Pharmacology Flashcards, test questions and answers
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What is Pharmacology?
Pharmacology is the branch of medicine that deals with the study of drugs, their action, properties, and uses in treating various medical conditions. It encompasses all aspects of drug therapy including formulation, production, distribution, and administration. Pharmacologists are scientists who utilize their knowledge to develop medications and analyze their effects on patients. The ultimate goal of pharmacology is to optimize the therapeutic effects while minimizing adverse reactions or side effects. The field of pharmacology has advanced dramatically over time as new technologies have enabled researchers to better understand how drugs interact with cells in the body. This has led to more effective treatments for a wide range of diseases and conditions such as cancer, heart disease, diabetes mellitusiitisromuscular dystrophyeyAsthma parkinson’sn Alzheimer’s disease stroke depression anxiety disorders HIV/AIDS obesity insomnia etc some medicines are also used for recreational purposes like cocaine marijuana LSD heroin methamphetamines etc .Drugs can be classified based on their mechanism of action (MOA). Examples include agonists which activate certain receptors; antagonists which block certain receptors; enzyme inhibitors which prevent enzymes from catalyzing chemical reactions; ion-channel blockers which interfere with ion channels; antibiotics which kill bacteria by disrupting cell wall synthesis; steroids which affect hormones; antineoplastic agents which inhibit tumor growth and progression; immunomodulators which modulate immune responses ;and gene therapeutics which introduce genes into cells to alter biological processes . Pharmacokinetics is another important concept in pharmacology it refers to how long a drug stays active in the body after administration and affects its efficacy and safety profiles. In addition to understanding MOA’s & PK parameters , other factors such as dosing schedules & potential interactions must be considered when prescribing medications . Drug safety testing is an important part of pharmacology – it involves preclinical studies using animal models prior to clinical trials being conducted on humans . Regulatory authorities assess data from these tests before approving any medication for use . The development process could take years before finally getting approval from regulatory agencies like FDA or EMA. Last but not least there are legal regulations related to drugs manufacture / sale / supply . All these factors need consideration when dealing with pharmaceutical products ..