Environmental Science Cumulative Exam 1

question

In science, a hypothesis must be true.
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false
question

Scientists who possess this attitude are eager to find answers to different questions they have about the natural world.
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curiosity
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Scientific inquiry refers to the diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on the evidence they gather.
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true
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Scientists who possess this attitude always report their observations and results truthfully.
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honesty
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Scientists who possess this attitude question the results of experiments.
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skepticism
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In science, skepticism means coming up with inventive ways to solve problems or produce new things.
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false
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Scientists should always report their observations and results truthfully.
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true
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Scientists who possess this attitude are capable of accepting ideas.
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open-mindness
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Thinking and questioning is the start of the scientific inquiry process.
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true
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A(n) hypothesis is a statement that describes how to measure a particular variable or define a particular term.
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false
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Scientists’ skepticism should be balanced with an ability to
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a. accept new and different ideas.
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Trying to explain why a cactus needs little water to survive is an example of
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c. scientific inquiry.
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Which of the following statements describes a scientific law?
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b. A scientific law describes what occurs every time in a situation.
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Which step of scientific inquiry involves organizing and interpreting the data?
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b. Analysis
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Scientific experiments must be able to be repeated by multiple scientists to verify the results that are obtained. Which of the following is an example of a scientific question that could be used to create an easily reproducible experiment?
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d. Does sugar or salt have a greater effect on plant growth?
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Which of the following is an inference?
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d. A cup with steam coming from it will be hot to the touch.
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An observation is _______.
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c. made using any of the five senses
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A student conducts an experiment to determine how the amount of water given to a plant affects its growth.
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b. the height of the plant
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An independent variable is
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a. directly changed by the experimenter.
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An inference _______
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a. is a possible explanation for events using prior knowledge
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What are the two categories of observations?
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a. qualitative and quantitative
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A statement that can be proven by observation or measurement is known as a(n):
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c. fact
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Which step of scientific inquiry involves testing the hypothesis and collecting data?
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a. Experimentation
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It is rare to prove a hypothesis as incorrect through experimentation.
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false
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Julia notices that the “check engine” light comes on while driving her car on days with temperatures of over 100 degrees. What could be a plausible explanation for this?
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b. Her engine overheats when the temperature outside is over 100 degrees.
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A valid hypothesis must be testable.
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true
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During the summer, after a big storm blows through, David notices leaks from his air conditioner. Which of the following is the best explanation of the contributing factor for this problem?
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a. The storm damaged the air conditioner.
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What values can be obtained from the min/max thermometer?
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a. The minimum, maximum, and current temperature.
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What is the current temperature to the nearest degree for the thermometer shown below?
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b. +4ÂșC
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What was the minimum temperature to the nearest degree for the thermometer shown here?
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d. -6ÂșC
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A transmission electron microscope would be the best microscope choice to study _______.
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a. structures smaller than cells
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Samples for a compound light microscope are typically prepared on _______
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a. glass slides
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If an experiment involves a large volume of liquid a _______ would most likely be used to hold it.
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d. beaker
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Electron microscopes have much higher magnification than compound light microscopes
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true
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Which of the following is not used to hold liquids?
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c. balance
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What is the function of an Erlenmeyer flask?
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a. contain reaction solutions
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Electron microscopes have much higher magnification than compound light microscopes.
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true
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Which of the following microscopes provide 3D images of samples?
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b. dissecting microscope and scanning electron microscope
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If you wear contact lenses, why should you remove them while you are in the laboratory?
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b. They can hold chemicals that accidentally splash into your eye next to your eye and cause permanent damage.
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Many types of scientific equipment are used to perform different functions in the science lab. Which of the following combinations of equipment would be needed to bring one liter of water to 85°C?
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b. graduated cylinder, beaker, thermometer and hot plate
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Scientists use significant figures in order to provide precise measurements in recorded data.Which measurement would not be possible to obtain from the triple beam balance shown?
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b. 463.455 g
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What is the mass of the light bulb and paperclips together?
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c. 251.0 g
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What is the mass of the light bulb?
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d. 245.6 g
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Find the mass of the cone using the triple beam balance.
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b. 542.0 g
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The metric system is only used in France
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false
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What is 0.55 hectometers expressed in decimeters?
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a. 550 dm
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If the next to the last digit of a measurement is 6, the end digit should be rounded up.
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true
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How many significant figures are in the measurement 1.050 L?
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d. 4
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The metric system is now known as the international system of units.
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true
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One km is equal to _______.
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b. 3280.8 ft
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Which of the following measurements has the greatest precision?
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c. 100.00
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The number 0.00243 has how many significant digits?
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a. 3
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Safety equipment like fire extinguishers and fire blankets are used to prevent accidents.
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false
question

