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speech 1321 exam 2

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Briefing
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a short informative presentation offered in an organizational setting that focuses upon plans, policies, or reports
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Reports
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you give an account of what you or your team has learned.
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Which of the following is recommended if you are delivering a technical report to a nontechnical audience?
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Include additional examples if audience members look puzzled. Use analogies to clarify concepts. Teach technical terms if they are essential to understanding the presentation.
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A feasibility report typically contains all of the following elements
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evaluation of solutions criteria. methodology.
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Which of the following is advised as a strategy for helping adults learn?
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Show them that the material has value in their personal lives. Give them a chance to take an active role in the learning process Speed up or slow down your presentation depending on how well audience members are understanding your ideas.
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Use a __________________ pattern of organization when the audience is already aware that a problem exists and they are trying to decide among several potential solutions.
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comparative advantages
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comparative advantages
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Use a comparative advantages pattern of organization when the audience is already aware that a problem exists and they are trying to decide among several potential solutions.
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When Exxon’s ship, the Valdez, was found responsible for an immense oil spill in the waters off Alaska, Exxon began to deliver televised presentations aimed at preserving their public image. These presentations were examples of
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goodwill speeches.
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Which is the best advice for seeking a raise?
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Clarify ways in which you have directly contributed to your company’s profits.
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If you use threats in an attempt to persuade an individual into action, which of the following tactics would you be using?
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coercion
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Which of following is recommended while your group is delivering its presentation?
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Group members should give their full attention to the person who is speaking. Speakers should be positioned for quick access and minimal time between speakers. Set aside extensive rehearsal time for group presentations.
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Which of the following is a guideline from your text for introducing a speaker?
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Showcase the speaker’s most important credentials. Briefly preview the topic the speaker will address Explain how the speaker’s remarks will have value for the audience. If you introduce more than one person, be consistent in choosing either formal titles or informal names
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A briefing should include an attention getter, a detailed explanation of main points and supporting points, and a memorable conclusion.
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False
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Any technical report should be free from jargon.
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False
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Internal summaries and previews should be eliminated from business training sessions.
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False
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Internal summaries
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Use internal summaries and previews in training sessions to help listeners follow along as you present the material.
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A speaker’s credibility will be damaged if the audience believes she or he is dishonest, whether or not she or he really is dishonest.
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True
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To claim that “either you’re with us or you’re against us” is a logical fallacy.
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True
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Because it is obvious when a group changes from one speaker to the next, transitions are not important in group presentations
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False
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Juan is preparing a speech to a prospective client who has been using the services of a different advertising firm for the past 10 years. Juan’s goal is to influence the client to switch firms and begin working with his company. What is the general purpose of Juan’s presentation?
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to persuade
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Persuade Speech
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Persuasive presentations attempt to change what an audience thinks or does.
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Persuasive presentations attempt to change what an audience thinks or does.
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to inform
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Informative speech
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Informative presentations attempt to expand listeners’ knowledge or teach them a specific skill.
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Duane has been selected by his company to present an after-dinner speech at the company’s annual summer party. The general purpose of Duane’s presentation is _____________.
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to entertain
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Entertain Presentaitons
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Entertainment presentations often occur during company ritual occasions such as award ceremonies or after dinner speeches.
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Which of the following would be the BEST thesis statement? I will teach my audience how to lease equipment. a critical look at equipment purchasing I want to persuade my audience that it’s better to lease equipment than to purchase it. Leasing your equipment can help you save money.
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Leasing your equipment can help you save money.
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Thesis statements
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The thesis statement is a sentence that summarizes your key idea for your audience.
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Which of the following statements best summarizes the overall format for organizing your presentation? Tell your audience whatever comes to your mind in the moment. Don’t tell the audience what’s really on your mind. Tell them what you’re going to tell them; then tell them; then tell them what you told them. Tell them so well that you don’t have to tell them again.
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Tell them what you’re going to tell them; then tell them; then tell them what you told them.
