Micro Final – DNA Viruses – Flashcards

question
What are the 6 families of DNA viruses?
answer
Parvo, papo, adeno, herpes, pox, hepadna
question
What is the smallest DNA virus?
answer
Parvovirus
question
What virus causes "slapped cheek fever"?
answer
Parvovirus
question
What is the major parvovirus?
answer
B-19
question
How are parvoviruses (B19) spread?
answer
Respiratory
question
What virus causes Erythema Infectiosum?
answer
Parvovirus
question
What is the pathogenesis of Parvovirus?
answer
Targets erythroid precursors
Binds to P antigen
-Febrile Stage (Infectious)
-Symptomatic Stage(Rash, arthralgia)
question
What problem is caused by anemic patients being infected by parvovirus?
answer
Aplastic crisis- RBC precursors are depleted and RBC lifespan is shortened
-especially sickle cell patients
question
What are 3 ways that B19 is spread and at what age is infection most common?
answer
Respiratory secretions,
Oral Secretions,
Across the placenta

Children 4-15
question
Describe the clinical syndromes of B19 in children and adults:
answer
Children: fever, sore throat, malaise, slapped cheek rash that extends to extremities

Adults: arthralgia, arthritis, vasculitis
question
What are the effects of B19 on pregnant women?
answer
Crosses placenta; severe hypoxic damage to heart, liver, and other tissues leading to edema and FETAL HYDROPS; stillbirth if fetus is too anemic
question
What disease can B19 be confused with in pregnant women?
answer
Rubella
question
What is the most common papovavirus, and what are the two lesser papovaviruses?
answer
HPV, BK, JC
question
What is the structure of the B19 (parvovirus)virus?
answer
Single Stranded DNA; NAKED; Icosahedral
question
What is the structure of Papovaviruses?
answer
Double Stranded DNA; NAKED; Icosahedral
question
What does HPV cause?
answer
Plantar WARTS, papillomatous WARTS, laryngeal papillomas, genital WARTS, cervical cancer
question
How does HPV enter the skin and how long does it take to develop?
answer
Breaks in skin or mucous membranes; 3-4 months
question
What effect does HPV have on cell growth?
answer
STIMULATORY: Thickening of basal and prickle layers and stratum granulosum
question
What are the most common wart-causing strains of HPV?
answer
HPV-1 and HPV-4
question
What virus can cause head and neck tumors (oral and laryngeal papillomas)?
answer
HPV (6 and 11)
question
What is Condylomata Acuminata?
answer
Ano/genital warts caused by HPV on the external genitals and perianal regions
-90% are HPV 6 and 11
-HPV 16 and 18 are associated with cervical cancer
question
What causes cervical dysplasia and neoplasia, and what shows up on the pap smear in this case?
answer
HPV 16 and 18; KOILOCYTIC CELLS (perinuclear cytoplasmic vacuolization)
question
What are the treatments for symptomatic HPV?
answer
Cryotherapy, electrocautery, chemical means and interferon
question
What is BK virus and in what patient population do you see it?
answer
Hemorrhagic cystitis in renal and bone marrow transplant patients
question
What is JC virus and in what patient population do you see it?
answer
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML); DEGENERATIVE BRAIN DISEASE;

Immunocompromised Patients
question
What is the structure of adenoviruses?
answer
Double Stranded DNA; NAKED
PENTON FIBERS PENTON FIBERS PENTON FIBERS
PENTON FIBERS PENTON FIBERS PENTON FIBERS
question
What cells are attacked by adenovirus?
answer
Epithelial cells lining oropharynx, resp. tract and enterics
question
Where can adenovirus become latent?
answer
Lymphoid Tissue
question
What are the common ways that adenovirus is spread?
answer
Fecal/oral; fingers; fomites; SWIMMING POOLS; classrooms; military
question
What is the most common clinical presentation of adenovirus?
answer
Pink eye with pharyngitis- MIMICS STREP THROAT
question
What is the common clinical presentation of adenovirus in military recruits?
answer
Cervical Adenitis
question
What clinical syndromes are associated with adenovirus?
answer
Pink eye, pharyngitis, acute respiratory tract disease, laryngitis, croup, viral pneumonia
HOLY CRAP
epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, diarrhea, acute hemorrhagic cystitis, hematuria in young boys, genital and skin infections
question
How is adenovirus diagnosed?
answer
ELISA, PCR, Fluoro Antibody Test
question
What kind of vaccine is available for adenovirus?
answer
Live, oral, NON-ATTENUATED
question
What is the structure of the poxviruses?
answer
LARGE, COMPLEX, LINEAR
Double-Stranded DNA; REPLICATES IN CYTOPLASM
question
How is smallpox (variola major) spread?
answer
Inhalation: virus enters upper respiratory tract and disseminates via lymphatics= VIREMIA (5-17 day incubation period)
-after secondary viremia, the virus infects all dermal tissues and organs
question
How does the rash distribution differ between smallpox and chickenpox?
answer
Smallpox are generally distributed more DISTALLY on the LIMBS and face; whereas chickenpox are distributed more PROXIMALLY on the trunk
question
What are complications of the smallpox vaccine?
answer
Encephalitis, progressive infections
question
Where does Orf come from, and how does it present?
answer
Pox virus of sheep and goats; single nodular lesion at the point of contact that MAY BE MISTAKEN FOR CUTANEOUS ANTHRAX
question
Where does Monkeypox come from, and how does it present?
answer
Infected prairie dogs; similar to smallpox but MILDER and SWOLLEN LYMPH NODES