What is the difference between the question and hypothesis steps in scientific inquiry?
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a. The question step provides the question to be studied, while the hypothesis step provides a proposed answer to the question
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Following proper safety guidelines _______
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a. minimizes the chance of accidents occurring in lab
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What is 0.25 kilometers expressed in centimeters?
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a. 25000 cm
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Which of the following is not one of the three principles from which the metric system is based?
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c. Metric measurements cannot be converted to any other form of measurement.
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A hypothesis is developed by determining a way to test multiple uncontrolled variables.
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false
question

Which of the following is an observation and not an inference?
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c. Bubbles form when two chemicals are mixed together.
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Scientific theories are subject to change.
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true
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Which of the following is not used to perform experiments with liquids?
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d. rulers
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A dependent variable is
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b. manipulated by changes to the independent variable.
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Which of the following is the SI unit used to measure length?
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c. meter
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How many significant figures are in the measurement 0.020 km?
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b. 2
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Which type of graph is best for analyzing quantitative dependent and independent variables?
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a. line graph
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What feature is common to all microscopes, and how is this feature related in the word microscope?
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All microscopes allow visualization of samples that are too small to be viewed by the naked eye. Microscopes let scientists make observations of microscopic objects. Microscopic objects are too small to be seen with the naked eye.
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Scientific models can never be changed.
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false
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Scientific models are based on a set of observations.
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true
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Scientific models are based on current knowledge, which can limit their effectiveness when new discoveries are made.
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true
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Which of the following types of models is generally used to predict long-term events?
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c. computer model
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Scientific models can be used for a variety of different purposes. Which of the following statements about scientific models is not true?
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d. Scientific models are used rarely.
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Computer models are the only type of model that can be used to make predictions.
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false
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Which of the following statements about physical models is not true?
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c. Physical models are usually in the form of a graph.
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Which of the following scenarios represents the best use of a scientific model?
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a. predicting weather patterns
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All models have limitations.
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true
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Which of the following types of models is usually in the form of a drawing, graph, or equation?
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a. idea model
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Scientists utilize models for a variety of different purposes, but each type of scientific model has limitations. What might be a limitation of existing solar system models?
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d. They are based on current knowledge.
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Scientific models can be used for a variety of different purposes. Which of the following is not a possible use for a scientific model?
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c. replace study of the larger system
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According to the graph of v vs. t below, what was the initial velocity of the cart?
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0.5 m/s
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A cart is set up as shown below, with three fans directed to the left and two of the fans running. The motion of the cart is represented by the v vs t graph shown. If the experiment were repeated with all three fans running, what might the resulting v vs t graph look like?
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Graph D
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The acceleration of the cart shown below is represented in the given graph. If a second block is added to the cart, what might be the resulting acceleration?
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0.27 m/s/s
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A cart with one fan on it blowing to the left and carrying one block produces the x vs t (position vs. time) graph shown. If this cart were carrying three blocks instead of one, with the fan still blowing the same direction, what could the x vs t graph look like?
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Graph C
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Data displayed in rows and columns is called a table.
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true
question