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Radoslav is responsible for developing a presentation to demonstrate the appropriate steps for developing a Web page. If Radoslav leads his audience through each step in a linear fashion, which of the following organizational patterns is he using?
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chronological
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chronological
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arranges points in time sequence.
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“All medical facilities are designed with three essential parts: the admissions desk, the examining room, and the doctor’s office.” This thesis statement reflects which type of organizational pattern?
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spatial
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spatial
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organizes material according to its physical location
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Which type of organizational pattern is sometimes referred to as a “catch-all” approach?
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topical
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topical
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referred to as a catchall approach because it’s often used when the materials don’t clearly fit any other pattern
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Which organizational pattern would be best for a speaker who is proposing a change that will improve the current situation?
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problem-solution
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problem-solution
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pattern points out what’s wrong with the current situation and suggests a remedy.
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During the _______________ step of the motivated sequence, the speaker provides supporting evidence to prove to the audience that the existing problem is serious.
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need
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need
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step of the motivated sequence shows the listeners that they are being impacted by a significant problem.
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David Dempsey advises us to “[m]ake three points that stick, rather than 10 quick points.” WHY should you limit the number of main points in your speech?
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People have difficulty recalling more than five pieces of information when they are presented orally. You will have time to provide interesting information about each of your points. You will have time to illustrate these points in a compelling way.
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During the introduction to her presentation about ergonomics, Jenna remarks: “I’ve completed two college courses that focus on ergonomic principles.” Which function of an introduction does this statement help Jenna achieve?
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establishing the speaker’s qualifications
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Which of the following was presented as a guideline for using quotations during a presentation?
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Cite the source of the quotation to add credibility to your presentation. Quotations are most effective if the audience recognizes the name of the person you are quoting. Instead of reading long quotations; paraphrase the ideas into your own words.
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Which of the following was presented as a guideline for citing sources during a presentation?
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After you state the quotation, explain why the material is important for members of your audience. Your quotations should come from sources who are credible to your audience Identify the source of the quotation out loud in the speech, just before or just after you read the quotation.
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Jessica plans to describe the new advances her company has made in the development of allergy medicine over the past 10 years. Which of the following visual aids would be most effective to demonstrate this change over time?
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column chart
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All of the following are true about distributing handouts to accompany your presentation
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listeners will have a printed record of your ideas. you can provide your audience with more details than you have time to talk about in your presentation. your listeners won’t need to take notes.
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All of the following are true when you use presentation software with your speech
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he software can help you organize your own speaker notes. you can use features that emphasize your transitions from one point to the next. you can create a variety of handouts.
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The supporting material you choose for your speech should be interesting to the audience.
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true
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Supporting materials make your presentation more convincing.
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True
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Back up a point with relevant and typical examples, rather than a nontypical example.
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True
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In an oral presentation, it is more effective to use precise statistics (i.e., $4,313.15) than to round off the figures (i.e., just over $4,300).
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False
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After you cite a source in a presentation, don’t waste time by interpreting the material for the audience; it’s better to move quickly to the next citation.
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False
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It is not advisable to display an object unless it is large enough for everyone in the audience to see clearly.
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True
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For most business presentations, the best time to distribute handouts is between the introduction of the speech and the first main point.
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False
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You should decide on an organizational plan for your speech and select your supporting points BEFORE you create your software presentation.
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True
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Bettina was asked to give a presentation to a group of potential investors. She wouldn’t find out what topics they wanted her to discuss until she collected their questions a few moments before the presentation. What type of delivery must Bettina use in this situation?
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impromptu
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Corinne is planning to give a presentation to a group of investors concerning her company’s new line of paper products. She wants to carefully control the order in which she reveals information during her presentation. When would the best time be for her to answer questions from the audience?
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after the presentation
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Which of the following guidelines works best when rehearsing for a presentation?
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Rehearse on your feet.
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A manuscript style of delivery is often boring, even if it is delivered flawlessly.
