Environment Chapter 17-24

A naturally occurring inorganic solid element or compound with
mineral

a structural unit that repeated in three dimensions is called a
Crystal

Which element is the most abundant in Earth’s crust?
Silicon

Minerals are classified as
silicates or nonsilicates

the most abundant class of non silicates is the
carbonates

Silicates are classified into two groups based on the presence of
Iron and magnesium

the color of a mineral when is finely powdered is defined as the
streak

The hardness of a mineral is rated using the
Mohs scale

The ratio of the mineral’s density to density of water is
specific gravity

Molten rock material from which mineral crystallize is called
Magma

An aggregation of one or more minerals that have been brought together into a cohesive solid is a
rock

Rocks that are formed from molten minerals are
igneous

Igneous rock that slowly cooled deep below Earth’s crust is
intrusive

The rocks that make up the bulk of the Earth’s Continents are
Granite

The rocks that make up the ocean basins and much of the Earth’s interior are
Basalt

rocks that are formed from particles of other rocks or from dissolved materials from previously existing rocks are classified as
Sedimentary

Accumulation of silt, sand or other materials that settle out of the water are called
sediments

Limestone and dolomite are
carbonates

Heat and pressure change rocks into
metamorphic rocks

the relationship between rocks that are continually changing over long period of time is called
Rock cycle

The thin layer that covers Earth’s surface is the
crust

Based of the abundance in Earth’s Crust, must rocks wills contain mineral composed of oxygen and the element
Silicon

The most common rock in the Earth’s crust is
Igneous

An intrusive igneous rock will have which type of texture?
Coarse-grainded

Which igneous rock would have the greatest density?
Basalt

Which of the following formed from previously existing rocks
sedimentary rocks
igneous rocks
metamorphic rocks

Sedimentary rocks are formed by the processes of compaction and
cementation

The greatest extent of metamorphic changes has occurred in
Gneiss

Which type of rock probably exist first, starting the rock cycle?
Igneous

Earth is unique because it has
water covering most its surface

The most common structural feature of all silicates is
silicon-oxygen tetrahedral unit

The one group that is not subgroup of the silicate minerals is
plastic silicates

the property that is not considered useful in identifying minerals is
melting point

the specific gravity of a mineral depends on the
kind of atoms of which it is composed
manner in which the atoms are packed in the crystal lattice

Flourite is a mineral that floats in liquid mercury. The specific gravity of fluorite must be
less than the specific gravity of mercury

The group that is not a class of rocks is
volcanic

the classification of rocks is based on
how they were formed

An example of sedimentary rocks is
shale

the term that does not describe a size of clastic sediment is
sandstone

Dissolved rock materialsform
Chemical sediments

An example of metamorphic rock is
marble

Extrusive igneous rocks are formed on Earth’s surface from
Lava

Foliation is found in
Metamorphic rocks

Chapter 18

The core of the Earth is composed of
Iron and nickel

The middle part of the Earth’s Interior is
mantle

the separation of materials that gave Earth its layered interior is called
Differentiation

The vibration that moves through any part of the Earth is called a
seismic wave

The S wave is a
Transverse way

Wave that occurs where S- or P-waves reach the surface are
Surface waves

The three main areas of the Earth’s interior are
Core, mantle, and Crust

The boundary between the crust and the mantle is called
Moho discontinuity

The mantle is composed of
Silicates

Seismological studies suggests that the core
has a liquid outer core and solid inner core

Evidence from meteorite studies proposes that the core is composed of
nickel and iron

The layer in Earth where seismic waves sharply decrease in velocity is called
Asthenosphere

the layer that is broken up into plates that move in the upper mantle is
Lithosphere

The name of the single large continent suggested by Wegener is
Pangaea

Record of the strength and directions of earth’s magnetic field are found in
Igneous rock

The chain of mountains found in the center of the Atlantic Ocean basin is called the
Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Long, deep, and narrow oceanic trenches are located
parallel to the edges of continents

The theory that the lithosphere is composed of several rigid plates that “float” in the atmosphere is called
plate tectonics

The plate boundary associated with the formation of the new crust is called
divergent

The movement of one plate under another plate creates a
subduction zone

Transform boundaries occur when
two plates slide by each other without the formation of loss of crust

What is the current theory about why the plates move?
Convective cells move from the core to the lithosphere

The seismic waves that cause the most damage during an earthquake are
Surface waves

Earth mantle has a chemical composition that agrees closely with the composition of
basalt

From seismological data, earth’s shadow zone indicates that part of the Earth’s interior must be
liquid

the Mohorovicic discontinuity is a change in seismic wave velocity that is believed to take place because of
changes in the composition on both sides of the boundary

The oldest rock are found in
The continental crust

The least dense rocks are found in
Continental crust

The idea of seafloor spreading along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge was supported by the evidence from
changes in magnetic patterns and ages of rocks moving away from the ridge

According to the plate tectonic theory, seafloor spreading take place at a
Divergent boundary

the presence of an oceanic trench, a chain of volcanic mountains along a continental edge, and deep-seated earthquakes is characteristic of a (an)
Ocean-continent plate convergence

The presence of an oceanic trench with shallow earthquakes an island arcs with deep seated earthquakes is a characteristic of a (an)
Ocean-Ocean plate convergence

the ongoing occurrence of earthquakes without seafloor spreading, oceanic trenches, or volcanoes is most characteristic of a
Transform boundaries between plates