Which element represents 10% of the elements in the human body?
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c. hydrogen
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What kind of graph is illustrated above?
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a. circle
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The best type of graph to illustrate the change in air temperature over a period of time would be a _________ graph.
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b. line
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A line graph shows the relationship between three variables.
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false
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Which of the following best describes the advantage of having data presented in a table over a paragraph?
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c. The way that the data is organized.
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If a female wanted to burn the most calories swimming, she should choose the treading water.
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false
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During which year was the population of the United States about 150,000,000?
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c. 1950
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A circle graph is always based on percentages.
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true
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Scientific data can be organized into different types of graphs. Which type of graph would best illustrate the information from Table 2-1?
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c. bar graph
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Scientists follow specific processes in order to determine valid explanations and conclusions from scientific data. Students graduating from Rydell High School fill out an exit survey the last week of school. When students were asked to compare language arts courses with science courses, 20% of males reported preferring language arts and 80% reported preferring science. For females, 90% reported preferring language arts and 10% reported preferring science. Which of the following would be a valid conclusion based on the data from this study?
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d. For a specific graduating class at Rydell High School, the majority of male students preferred science courses over language arts, and the majority of female students preferred language arts courses over science
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The city of San Francisco reported more missing dogs the week before a massive earthquake than any other week of the year. Therefore, this is factual evidence that dogs can sense impending danger.
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false
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Researched information can never be biased.
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false
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Scientists follow specific processes in order to determine valid explanations and conclusions from observations. David observed strange lights in the sky above his home outside of Roswell, New Mexico. The only explanation that makes sense to him is that there are UFOs in the area. What should David do next to verify his explanation?
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b. Research any and all data pertaining to the Roswell area, and unidentified flying objects reported in the sky
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Courtney believes that the dinosaurs went extinct as a result of a giant asteroid hitting the earth. Scientists discovered a 150 km wide crater dating back to the time of their extinction, according to the fossil record. The crater and the fossil record are examples of researched data that support Courtney’s explanation.
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true
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The scientific method is one application of critical thinking.
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true
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Why is it important to apply critical thinking to spam e-mail?
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d. all of the above
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Judging and evaluating advertisements requires critical thinking because _______.
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a. advertisements can contain confusing, misleading information
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Scientists use critical thinking skills throughout the process of research or experimentation. A student notices that their energy level always seems to decrease when they drink soda, but they seem to have more energy when they don’t drink soda. The student decides to conduct an experiment to determine if their soda intake really does have an effect on their energy level. What critical thinking step has the student just completed in the situation described above?
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a. Asking a question
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Which of the following is not one of the guidelines for brainstorming?
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c. striving for quality
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Which of the following is not a step in evaluating the reliability of a website?
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d. all of the above are steps in evaluating a website’s reliability
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When conducting scientific research or experimentation, researchers carefully analyze and evaluate results to determine a valid conclusion. A scientist conducts an experiment to determine how different brands of fish food affect tropical fish growth. The scientist determines that all of their fish grow better when fed a specific brand of fish food. Why would it be important to question the results of this experiment?
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d. all of the above
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Critical thinking is important for evaluating which parts of advertisements are true and can be believed.
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true
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Factual information can be presented with bias.
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true
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There is no simple way to determine whether a website has an editorial process to evaluate the factual accuracy of the information presented.
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true
question

Which of the following types of models is most likely to be used to predict earthquakes?
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c. computer model
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The main purpose of models is to gain a better understanding of the world.
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true
question