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True
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While memorizing an entire presentation is not advisable, memorizing key passages is often a good idea.
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True
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Because an impromptu speech is not rehearsed, it does not need to be organized.
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False
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The recommended pattern of eye contact during your presentation is to sweep your eyes from one side of the room to the other, in rhythmic fashion.
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False
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If you sound like you lack conviction, you probably won’t excite your listeners about the topic
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True
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The best way to rehearse is to sit at your desk and mentally list the topics you will be covering in your speech.
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False
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When you rehearse, pay extra attention to the opening and closing moments of your presentation.
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True
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status report
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most common-progress report
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feasibility report
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evaluates one or more potential action steps and recommends how the organization should proceed
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training
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teaches the listner
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steps in training sessions
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link to audience start with an overall picture emphasize the organization of your material cover only necessary info
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Problem-solution
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most basic persuasive pattern. Most helpful when audience needs convincing that a problem exists.
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Comparative advantages
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use when audience is considering alternatives to your proposal. Show how your plan is superior to others. Defer thesis if audience will object to idea before hearing your reasoning.
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Criteria satisfaction
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use when audience is not likely to consider alternative plans. Choose criteria important to your audience and show how your plan meets them. If a audience may be hostile to your plan, introduce criteria before discussing the plan
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Motivated sequence
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use when problem and solution are easy to visualize. Effective when seeking immediate audience reaction.
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Types of Persuasive presentations
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motivational speeches Goodwill speeches proposals sales presentations
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guidelines for a sales presentation
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establish client relationships before presentation put your clients needs first listen to your clients emphasize benefits
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Maximize Credibility
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demonstrate your competence Earn trust similarity
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Common fallacies
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personal attack reduction to the absurd either or false cause bandwagon appeal
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Psychological appeal
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appeal to the needs of your audience make goals realistic focus appeals on critical audience segments defer thesis with hostile audience present ample evidence citing opposing ideas use when audience disagrees with your positions when audience knows both sides when audience will soon hear your viewpoint criticized or another one promoted adapt to the cultural background of your audience
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analyze your audience
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who are your key audience members how much do they know what do they want to know what are their personal preferences demographics size of group listeners attitudes
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general goals
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informative persuasive entertain
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specific goal
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describes the outcome you are seeking
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thesis
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a single sentence that summarizes your message
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goal versus thesis
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a goal is what you want to achieve and a tells the audience the main idea
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main points
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they should be claims develop the thesis no more than five points main points should be parallel in structure only one idea
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introduction
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capture attention reason to listen set tone qualifications introduce thesis and preview presentation
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function of a closing statement
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review and help the audience to remember you
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Which of the following is the most appropriate training goal?
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New recruits will learn about the benefits of Quenchy, both for the retailers and customers, and understand what tools are available to them to help sell the product.
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Which of the following is a good way to involve the audience? In a training.
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Ask the recruits questions. Have the recruits mix up some drinks and taste them. Ask for volunteers to demonstrate some sales techniques.
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Which type of informative presentation would be the best choice for the talk on how to avoid sexual harassment claims?
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training session
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Harold is the manager of one of the stores in Colorado. After the San Diego meeting, Harold returns to Colorado and calls his employees together to provide a recap of the meeting. Which type of informative presentation would be the most appropriate?
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final report
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For the session on how to avoid sexual harassment claims, the human relations director shows a video that demonstrates examples of sexual harassment in a work setting similar to Fresh Air Sports. Which type of persuasive organization approach is she using?
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motivated sequence She is using the motivated sequence plan because she is explaining the problem and the solution and how to visualize them
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To introduce the company’s new incentive plan, Woody talks about the existing plan and a plan that one of their rivals uses, and then explains how his new plan is better. Which type of persuasive organization plan is he using?
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comparative advantages Woody is using the comparative advantages plan because he is comparing his plan with other alternatives and explaining why his solution is best.
