The Mosque In History Theology Religion Essay
The intent of making a comparative survey on the spacial layout of Nabawi Mosque in Medina and National Mosque in Kuala Lumpur is to place the degree of architectural influence between the Islamic symbolic edifices of two Asia states that portions the same faith. The Mosque is one of the individualities of Islamic Architecture that accompanied with a alone spatial layout that is influenced by cultural background. Therefore, the similarities and differences between the First Mosque and the modern-day Mosque in term of spacial layout are being identified. In order to heighten the content of the research, some literature reappraisal based on the Islamic Centers and Mosque were conducted. Based on the research, opposite the entryway to the supplication hall is the qiblah wall, the visually emphasized country inside the supplication hall. The qiblah wall should, in a decently oriented mosque, be set perpendicular to a line taking to Mecca, the location of the Kaaba. The adult females and work forces are segregated in the supplication hall due to the traditional regulations of Muslims ; in add-on, the mosques besides contain a shelter for discoursing spiritual issue. The differences between both of mosque, is the spacial layout of the courtyard. The National Mosque contains a mausoleum which is a memorial enveloping the burial chamber of asleep individuals that located behind the mosque where the human circulation are the lower limit. The modernize mosque besides contain some populace installations which was absences in the First Mosque. Hence, it has come to a decision that the interior spacial layout of the National Mosque is greatly influenced by the First Mosque while National Mosque still holding its ain individualities.
The Mosque in History
The mosques of history were spread across lands covering the ancient civilisations, from the comeuppances of Arabia and North Africa to the West and Asia and India. In most recent times, this cosmopolitan symbol of Islam, the Mosque has added in a modern-day characteristic and thought while continuing the generic signifier and infinite of the Muslim congregational topographic point of worship. The mosque today besides presents the latest engineerings and material progresss in architecture.
Malaysia is an Muslim state where mosques can be found across the State, but the National Mosque is the landmark of Malaysia that demonstrates superb version of modern architecture doctrine to a local clime and context. It has been identified as International Style that does non convey any architectural mentions which does non copy the other mosques architecture during the colonial period to typify Islam.
The development of signifier and infinite of an Ancient Mosque and a Modern Mosque are in fact interrelated and will be discussed by replying to the undermentioned inquiry: –
1. What is the beginning and early development of i??i??Masjidi??i?? ?
2. What is the cardinal design rule of Mosque?
3. How did the human circulation and activities influence the orientation of infinites around the Mosque?
4. How did the supplication ritual affect the spacial layout of the mosque?
5. What are the differences and similarities between the Ancient mosques and the Modern Mosque in term of orientation of infinite?
What is the beginning and early development of i??i??Masjidi??i?? ?
The Birth of Islam
The twelvemonth 610 is mark as the birth of Islam when Prophet Muhammad brush with angel Gabriel, who command him to i??i??Read in the name of thy Lord who create adult male from a coagulum of blood. Read and thy Godhead is most generous, who taught by the pen, taught adult male what he knew noti??i?? ( Quri??i??an 96:1-4 ) . After received the godly message, Prophet Muhammad started to prophesy to people of Mecca to abandon theirs graven image and to believe to the 1 and merely God. In the beginning, he merely gained a few followings and triggered so much ill will, so when he acquire invited to travel to Yathrib, which was subsequently renamed as Madinat al-Nabi or Medina, the metropolis of Prophet, he journeyed there in 622. This is marked as the twelvemonth of hijra, the first twelvemonth of Muslim Era.
The birth of Islami??i??s Five Pillars or the cardinal observations which form the footing of Muslim Faith is contributed to the birth of Mosque where the 2nd pillar, namaz or Prayer wanted the Muslim to execute supplication five times a twenty-four hours ; at morning, noon, afternoon, sundown, and at dark before traveling to bed. It may take the signifier of dua ( personal and self-generated supplication ) or salat ( ritual supplication in the company of others at place or mosque ) . It besides prescribed that every grownup male articulation in communal supplications at noon on Friday, a pattern which explain the usage of the footings Masjid-I juma, Friday mosque and Jami masjib, congregational mosque ( Frishman & A ; Khan, 1994 ) .
As Prophet Muhammad acquired the position of spiritual and political caput in Medina, he shortly realized the demand to consolidate and spread out his religious followers in order to strengthens and support the religion. In Medina, Prophet Muhammad used his house as Centre of all spiritual and community activity. Over a period of clip, the figure of followings grew, the courtyard go a convenient country in which to run into, pray and to listen to his instruction. Therefore, organize the First Mosque in Mosque history.
The Floor Plan of Generic Mosque Pg 19, Mosque
What is the cardinal design rule of Mosque?