The evidence that the earth’s core is part liquid or act as a liquid comes from
The S- wave shadow zone

The surface of the early planets is our solar system were thought ti be formed from
bombardment by dust and debris remaining from initial planet formation

the early Earth’s core is thought to have formed from the
exterior melting from radioactive decay

Indirect evidence that supports the theory of how Earth formed is not supported by the study of
samples from Earth’s core

The oceanic crust
thinner than the continental crust

Seismic waves that do not travel through liquid are
S-Waves

The fastest seismic wave is the
P-Wave

Information about the composition and nature of the mantle does not come from
samples obtained from drilling

Primary information about the nature of the core is provided by
seismological data

the asthenosphere is not defined as
rigid

Earth’s magnetic field is thought to be generated by
electrical currents in the core

studies of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge provided evidence of
Seafloor spreading

Evidence that support seafloor spreading does not include the
younger sediments near the continents

A geologic feature that was produced by divergent boundaries is
the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Which type of plate boundary accounts for the formation of the Appalachian Mountains?
Continental to continental convergence

Which type of plate boundary was responsible for the formation of the Japanese Islands?
Ocean to Ocean convergence

A famous transform boundary in the United States is the
San Andres fault

Plate movement is measured by
reflected laser light experiments
age of sediments and fossils
analysis of magnetic patterns in rocks

Island that form when melted subducted material rises through above of sea level are called
Arc Island

Chapter 22

The science that study atmosphere and weather
meterorology

Up from the surface, 99 percent of the mass of the earth is found within
32 km 20 millas

The most abundant gas in the atmosphere is
nitrogen

Approximately how much or the total of volume of the atmosphere is Oxigen
21 percent

Fog and clouds are composed
tiny droplets of liquid water

The continuous cycle of water precipitation and evaporation is called
hydrologic cycle

Tiny solid or liquid smoke, soot, dust, and salt crystals found in the atmosphere are
aerosols

Atmospheric pressure is measured using
barometer

Which molecules in the atmosphere absorb infrared radiation?
Water

What is the process heating the atmosphere by the absorption of solar of solar radiation and re-emission or infrared radiation?
Greenhouse Effect

Near of surface what happens to the temperature of the atmosphere with increasing altitude?
Decreases

What is the layer of the atmosphere where we live?
Troposphere

A layer of the atmosphere where the temperature increases with height is an
inversion

What is the boundary between the troposphere and the stratosphere?
Tropopause

In what lower layer of the atmosphere would transcontinental aircraft escape convective turbulence?
stratosphere

Ultraviolet radiations is filtered
The ozone shield

The term does not describe a layer of the atmosphere is
temposphere

Uneven heating of Earth’s surface directly leads to
Convection

A general horizontal movement of air is called
wind

Air moving from the ocean to the land is called a
sea breeze

A rapidly moving “stream” of air near the top of the troposphere is
a jet stream

Water vapor in the atmosphere does not
filter ultraviolet radiation out of the atmosphere

the amount of water vapor at a particular temperature is defined as
absolute humidity

The temperature at which condensation begin is the
dew point

The basic changes of clouds do not include
cotton tuff

The airplane flying at about 6 km (20,000 ft) is about how much earth’s atmosphere?
50 percent

Earth atmosphere is mostly composed of
nitrogen, oxygen and argon

Which of the following gases cycles into and out of the atmosphere?
nitrogen, Carbon, Oxygen

If it were not for the ocean, Earth’s atmosphere would probably most
carbon dioxide

Your ear makes a “pop” sound as you descend in an elevator because
air is moving fron your eardrum to the atmosphere

Most of total energy radiating by the sun is
infrared radiation

How much of the total amount of solar radiation reaching the outermost part of Earth’s atmosphere reaches to surface?
About one half

The solar radiation that does reach Earth Earth’s surface
is eventually radiated back to space

The greenhouse effect results in warmer temperatures near the surface because
some of the energy is re-radiated back toward the surface

The temperature increase with altitude in the stratosphere
of a concentration of ozone

Ozone is able to protect Earth from harmful amounts of ultraviolet radiation by
absorbing it and decomposing, then reforming

summertime breezes would not blow if Earth did not experience
differential heating

On a clear, calm, cool night you would expect the air temperature over a valley floor to be what compared to the air temperature over a slope to the the valley?
Cooler

Air moving down a mountain slope is often warm because
It is compressed as it moves to lower elevations

Considering Earth’s overall atmosphere you would expect more rainfall to occur in a zone of
low atmospheric pressure

Considering Earth’s overall atmosphere you would expect to find a desert locate in a zone of
high atmospheric pressure

Water molecules can go (1) from the liquid state to the vapor state and (2) from the vapor state to the liquid state. When is the movement from the liquid to the vapor state only?
This usually does not occur alone

What condition means a balance between the number of water molecules moving to and from the liquid state?
saturation

Without adding or removing any water vapor, a sample of the atmosphere experiencing an increase in temperature will have
a lower relative humidity

Cooling a sample of water vapor results in a (an)
decreased capacity

On clear, calm, and cool nigh, dew or frost is most likely to form
on grass in an open, low-lying area

The density of the atmosphere
Decreasing with increasing altitude

Condensation nuclei provide a surface for fog or cloud formation, these particles include
Salt Crystals, soot, and dust