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At the last minute, Woody decides to introduce the company’s new incentive plan using a criteria satisfaction approach. Which of the following does fit a criteria satisfaction approach?
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What are the things you want in your company’s incentive plan?” “You want to be rewarded for your efforts and to be able to make more money.” “This new plan gives you control over how much money you can make.”
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Sandy knows how important the new incentive plan is to Woody. She tries to help generate enthusiasm for the plan by taking a group of employees out to lunch and telling them about the plan. Which type of persuasive presentation would be most appropriate?
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motivational speech
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Woody has invited the director of a charitable organization to give a speech about keeping the oceans clean. Woody feels the topic is relevant since Fresh Air Sports rents surfboards and other water-related outdoor equipment. The director wants to emphasize the importance of the cause. Which type of persuasive presentation would be most appropriate?
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goodwill speech
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A long-time employee has an appointment to meet with Woody and Sandy in private. He plans to ask for a raise. He knows the timing is not ideal since Woody and Sandy will be distracted by the meeting, but he works in the most remote location and has little opportunity to speak with Woody and Sandy. Which type of persuasive presentation should he make?
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proposal
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At the keynote speech, Woody and Sandy will introduce the new management team by calling each individual by name. Which category of special-occasion remarks does this fall into?
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welcoming a guest or group
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Sandy handles the introduction of the human relations director at the informative meeting about how to avoid sexual harassment. Which of the following should she not say in the introduction?
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Sandy should tell the audience about the human relations director’s educational background, including all of the universities she attended, degrees she earned, and any continuing education seminars she took.
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At the closing dinner, Woody gives a toast. Which of the following should he do?
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Woody should be prepared. Woody should make the toast brief. Woody should be appropriate.
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You must introduce and attempt to sell three board game prototypes to a seven-member team. Which room arrangement would be the best choice for this situation?
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conference
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As the new director of development, you would like to improve communication channels between your department and marketing. You plan to make a short presentation introducing your idea and then open the meeting for whole-group brainstorming and discussion. There will be 20 people in your audience—10 from each department. Which room arrangement would be the best choice for this situation?
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horseshoe
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You must speak to a group of about twenty employees about an issue that has been divisive. You plan to answer questions in a brief Q & A format, but you would rather avoid audience discussion. Which room arrangement would be best for this situation?
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classroom
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You have reserved a herringbone room arrangement at a conference center. The conference center calls back to ask if they can switch you to an auditorium. You cannot do your presentation in an auditorium and request to stay in a herringbone style room. Which characteristic of your presentation might make the switch impossible?
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You would like to encourage your audience to take notes. Small group discussions will be interspersed throughout your presentation
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Which line does obey the rule that main points should be stated as claims?
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This car has space for all your peeps and whatever they’ve packed. This car will make you fall back in love with driving and I’ll tell you why. Our dealership is the leading auto dealership in the capital region.
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Which line does obey the rule that all main points should develop the thesis? The thesis is: “This car will make you fall back in love with driving.”
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This car has space for all your peeps and whatever they’ve packed. Comfy are the seats … and the price-tag. This car will outlast you. You will need to stop for fuel first.
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Good transitions
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are obvious, show the relationship between what we just said and what is about to be said, and emphasize the important ideas. Transitions should be different in presentations and in written pieces, because written pieces have visual transitions that must be created verbally in presentations.
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What is the effect of a presentation that lacks good transitions?
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The audience does not notice the transitions.
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What is the goal of the keynote speech?
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to entertain and inform
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What is the goal of the program on avoiding sexual harassment claims?
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to inform
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What is the goal of the session introducing the company’s new incentive plan?
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to inform and persuade
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For the keynote speech, Sandy and Woody decide to tell the story of Fresh Air Sports—from its humble beginning eight years ago in a Southern California beachfront hut, through many struggles and triumphs during those eight years, to the present celebration of success. Which organizational pattern should they use?v
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chronological
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Which organizational pattern would not be a good choice for the session introducing the company’s new incentive plan?
