Geology Flashcards, test questions and answers
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What is Geology?
Geology is the scientific study of the Earth, its composition and structure, including rocks, minerals, soil, landforms and other materials that make up our planet. Geologists are interested in understanding how these components interact with each other to form landscapes and influence Earth’s evolution over time. They also investigate processes such as floods and earthquakes that shape the surface of the earth. Most geologists specialize in one or more specific aspects of geology. For example: Structural Geology focuses on the deformation process of rocks; Sedimentary Geology studies sedimentary environments; Geological Fluid Mechanics examines flowing fluids such as water or air; Mineralogy focuses on identifying minerals and their properties; Environmental Geology studies interactions between humans and geological systems. Other specialties include volcanology (the study of volcanoes), seismology (the study of earthquakes) and glaciology (the study of glaciers). In addition to research into specific topics, geologists use sophisticated technology to map out subsurface features for resource exploration purposes or to determine geological hazards in order to protect public safety. This includes conducting surveying trips in remote areas using aerial photos from satellites or airplanes combined with ground-based surveys using laser mapping techniques a practice known as Remote Sensing. The field of geology has become increasingly important due to global climate change concerns which have led scientists around the world to discover new ways for extracting energy sources like natural gas from shale formations deep underground a process known as hydraulic fracturing or â€˜fracking’ which requires detailed knowledge about subsurface structures acquired by studying core samples taken during exploratory drilling operations. Furthermore, geologists are essential personnel when monitoring regions prone to seismic activity in order prevent disasters like landslides or tsunamis caused by tectonic plate movements resulting from earthquakes. From environmental stewardship applications through resource exploration projects all over the world – modern day geologists play an integral role within our society alongside other sciences such as physics or biology making it one of humanities most fascinating fields today.