PRAIRIE DOGS, PRAIRIE DOGS, PRAIRIE DOGS
question
What is Molluscum Contagiosum?
answer
A pox virus spread by contact
Typically an STD or in WRESTLERS
question
How does Molluscum Contagiosum present?
answer
Nodular to wart-like lesions most commonly on trunk, genitalia, and extremities
-2-8 week incubation
CLUSTER OF 5-20 NODULES
question
How is Molluscum Contagiosum diagnosed?
answer
CYTOPLASMIC INCLUSIONS IN EPITHELIAL CELLS
question
How is Molluscum Contagiosum treated?
answer
Curettage; liquid nitrogen
question
What is the structure of HBV (Hepatitis B Virus)?
answer
Small, enveloped DNA virus-
PARTIALLY double stranded- uses a reverse transcriptase and RNA intermediate during replication
question
Where does hepatitis B replicate initially?
answer
In hepatocytes, without causing damage
question
From the liver, where does hepatitis B go?
answer
It can cause viremia and spread to saliva, semen, blood, vaginal secretions, and MOTHER'S MILK
question
How is Hepatitis B spread?
answer
Sexual contact, blood, or perinatal
question
What type of cancer is caused by Hepatitis B virus?
answer
Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma
question
What are the clinical symptoms of Hepatitis B virus in the acute stage?
answer
PRODROME: fever, malaise, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain
ICTERIC STAGE: Jaundice, dark urine, pale stools
FULMINANT: Severe liver damage and bleeding (1%)
TYPE III Hypersensitivity because of HBsAG and Ab
question
What are the clinical symptoms of Hepatitis B virus in the chronic stage?
answer
Increased liver enzymes, cirrhosis, liver failure, Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma (PHC)
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question
What are the 6 families of DNA viruses?
answer
Parvo, papo, adeno, herpes, pox, hepadna
question
What is the smallest DNA virus?
answer
Parvovirus
question
What virus causes "slapped cheek fever"?
answer
Parvovirus
question
What is the major parvovirus?
answer
B-19
question
How are parvoviruses (B19) spread?
answer
Respiratory
question
What virus causes Erythema Infectiosum?
answer
Parvovirus
question
What is the pathogenesis of Parvovirus?
answer
Targets erythroid precursors
Binds to P antigen
-Febrile Stage (Infectious)
-Symptomatic Stage(Rash, arthralgia)
question
What problem is caused by anemic patients being infected by parvovirus?
answer
Aplastic crisis- RBC precursors are depleted and RBC lifespan is shortened
-especially sickle cell patients
question
What are 3 ways that B19 is spread and at what age is infection most common?
answer
Respiratory secretions,
Oral Secretions,
Across the placenta

Children 4-15
question
Describe the clinical syndromes of B19 in children and adults:
answer
Children: fever, sore throat, malaise, slapped cheek rash that extends to extremities

Adults: arthralgia, arthritis, vasculitis
question
What are the effects of B19 on pregnant women?
answer
Crosses placenta; severe hypoxic damage to heart, liver, and other tissues leading to edema and FETAL HYDROPS; stillbirth if fetus is too anemic
question
What disease can B19 be confused with in pregnant women?
answer
Rubella
question
What is the most common papovavirus, and what are the two lesser papovaviruses?
answer
HPV, BK, JC
question
What is the structure of the B19 (parvovirus)virus?
answer
Single Stranded DNA; NAKED; Icosahedral
question
What is the structure of Papovaviruses?
answer
Double Stranded DNA; NAKED; Icosahedral
question
What does HPV cause?
answer
Plantar WARTS, papillomatous WARTS, laryngeal papillomas, genital WARTS, cervical cancer
question
How does HPV enter the skin and how long does it take to develop?
answer
Breaks in skin or mucous membranes; 3-4 months
question
What effect does HPV have on cell growth?
answer
STIMULATORY: Thickening of basal and prickle layers and stratum granulosum
question
What are the most common wart-causing strains of HPV?
answer
HPV-1 and HPV-4
question
What virus can cause head and neck tumors (oral and laryngeal papillomas)?
answer
HPV (6 and 11)
question
What is Condylomata Acuminata?
answer
Ano/genital warts caused by HPV on the external genitals and perianal regions
-90% are HPV 6 and 11
-HPV 16 and 18 are associated with cervical cancer
question
What causes cervical dysplasia and neoplasia, and what shows up on the pap smear in this case?
answer
HPV 16 and 18; KOILOCYTIC CELLS (perinuclear cytoplasmic vacuolization)
question
What are the treatments for symptomatic HPV?
answer
Cryotherapy, electrocautery, chemical means and interferon
question
What is BK virus and in what patient population do you see it?
answer
Hemorrhagic cystitis in renal and bone marrow transplant patients
question
What is JC virus and in what patient population do you see it?
answer
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML); DEGENERATIVE BRAIN DISEASE;