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topical
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For the series of awards presentations at the closing dinner, Woody and Sandy plan to use a PowerPoint map with all Fresh Air Sports locations pinpointed. They will highlight each one in turn, zoom in, show a few images of the location, announce the employees receiving awards from that location, and post their photos. They will then return to the big map and move to a different location. Which organizational pattern will this presentation follow?
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spatial
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Woody ends the presentation on the company’s new incentive plan by saying, “Now let’s see how fast you can increase your income!” What type of closing statement is this?
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pose a challenge
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Which of the following might not be a viable way to open the presentation on sexual harassment?
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“I’d like to start with a little joke: a woman walks into a sexual harassment lawyer’s office .
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Stories used to support points made in a presentation do not always need to be
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true
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The speaker who is presenting seems to have no central message to his talk. He tells compelling, emotional stories, but you wish you knew where this was leading. Finally, he ties it all together with a brilliant insight, and looking back, you could see that each of the stories he told fit perfectly to support his thesis. While the presentation was effective, it certainly began as an uncomfortable experience for you as an audience member. What likely caused your discomfort?
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The speaker used a culturally different approach than you are accustomed to.
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Which of the following is an effective use of supporting material?
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tracing the name of your company to its Latin root and linking that to its ideals citing five widely varied examples of patients saved by a medical technology using an analogy in which one of the things compared is unfamiliar to the audience
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Which of the following is not true about using statistical supporting material?
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Statistics, when available, are always preferable to individual examples.
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Which of the following is an effective way to use statistics?
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“About two-thirds of women …” “A country roughly the size of Delaware … “Two out of every ten children …
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Which of the following is an effective and advisable use of a visual aid?
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an artist’s variation of a chart when a memorable generalized image is more important than precision
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Which type of visual aid would illustrate differences and trends in statistical data about five different categories over five years without sacrificing precision?
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graph
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A colleague e-mails you the following column chart for inclusion in your joint presentation. You return it for to him for correction. What might be the error?
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It shows time on the vertical axis.
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Which of the following would make a table a more effective visual aid?
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shading alternate rows
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Your presentation has many captivating slides, but you remove some of them. Which of the following would not be a good reason to do that?
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You want to replace them with more exciting, dazzling visuals.
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Which of the following changes made on a PowerPoint slide is not advisable?
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Fix a phrase to make it a full sentence.
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Sandy is considering opening the keynote address with the following introduction. What type of verbal support is she using? “When Woody and I first started Fresh Air, it was just the two of us, and we could have held an all-hands-on-deck corporate meeting in any elevator or broom closet in town—and sometimes, we did. Later, when we expanded to L.A., our big corporate meeting was a dinner party at my apartment. Those of you who knew me back then remember that it was a pretty small place, but even with staff from three locations, it wasn’t terribly crowded. Here we are just a few years later, an international company, meeting in one of the city’s finest hotels. For next year’s meeting, I’ve already booked the hotel’s grand ballroom, and three years from now, I want us to be meeting in the convention center.”
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comparison
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Woody and Sandy would like to begin the keynote address with a dramatic introduction to Fresh Air Sports’ latest surfboard and mountain bike models. Which visual aid would be the best choice?
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video
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Fresh Air’s new human relations director tells Sandy that in the presentation about avoiding sexual harassment claims there will be visual aids to demonstrate clear differences between appropriate and inappropriate office interactions. Sandy is concerned that visuals of inappropriate interactions could be upsetting to some employees. The director clarifies that she merely plans to use abstract representations of personal space boundaries. In other words, they are
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diagrams
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For the presentation on the company’s new incentive plan, Woody has data showing that when another company made this change, more than half of their twelve employees enjoyed gradual and consistent increases in earnings over the first year, which then leveled off at those higher incomes. Which visual aid would be best for this?
