Pharmaceutical Terminolgy for Study guide

Active ingredient
is the chemical in a medication that is known or believed to have a therapeutic effect.

Adverse reaction
denotes an unwanted or unexpected side effect or reaction to a medication; it may also result from an interaction among two or more medications.

Aerosol
is a medication dosage form that uses a gaseous substance consisting of fine liquid or solid particles.

Allergic reaction
denotes a sensitivity to a specific substance that is absorbed through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed, or injected.

Allergy
is a sensitivity of the immune system to a chemical or drug; an allergy causes symptoms ranging from rashes to more sever symptoms such as irregular breathing.

Amphetamines
are substances that are frequently abused as stimulant medications; they can be used to treat the medical conditions of narcolepsy and eating disorders.

Analgesic
refers to a substance used to relieve acute or chronic pain.

Anaphylactic shock
is a hypersensitivity reaction to a substance.

Antacid
is a substance that relieves high acid levels in the gastric (stomach) area.

Antianxiety
describes substances that reduce or relieve anxiety.

Antibiotic
is a substance used to kill or stop the growth of bacteria in the body.

Anticoagulant
refers to a substance that stops blood clotting (AKA blood thinner).

Antidepressant
is a substance that helps to maintain proper hormone balance levels to decrease depressive moods.

Antihistamine
refers to a substance that stops the effects of histamine release, which causes sneezing, watery eyes, and congestion.

Antiviral
refers to drugs that fight viral infections in the body.

Auxiliary labels
are placed on the medication package to provide information and instructions for use.

Beta-blockers
are substances used in the treatment of hypertension, angina, arrhythmia, and cardiomyopathy; they may also be used to minimize the possibility of sudden death after a heart attack.

Blood sugar level
is the measure of glucose (sugar) level in the bloodstream.

Brand name
is the proprietary name of a drug exclusive to a manufacturer for selling and distributing purposes.

Calcium-channel blockers
are substances used to treat and reduce hypertension (high blood pressure) and disorders that affect the blood supply to the heart; also used in the treatment of irregular heartbeat.

Capsule
is a solid dosage form of a medication; usually made of gelatin, which surrounds and holds fine particles of a solid or liquid.

Chewable tablets
are meant to be chewed instead of swallowed whole.

Chronic
refers to a disease or illness that has a long duration (e.g., lifetime)

Compound
refers to a substance made from a combination of two or more substances.

Contagious
refers to the time period when an infectious person can transmit a disease to another person through direct or indirect contact.

Controlled release medication
are released and metabolized over a period of time in the body.

Controlled substance
refers to a drug with a high potential for abuse; manufacturing and distribution of these substances are regulated by the federal government to limit abuse and harm.

Cream
is a dosage form of a medication that is a semisolid preparation, usually applied externally to soothe, lubricate, and protect.

Cure
is the effective treatment of a disease or illness leading to elimination of all symptoms.

Decongestant
refers to a substance that shrinks the mucous membranes that produce congestion.

Diuretic
is a substance that increases the water output in the kidneys; reduces water retention in the body.

Dopamine
is a neurotransmitter associated with the regulation of movement, emotions, pain, and pleasure.

Drops
are a liquid dosage form of medication; they are usually placed in the eye or ear.

Electrolytes
are salts that the body requires in its fluids; they are essential in nerve, muscle, and heart functions.

Emulsion
is a liquid dosage form of a mixture of two products that normally do not mix together.

Enema
is the process by which a medicated fluid is injected into the rectum.

Estrogens
are hormones produced in the ovaries; they are responsible for the development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics.

Expectorants
are substances that remove mucus from the upper respiratory system.

Formulary
refers to a list of preferred medications that insurance plans allow their members to get at a lower out-of-pocket expense.

Glucagon
is a hormone produced in the pancreas that causes the automatic release of glucose.

Glucose
is sugar found in the bloodstream; it is the primary energy source for bodily functions.

Half-life
defines the amount of time it takes for half of a substance to be broken down in the body and excreted.

Histamine (H2) blockers
reduce acid secretion by preventing histamine from reaching the H2 receptors.

Immediate-release medications
are available to the body and metabolized immediately following administration.

Immunosuppressant
refers to substance that are used to prevent the body from rejecting an organ transplant (also known as anti-rejection drugs).

Inhalation
is the administration of a medication directly into the lungs via the mouth or nose.

Insulin
is a hormone secreted by the pancreas that helps the body to digest sugars and starches; manufactured insulin is used when the patient’s pancreas does not produce enough on its own.

Intradermal
denotes the administration of a medication by injection into the skin.

Intramuscular
refers to the administration of a medication within or into the muscle.

Intravenous
refers to the administration of a medication within or into a vein.

Laxative
is a substance that increases defecation.

Local
refers to a small area or single part of the body (e.g.,local anesthetic)

Lotion
is a liquid dosage form that contains a powdered substance in a suspension; used externally to soothe, cool, dry, and protect.

Migraines
are severe headaches caused by extreme changes in the blood vessels in the brain.

Muscle relaxants
are used to treat involuntary, painful contraction of muscles by slowing the passage of nerve signals that cause pain in the muscles.

Narrow therapeutic range
is the bioequivalence range of a brand-name drug and its generic counterpart where very small changes in dosage level could result in toxicity.

Ointment
is a semisolid (mixture of a solid and a liquid) dosage form that is applied externally to deliver medication, lubricate, and protect.

Ophthalmic
refers to administration of a medication through the eye.

Opiate
is a drug derived from the opium poppy, such as morphine and codeine.

Oral
refers to the administration of a medication into the mouth.

Otic
denotes the administration of a medication into the ear.

Parenteral
denotes the administration of medication by any route other than oral; administration by injection.

Patch
is a dosage form in which the medication is delivered through a solid application applied to the skin and absorbed into the bloodstream.

Placebo
is a pill-like preparation that contains no active chemical ingredients; usually given for its psychological effects (also known as a sugar pill).

Progestins
are female reproductive hormones; they cause menstruation as they trigger the shedding of the uterine lining.

Proton pump inhibitors
are substances that reduce gastric acid buildup by blocking the release of protons in the stomach.

Psychotherapeutic drugs
are substances used to relieve they symptoms of mental and psychiatric illnesses, such as depression, psychosis, and anxiety.

Psychotropic
denotes a substance that affects a person’s ability to distinguish the real from the imaginary.

Rectally
refers to administration of a solid or liquid medication given through the rectum.

Sedatives
relieve anxiety and tension, calm, and relax the patient.

Side effects
are predicted, unwanted reactions to a substance or combination of substances.

Sterilize
means to cleanse (objects, wounds, burns, and so on) of microorganisms such as bacteria.

Subcutaneous
refers to the administration of a medication given under the skin.

Sublingual tablet
is a tablet that is dissolved under the tongue instead of being swallowed whole.

Suppository
denotes administration through the vagina or rectum of a solid medication.

Suspension
is a liquid form in which the solid particles are not completely dissolved.

Syrup
is a liquid dosage for that consists of water and sugar mixed with the medication.

Tablet
is a solid dosage form in which the ingredients are compacted into a small, formed shape.

Topical
refers to a substance used externally for relief of swelling, itching, or infection.

Transdermal
refers to administration of a medication through the skin (e.g.,the skin).

Vasodilator
is a substance that causes the blood vessels to widen.

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