How could you reorganize Table 2-2 so that the data would be more useful?
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Place the countries in order of rank.
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What variables are shown in this graph?
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number of people and the year
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What kind of graph is shown above?
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bar graph
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There are three factors that vary in Table 2-1. One is the number of Calories. What are the other two?
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type of stroke; type of swimmer
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What does the orange piece of this circle graph represent?
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The orange piece represents the 2% of all other elements of the human body that are not mentioned.
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Compare the idea, physical, and computer models.
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The idea model is used to for relationships between variables, such as time and distance, that can be graphed or be placed into an equation. A physical model, on the other hand, is generally used for objects, such as a cell, to show the various parts and their orientation in respect to each other. A computer model is used to track weather patterns and other factors to predict natural events
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Explain why all models have limitations
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All models have limitations because they are not representative of every possible scenario. They use current knowledge and scientific data, but as those are subject to change, the models based off that knowledge and data are subject to change as well.
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List possible limitations to scientific models.
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Scientific models are not a replacement for experimentation. They can be used in conjunction with experimentation to further understanding of a concept, event, or process. They are based on current scientific knowledge and may have to be changed when new discoveries are made.
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A scientific model can be used to _______.
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b. better understand systems and processes
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In a sealed tank is a large sprig of Elodea and a snail. The tank is kept for several weeks on a sunny window sill. Both the plant and snail live and appear to be healthy. Why does this happen?
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c. The snail produces carbon dioxide, while the plant produces oxygen.
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Which of the test tubes shown below were most likely produced by a sprig of Elodea and a snail in the dark after 24 hours of incubation?
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d. Test tube 4
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A student has four snails, four sprigs of Elodea, eight test tubes of bromothymol blue, and two rooms (light and dark). The student wants to know what gases are produced by the snails and Elodea in light and dark conditions. Assuming the student only has time for one experiment, what setup will yield the most complete data?
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a. Experiment 1
question

Which of the following is an example of a producer?
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a. Oak Tree
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Environmental science includes the study of all of the following except:
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a. planets
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Which of the following statements is true?
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c. A technological society has both a positive and negative impact on the environment
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Which of the following is an example of a decomposer?
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d. bacteria
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Most animals are producers, meaning they are able to create their own food from inorganic sources.
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false
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Humans always have a negative impact on the environment.
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false
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Nomadic societies negatively impact the environment more than industrial societies
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false
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Ecology is one component of Environmental Science that studies organismal _______.
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c. interactions
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Decomposers consume nonliving organic matter.
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true
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The concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide is currently decreasing due to human activities.
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false
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Rachel Carson can be credited for _______.
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d. bringing attention to the unchecked use of pesticides, brining attention to pesticides’ harmful effects on the environment, and the modern environmental movement
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Agricultural practices in the United States nearly led to the extinction of the peregrine falcon during the 1950s and 60s.
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true
question

Caves are a type of island ecosystem according to the theory of island biogeography.
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true
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The greenhouse effect is caused solely by human activity.
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false
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The observation of tool-making among chimpanzees led several scientists to reconsider the definition of what it is to be human.
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true
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Which activity produces the smallest amount of greenhouse gases?
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b. riding a bicycle
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Which of the following observed chimpanzee behaviors caused scientists to reevaluate what it meant to be human?
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c. tool making
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The overarching goal of the carbon mitigation initiative is to _______.
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d. find solutions to the global warming dilemma
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Rachel Carson’s warning in Silent Spring was focused on _______.
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c. the misuse of pesticides
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Which type of environmental scientist is likely to study methods of water conservation and decontamination?
answer

a. Hydrologist
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Which of the following is likely to be researched by an environmental scientist?
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a. the effect of oil spills on marine animals
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Environmental scientists are unconcerned with methods to preserve natural resources.
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false
question

What does an ecopsychologist study?
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d. the relationship between a person’s mental health and the environment
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Environmental designers design structures to match the environment.
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true
question

Environmental engineers minimize the impact of land development on the environment.
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true
question

A hydrologist is most likely to study pollution in _______.
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a. lakes
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Which of the following is likely to be researched by a toxicologist?
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d. the effect of pesticides on organisms in the environment
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Which type of environmental scientist is most likely to study how whales are affected by pollution?
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d. Oceanographer
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Which of the following is not something a zoologist might do in his or her profession?
answer

a. help manage natural resources as the human population grows
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Which type of environmental scientist is likely to study the effects of pesticides on pigs?
answer

c. Environmental veterinarian
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Which type of environmental scientist is most likely to study the effects of air pollution on asthma?
answer

c. Environmental physician
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Environmental engineers minimize the impact of land development on the environment.
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true
question