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graph
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For the presentation about the company’s new incentive plan, Woody wants to show projected hypothetical increases in earnings for Fresh Air employees. He made projections by plugging current preplan sales and earnings figures into the proposed incentive plan design. He wants this visual to be exciting and appealing. Which visual aid would be a good choice?
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pictogram
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Which visual aids should Woody and Sandy use during the awards presentations to accompany stories and examples of employees demonstrating excellent customer service?
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photographs
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Woody wants his employees to feel their concerns about the new incentive plan were heard and considered, so he schedules time for comments in the agenda. Which use of visual media would best help him make his point?
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writing employee comments on a flip chart large enough for all to see
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One of the biggest advantages of oral presentations is the opportunity to answer questions on the spot.
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True
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Speakers should never allow questions during a presentation but instead wait until the presentation is over.
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false
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Which of the following guidelines should a speaker follow if he is going to accept questions during a presentation?
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Speakers who accept questions during a talk should allow for extra time in the presentation to answer questions and should promise to answer premature questions later.
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Which of the following is an example of how a speaker might get a question-and-answer session started?
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The other day, someone asked if bringing in additional staff would help or hurt the company.”
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A speaker’s stage fright and nervousness are visible and obvious to the audience.
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False
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A moderate amount of nervousness is normal and desirable.
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True
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If you are nervous at the beginning of your speech, you are likely to become more nervous as your presentation progresse
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False
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Which of the following guidelines should a speaker follow to learn how to control communication apprehension?
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The speaker should pay special attention to the introduction and conclusion because audiences remember the opening and closing of a talk most clearly.
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Which of the following is not a myth regarding presentations?
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A presentation can be effective without being flawless
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One way for Dmitri to reassure himself about his speech is to
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accept stage fright as a normal human response to performing.
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Pete suggests Dmitri visualize himself giving a great performance. What is one other way Dmitri can channel his anxiety to his advantage?
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Use it to energize his speech
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Which type of delivery format would be the best choice for the keynote speech that welcomes employees?
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extemporaneous
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Which type of delivery format would be the best choice for the informative program on how to avoid sexual harassment claims?
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manuscript
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Which type of delivery format would be the best choice for the presentation introducing the company’s new incentive plan?
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extemporaneous
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At the awards ceremony, Woody and Sandy serve as the presenters. Which type of delivery format would be the best choice for the honorees?
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impromptu
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If Woody and Sandy want to successfully build enthusiasm at the keynote speech, they should rehearse their presentation as little as possible so they can come across as natural and sincere.
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false
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Woody and Sandy have different preferences when it comes to organizing their notes, but they should use the same format for their presentation notes.
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false
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Which of the following should Woody wear to the awards presentations at the closing dinner?
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business casual
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Woody is nervous about his presentation on the company’s new incentive plan. He needs to make sure he comes across as confident and open. Which of the following should he avoid doing during his presentation?
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playing with his hair
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Because the information on how to avoid sexual harassment claims is legal and thus not negotiable, it is not necessary to have a question-and-answer session.
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False
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Because the information on how to avoid sexual harassment claims is legal and thus not negotiable, it is not necessary to have a question-and-answer session.
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Woody should acknowledge the question and compliment the employee.
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Which of the following should Woody and Sandy do to make sure their keynote speech has no audience interruptions?
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To avoid interruptions, refreshments should not be served during the presentation. Also, Woody and Sandy should ask members to turn off or silence their cell phones; it is not necessary to confiscate them.
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Sandy has stage fright. If she knew about the research findings that listeners can’t really tell when speakers are nervous, she would likely become much more nervous.
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False
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Woody and Sandy both need to work to completely eliminate communication apprehension if they are going to be successful leaders of Fresh Air Sports.
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False
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Sandy has little experience with public speaking, so she has decided to put some effort into overcoming her stage fright. Which of the following would be a good way for her to begin?
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Sandy should enroll in some speech workshops.
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Sandy is ready to rehearse her portion of the keynote speech. Which of the following would be the best audience to practice in front of?
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sales associates