The scientific study of abnormal behavior in an effort to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning.
A society’s stated and unstated rules for proper conduct.
A people’s common history, values, institutions, habits, skills, technology, and arts.
An ancient operation in which a stone instrument was used to cut away a circular section of the skull, perhaps to treat abnormal behavior.
According to the Greeks and Romans, bodily chemicals that influence mental and physical functioning
A type of institution that first became popular in the sixteenth century to provide care for persons with mental disorders. Most became virtual prisons.
A nineteenth-century approach to treating people with mental dysfunction that emphasized moral guidance and humane and respectful treatment.
State-run public mental institutions in the United States.
The view that abnormal psychological functioning has physical causes.
The view that the chief causes of abnormal functioning are psychological.
Either the theory or the treatment of abnormal mental functioning that emphasizes unconscious psychological forces as the cause of psychopathology.
Drugs that mainly affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning.
The practice, begun in the 1960s, of releasing hundreds of thousands of patients from public mental hospitals.
Interventions aimed at deterring disorders before they develop.
The study and enhancement of positive feelings, traits, and abilities.
The field that examines the impact of culture, race, gender, and similar factors on our behaviors and focuses on how such factors may influence abnormal behavior.
managed care program
A system of health care coverage in which the insurance company largely controls the nature, scope, and cost of services.
The process of systematically gathering and evaluating information through careful observations to gain an understanding of a phenomenon.
A detailed account of a person’s life and psychological problems.
The degree to which events or characteristics vary along with each other.
A research procedure used to determine how much events or characteristics vary along with each other.
A study that measures the incidence and prevalence of a disorder in a given population.
A study that observes the same participants on many occasions over a long period of time.
In an experiment, a group of participants who are not exposed to the independent variable.
In an experiment, the participants who are exposed to the independent variable.
A selection procedure that ensures that participants are randomly placed either in the control group or in the experimental group.
An experiment in which participants do not know whether they are in the experiment or the control condition.
An experiment in which investigators make use of control and experimental groups that already exist in the world at large. Also called a mixed design.
An experiment in which nature, rather than an experimenter, manipulates an independent variable.
A research method in which the experimenter produces abnormal-like behavior in laboratory participants and then conducts experiments on the participants.
single-subject experimental design
A research method in which a single participant is observed and measured both before and after the manipulation of an independent variable
A set of assumptions and concepts that help scientists explain and interpret observations. Also called a paradigm.
A nerve cell.
The tiny space between the nerve ending of one neuron and the dendrite of another.
A chemical that, released by one neuron, crosses the synaptic space to be received at receptors on the dendrites of neighboring neurons.
The chemicals released by endocrine glands into the bloodstream.
Chromosome segments that control the characteristics and traits we inherit.
Drugs that primarily affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning.
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
A form of biological treatment, used primarily on depressed patients, in which a brain seizure is triggered as an electric current passes through electrodes attached to the patient’s forehead.
Brain surgery for mental disorders. Also called neurosurgery.
According to Freud, the psychological force that produces instinctual needs, drives, and impulses.
According to Freud, the psychological force that employs reason and operates in accordance with the reality principle.
ego defense mechanism
According to psychoanalytic theory, strategies developed by the ego to control unacceptable id impulses and to avoid or reduce the anxiety they arouse.
According to Freud, the psychological force that represents a person’s values and ideals.
According to Freud, a condition in which the id, ego, and superego do not mature properly and are frozen at an early stage of development.
A psychodynamic technique in which the patient describes any thought, feeling, or image that comes to mind, even if it seems unimportant.
An unconscious refusal to participate fully in therapy.
According to psychodynamic theorists, the redirection toward the psychotherapist of feelings associated with important figures in a patient’s life, now or in the past.
A series of ideas and images that form during sleep.
The reliving of past repressed feelings in order to settle internal conflicts and overcome problems.
A simple form of learning.
A process of learning in which behavior that leads to satisfying consequences is likely to be repeated.
A process of learning in which an individual acquires responses by observing and imitating others.
A process of learning by temporal association in which two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become fused a person’s mind and produce the same response.
A behavioral treatment in which clients with phobias learn to react calmly instead of with intense fear to the objects or situations they dread.
A therapy developed by Aaron Beck that helps people recognize and change their faulty thinking processes.
The humanistic process by which people fulfill their potential for goodness and growth.
The humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers in which clinicians try to help clients by conveying acceptance, accurate empathy, and genuineness.
The humanistic therapy developed by Fritz Perls in which clinicians actively move clients toward self-recognition and self-acceptance by using techniques such as role playing and self-discovery exercises.
A therapy that encourages clients to accept responsibility for their lives and to live with greater meaning and values.
family systems theory
A theory that views the family as a system of interacting parts whose interactions exhibit consistent patterns and unstated rules.
A therapy format in which a group of people with similar problems meet together with a therapist to work on those problems.
A group made up of people with similar problems who help and support one another without the direct leadership of a clinician. Also called a mutual help group.
A therapy format in which the therapist meets with all members of a family and helps them to change in therapeutic ways.
A therapy format in which the therapist works with two people who share a long-term relationship. Also called marital therapy.
community mental health treatment
A treatment approach that emphasizes community care.
The view that each culture has a set of values and beliefs, as well as special external pressures, that help account for the behavior of its members. Also called culturally diverse perspective.
Approaches that seek to address the unique issues faced by members of minority groups.
Approaches geared to the pressures of being a woman in Western society. Also called feminist therapies.
An understanding of the behavior of a particular individual.
The process of collecting and interpreting relevant information about a client or research participant.
The process in which a test is administered to a large group of people whose performance then serves as a standard or norm against which any individual’s score can be measured.
A measure of the consistency of test or research results.
The accuracy of a test’s or study’s results; that is, the extent to which the test or study actually measures or shows what it claims.
mental status exam
A set of interview questions and observations designed to reveal the degree and nature of a client’s abnormal functioning.
A device for gathering information about a few aspects of a person’s psychological functioning from which broader information about the person can be inferred.
A test consisting of ambiguous material that people interpret or respond to.
A test designed to measure broad personality characteristics, consisting of statements about behaviors, beliefs, and feelings that people evaluate as either characteristic or uncharacteristic of them.
Tests designed to measure a person’s responses in one specific area of functioning, such as affect, social skills, or cognitive processes.
A test that measures physical responses (such as heart rate and muscle tension) as possible indicators of psychological problems.
A test that directly measures brain structure or activity.
Neurological tests that provide images of brain structure or activity, such as CT scans, PET scans, and MRIs. Also called brain scans.
A test that detects brain impairment by measuring a person’s cognitive, perceptual, and motor performance.
A test designed to measure a person’s intellectual ability.
intelligence quotient (IQ)
An overall score derived from intelligence tests.
A determination that a person’s problems reflect a particular disorder.
A cluster of symptoms that usually occur together.
A list of disorders, along with descriptions of symptoms and guidelines for making appropriate diagnoses.
empirically supported treatment
A movement in the clinical field that seeks to identify which therapies have received clear research support for each disorder, to develop corresponding treatment guidelines, and to spread such information to clinicians. Also known as evidence-based treatment.
An effort to identify a set of common strategies that run through the work of all effective therapists.
A psychiatrist who primarily prescribes medications.
Surface content or symbolic meaning of a dream. (Psychodynamic)
Underlying conflict or true meaning of a dream. (Psychodynamic)
View the ego as capable of more awareness and having more control over Id.
Infant’s natural, in born sense of what is good for them or will make them happy. (gut-feeling)