CO2 and bicarbonate interferences Coulometric or Amperometric Titration: based on titration, […]

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z- Test #4 Electrolytes

Electrolytes Molecules that become ionized in solution such as– Na+, K+, Cl- & CO2 Cations negatively charged ions that moves toward the Cathode Anions positively charged ions that moves toward the Anode Sodium (Na+) -major extracellular cation-responsible for half of the osmolality of the plasma-sodium reabsorption in the distal tubules occurs w/ aid of Aldosterone […]

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z- Test #4 Disorders

Hyponatremia (hypoaldosteronism)? Deleptional (Addison’s Disease)• Due to diet (potassium azide )• Excessive Sweat• Prolonged vomiting• Persistent diarrhea• Deficiency in absorption• Net loss of Na+? Dilutional• Retention of H2O• Pregnancy• Edema• the amount of sodium you have doesn’t change but the water volume increases Hypernatremia ? Net gain of Na+ in plasma• During sweating• Vomiting• Diarrhea• […]

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z- Pentose Phosphate Pathway

G6P to 6-Phosphoglucono-lambda-lactone glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase 6-Phosphoglucono-lambda-lactone to 6-Phosphogluconate 6-phosphoglucono lactonase 6-Phosphogluconate to Ru5P 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase G6P to 6-Phosphoglucono-lambda-lactone Side product: NADP+ –> NADPH + H+ 6-phosphoglucono lactonase 6-Phosphoglucono-lambda-lactone to 6-Phosphogluconate Side product: H20 –> H+ 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase 6-Phosphogluconate to Ru5P Side product: NADP+ –> NADPH + H+

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z- minerals and bone metabolism (ch-38)

Calcium Functions Calmodulin (made up of 4 Ca2+ ions) – it activates adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesteraseCalcium binds to a protein to form Troponin – found in cardiac muscleCell communicationControls endocrine gland secretionNeeded for blood coagulation Calmodulin (made up of 4 Ca2+ ions) – it activates adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase Phosphate Function Part of the cell […]

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z- Glycolysis

Regulation Step PFK (Phosphofructo Kinase) Glucose to G6P Hexokinase + Mg2+ + ATP G6P G6P to F6P PGI (phosphoglucose isomerase) F6P to FBP PFK (Phosphofructo Kinase) + Mg2+ + ATP ONE WAY (regulation step) FBP to DHAP + GAP Aldolase DHAP to GAP TIM (Triose Phosphate Isomerase) GAP to 1,3 BPG GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) + […]

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z- Glycolysis and Fructose metabolism Enzymes

Hexokinase Glucose to G6P(Mg2+ ATP –> ADP) and Fructose to F6P Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) G6P to F6P Phosphofructo kinase (PFK) F6P to FBP(Mg2+ ATP –> ADP)Main regulation step Adolase FBP to GAP + DHAP Triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) DHAP to GAP Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) GAP to 1,3 BPG(NAD+ + pi -> NADH + H+) Phosphoglycerate Kinase […]

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z- Fructose Metabolism

Fructose to F6P Hexokinase (Muscle) Fructose to Fructose-1-phosphate Fructokinase Fructose-1-phosphate to Glyceraldehyde Fructose-1-phosphate aldolase Glyceraldehyde to GAP Glyceraldehyde Kinase Glyceraldehyde to Glycerol Alcohol Dehydrogenase(NADH –> NAD+) Glycerol to Glycerol-3-phosphate Glycerol Kinase Glycerol-3-Phosphate to Dihydroxy acetonephosphate Glycerolphosphate Dehydrogenase Dihydroxyacetone phosphate to GAP Triosephosphate Isomerase (TIM)

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