The demand for environmental scientists and hydrologists is expected to increase because of a(n) _______?
answer

b. increased demand for natural resources; need to enforce environmental laws and regulations; need to analyze human impact on the environment and to invent ways to restore it; need to ensure proper disposal of human waste
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What could happen to the environment if there were no environmental scientists to monitor it?
answer

b. great increase in air, land and water pollution; no one to ensure proper disposal of toxic wastes; increased destruction of habitats; increase in species extinction;
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Observation of tool-making among chimpanzees was revolutionary primarily because scientists believed _______.
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c. tool-making was a defining characteristic of humans
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Every fall, clusters of hundreds of Danaus plexippus, or Monarch butterflies, migrate into Mexico. The traveling group of D. plexippus is one example of a(n) _______.
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a. species
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How are the careers of environmental activist, environmental lawyer, and environmental journalist similar?
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These careers all deal with the interface between researchers and society.
question

Contrast environmental science and ecology.
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Ecology is the study of all of the organisms in an environment. Environmental science, however, is the study of the interrelatedness of ALL of the components of an environment.
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Give two examples of producers and two examples of consumers.
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Producers are any organism that does not need another organisms for energy. This would include photosynthetic organisms, usually plants. Consumers must eat other organisms, and are generally animals.
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A hydrologist studies the effects of pollution on marine life.
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false
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Every year _______ species go extinct.
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d. 20000
question

Describe the job of an environmental scientist.
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The main job of an environmental scientist is to identify and address pollution and environmental problems. They monitor the air, water, and soil to help make sure it is all safe and clean.
question

What are the three pressures that lead to biodiversity according to E.O. Wilson’s theory of island biogeography?
answer

According to E.O. Wilson’s theory of island biogeography, biodiversity in island environments is due to immigration, emigration and extinction events.
question

Environments are covered with manmade structures like roads, buildings, and sewers. Green spaces such as parks, backyards, and undeveloped lots are scattered in among the developed areas instead of all connected together. Plants and animals have to deal with exposure to toxins from vehicles and loss of habitat and food sources. These are all ways that _______.
answer

b. nonhuman life in an urban ecosystem differs from that in an undeveloped forest ecosystem
question

The defining characteristic of deserts is their high daytime temperatures
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false
question

Scientists use specific levels of organization to analyze the biosphere. Which level of organization is seen in both a school of anchovies and a gaggle of geese?
answer

population
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Only the water of marine ecosystems contains dissolved salt.
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false
question

Identify the biotic factor of an ecosystem from the following
answer

b. trees
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The biosphere is best described as the regions of Earth that support _______.
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c. all life
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The community is the lowest level of the biosphere’s organizational hierarchy to include members of different species.
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true
question

The proper order, from smallest to largest, for the levels of organization is _______.
answer

d. organism, population, community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere
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The principal characteristic that determines whether an aquatic ecosystem is classified as marine or freshwater is _______.
answer

d. salinity
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Biomes are unique and do not appear more than once on Earth
answer

false
question

Biomes are defined by specific characteristics.What characteristics would define the biome shown?
answer

d. hot and dry with low-growing shrubs
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Which of the following is not a freshwater ecosystem?
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c. seas
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Freshwater ecosystems can be found within terrestrial ecosystems.
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true
question

What can you infer about the growth of the seed type pictured in the graphs below?
answer

d. Light has no effect on seed growth.
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What can you infer about the growth of the seed represented in the graphs below?
answer

b. It grows better at higher temperatures than at lower temperatures.
question

Using the graphs below, determine which water drop rate leads to the highest seed growth.
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c. 50 drops/hr
question