Immunocompromised Patients
question
What is the structure of adenoviruses?
answer
Double Stranded DNA; NAKED
PENTON FIBERS PENTON FIBERS PENTON FIBERS
PENTON FIBERS PENTON FIBERS PENTON FIBERS
question
What cells are attacked by adenovirus?
answer
Epithelial cells lining oropharynx, resp. tract and enterics
question
Where can adenovirus become latent?
answer
Lymphoid Tissue
question
What are the common ways that adenovirus is spread?
answer
Fecal/oral; fingers; fomites; SWIMMING POOLS; classrooms; military
question
What is the most common clinical presentation of adenovirus?
answer
Pink eye with pharyngitis- MIMICS STREP THROAT
question
What is the common clinical presentation of adenovirus in military recruits?
answer
Cervical Adenitis
question
What clinical syndromes are associated with adenovirus?
answer
Pink eye, pharyngitis, acute respiratory tract disease, laryngitis, croup, viral pneumonia
HOLY CRAP
epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, diarrhea, acute hemorrhagic cystitis, hematuria in young boys, genital and skin infections
question
How is adenovirus diagnosed?
answer
ELISA, PCR, Fluoro Antibody Test
question
What kind of vaccine is available for adenovirus?
answer
Live, oral, NON-ATTENUATED
question
What is the structure of the poxviruses?
answer
LARGE, COMPLEX, LINEAR
Double-Stranded DNA; REPLICATES IN CYTOPLASM
question
How is smallpox (variola major) spread?
answer
Inhalation: virus enters upper respiratory tract and disseminates via lymphatics= VIREMIA (5-17 day incubation period)
-after secondary viremia, the virus infects all dermal tissues and organs
question
How does the rash distribution differ between smallpox and chickenpox?
answer
Smallpox are generally distributed more DISTALLY on the LIMBS and face; whereas chickenpox are distributed more PROXIMALLY on the trunk
question
What are complications of the smallpox vaccine?
answer
Encephalitis, progressive infections
question
Where does Orf come from, and how does it present?
answer
Pox virus of sheep and goats; single nodular lesion at the point of contact that MAY BE MISTAKEN FOR CUTANEOUS ANTHRAX
question
Where does Monkeypox come from, and how does it present?
answer
Infected prairie dogs; similar to smallpox but MILDER and SWOLLEN LYMPH NODES

PRAIRIE DOGS, PRAIRIE DOGS, PRAIRIE DOGS
question
What is Molluscum Contagiosum?
answer
A pox virus spread by contact
Typically an STD or in WRESTLERS
question
How does Molluscum Contagiosum present?
answer
Nodular to wart-like lesions most commonly on trunk, genitalia, and extremities
-2-8 week incubation
CLUSTER OF 5-20 NODULES
question
How is Molluscum Contagiosum diagnosed?
answer
CYTOPLASMIC INCLUSIONS IN EPITHELIAL CELLS
question
How is Molluscum Contagiosum treated?
answer
Curettage; liquid nitrogen
question
What is the structure of HBV (Hepatitis B Virus)?
answer
Small, enveloped DNA virus-
PARTIALLY double stranded- uses a reverse transcriptase and RNA intermediate during replication
question
Where does hepatitis B replicate initially?
answer
In hepatocytes, without causing damage
question
From the liver, where does hepatitis B go?
answer
It can cause viremia and spread to saliva, semen, blood, vaginal secretions, and MOTHER'S MILK
question
How is Hepatitis B spread?
answer
Sexual contact, blood, or perinatal
question
What type of cancer is caused by Hepatitis B virus?
answer
Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma
question
What are the clinical symptoms of Hepatitis B virus in the acute stage?
answer
PRODROME: fever, malaise, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain
ICTERIC STAGE: Jaundice, dark urine, pale stools
FULMINANT: Severe liver damage and bleeding (1%)
TYPE III Hypersensitivity because of HBsAG and Ab
question
What are the clinical symptoms of Hepatitis B virus in the chronic stage?
answer
Increased liver enzymes, cirrhosis, liver failure, Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma (PHC)