Arrange the events of succession in their proper order.
answer

b. pioneer species, soil formation, plant growth
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Sunlight can be considered a food resource.
answer

true
question

What types of organisms would you expect to see in an area that recently experienced a volcanic eruption?
answer

b. mosses and algae
question

Suppose a group of bobcats that normally live and hunt in the tops of mountains, start hunting prey at the base of the mountain and move into the valley below. Which of the following will most likely happen to the prey in the valley?
answer

b. Their numbers will soon decrease.
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Suppose a predator species became extinct over a short period of time. Which of the following would most likely happen to that predator’s prey species in the short term?
answer

a. They will increase in numbers.
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Which of the following scenarios represents change to an ecosystem brought about by biotic factors?
answer

c. a landslide caused by cattle overgrazing
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Which of the following factors might be affected by a wildfire?
answer

d. all of the above
question

Which of the following would be considered a limited resource in the lower depths of the ocean?
answer

b. sunlight
question

Which predator is best adapted to its environment?
answer

b. Predator 2
question

Using the graphs below, which group of moths is better adapted to survive the hunting cycle?
answer

c. Dark moths on dark trees
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Using the data below, determine which type of moth is best adapted to its environment
answer

d. Dark moths on dark trees.
question

Abiotic factors, like water, are critical to most food chains.
answer

true
question

Only specialist species are well adapted to their native habitats
answer

false
question

Which of the following are not abiotic factors of an ecosystem?
answer

d. herbivores
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Water is an abiotic factor in terrestrial environments.
answer

true
question

Gila Monsters are one of two types of venomous lizards in the world. If you wanted to avoid coming across the Gila Monster when hiking in Arizona you would want to avoid __________ and __________ because Gila Monsters are crepuscular.
answer

b. dawn and dusk
question

The four essential elements for life are _______.
answer

a. carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
question

Plants and animals do not respond to the presence of abiotic factors in their ecosystems.
answer

false
question

Bacteria living in the soil are dependent upon which of the following abiotic factors?
answer

b. soil temperature and water content
question

Calcium and phosphorus are both essential for the proper growth of _______.
answer

a. bones
question

Only specialist species are well adapted to their native habitats.
answer

false
question

The coyote (canis latrans) is found across North America which makes it a specialist species.
answer

false
question

Given that water serves as an environmental thermoregulator, which of the following biomes would you expect to have the most stable temperatures?
answer

d. aquatic
question

Which of the following Gila Monster adaptations is based on the reproductive cycles of Gambel’s quails and cottontail rabbits?
answer

b. fat storage in their tails
question

The most productive marine habitats are in the open ocean.
answer

false
question

Algae uses all the energy in sunlight to perform photosynthesis.
answer

false
question

The variability in marine salinity between habitats does not impact the fish living there.
answer

false
question

Which of the following are not extremophiles?
answer

c. fish living in open oceans
question

Less than 0.1% of the energy in a food chain generally makes it from the sun to decomposers.
answer

true
question

Which level of consumer has access to the smallest supply of energy?
answer

d. quaternary
question

Which of the following aquatic environments would not freeze in winter?
answer

c. salt marsh
question

Which habitat would have the least variation in its salinity?
answer

c. lake
question

Amoebas prey upon algae in aquatic environments.
answer

true
question

If a stationary body of water has a constant temperature from top to bottom it is most likely a(n) _______.
answer

b. pond
question

The principle characteristic distinguishing marine and freshwater ecosystems is _______.
answer

d. dissolved salt
question

Which of the following is a man-made aquatic habitat?
answer

b. reservoir
question

Which of the following biomes are considered temperate biomes
answer

a. deciduous forests and grasslands
question

Humans evolved in the Eocene period
answer

false
question

Typically, biomes are not classified solely by temperature, but rather the overall climate.
answer

true
question

Which of the following is a characteristic typically not used to classify biomes?
answer

c. temperature
question

Humans have impacted the rainforests through mining, agriculture, and construction.
answer

true
question

Which human action has not lead to significant changes in Earth’s biomes?
answer

b. burial practices
question

Earth’s continents are constantly in motion because they sit on top of gigantic plates which float on Earth’s mantle. Energy from the Earth’s core creates convection currents in the molten layer, and the currents move the plates. Over extremely long periods of time, this movement creates new _______.
answer

a. biomes
question

The Earth’s history has had a significant effect on the characteristics of its organisms and biomes. How was the Carboniferous period different from the Devonian period?
answer

c. There were an increased number of land-based organisms in the Carboniferous period.
question

During which period did mammals first appear?
answer

d. Jurassic

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