The design of a mosque is depending on the map of the mosque, for illustration, the peculiar mosque is a little sanctuary in a little small town, a congregational or territory mosque, or the rule Friday mosque in any metropolis or community. There are several basic constituents in a mosque architecture and trappings that have been standardized.
1. A demarcated infinite i??C a partly roofed infinite to supply adjustment for the fold at supplication. The roofed infinite is the supplication hall ( haram ) and is size varies harmonizing to the country of the courtyard ( sahn ) , with the 4th side giving entree to the supplication hall. The supplication hall normally rectangular in form supported with hypostyle column.
2. The Qibla wall and Mihrab i??Cthe most of import characteristic in the supplication hall which guides the supplication the way of Mecca. This wall is straight perpendicular to the way of Mecca which is known as the Qibla wall is placed the Mihrab, a niche which is cardinal and most adorned characteristic in any mosque.
The Qibla wall and Mihrab
3. The Minbar i??C It besides known as the dais is ever positioned to the right of the Mihrab and consists of a stairway, with or without bannisters, taking to a platform which is crowned by cupola type roof. This dais is introduced by Prophet Muhammad in his house in Medina, when his followings had increased in Numberss ; he used the dais to place himself above the other in order to do his words more easy heard. The dais is easy become an indispensable furniture that must be presence in all big graduated table mosque which assembled the Friday supplications. The dais changing in size from a three measure to a monumental graduated table with luxuriant ornament.
The Minbar, hypertext transfer protocol: //apih-apes.blogspot.com
hypertext transfer protocol: //panjidaritimur.blogspot.com
4. The Dikka i??C A platform about a individual floor tallness which is positioned in line with the Mihrab, the dikka is reached by its ain stepss. From the raised platform the respondents ( qadi ) of the mosque repeat the ritual position of the iman so that the fold can be transmitted to a larger graduated table.
The Dikka, de.wikipedia.org
5. The Pool i??C This characteristic is besides of import in Mosque design where the believers used the H2O for ablutions before supplications. When used for ablution, the pool is designed to allow a figure of believers to rinse at the same time under running H2O and is placed at or near the Centre courtyard. However, some of the pool are strictly cosmetic and can be impressive in its ain, for illustration at the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore ( Frishman & A ; Khan, 1994 ) .
The Fountain in Badshahi Mosque
6. The Minaret i??C A tower like characteristic which used to guarantee that the voice of the Muezzin doing the adhan could be heard at a maximal distance. During Prophet Muhammad clip, the call for supplication is made from the roof of his house in Medina, and until the late fifteenth centuries, the minarets feature become cosmopolitan.
The Minaret in National Mosque Malaysia
7. The Portal i??C A general feature of the architecture of the Muslim universe is the privacy of the inside of a edifice from the outside position, therefore the mosque is about constantly surrounded by high walls. The individual impressive chief portal constitutes the threshold between urban hustle and the tranquil atmosphere within ; as such, the gateway to the mosque take on a powerful psychological importance, which is frequently augmented by deluxe ornamentation intended to pay court to Godi??i??s presence, every bit good as to stress the generousness of the mosquei??i??s frequenter ( Frishman & A ; Khan, 1994 ) .
The architectural development of the mosque is differential in each part of Islamic universe due to the rapid development of local architecture engineering, and the signifier alteration harmonizing to the local climatic factors and the handiness of the edifice stuffs.
How did the human circulation and activities influence
the orientation of infinites around the Mosque?
Before come ining a mosque for supplications, the believer are required to clean theirselves. Hence, the ablution installations is ever located at the chief entryway of the supplication hall of the courtyard of the mosque. Some mosque contain a pool or a foundtain for aesthetic intent and besides for ablution intent. In the First Mosque, a pool can be found in the Centre of the courtyard where the believers will go through through earlier come ining the chief supplication hall.
The Ablution installations of National Mosque ( left ) and Blue Mosque ( right )
Sacred topographic point such as the Mausoleum, a memorial enveloping a burial chamber for asleep individual or individuals will be placed at a quiet topographic point where circulation is minimal. There besides a long tract taking to Mausoluem in order to make a pureness and sedateness. This can be seen in the spacial planning of National Mosque in Malaysia where the Makam Pahlawan or the mausoluem is located at the far terminal of program with a long marble floor tract.
The National Mosque Plan
However, the supplication hall is located at the chief infinites which is straight perpendicular to the portal and the Qibla wall where it move as the drawing card to visually emphatic country inside the supplication hall. The supplication hall may incorporate the maximal population but it wasni??i??t located at the maximal circulation alternatively where it is easy accessible by all the visitant. Maximal circulation are non suited for sacred topographic point due to the noise and dicturbance created by human activities.
From the program of the First mosque, the courtyard has the maximal circulation where the fountain used for ablution can be found and as the believer move frontward, it will be the supplication hall.
How did the supplication ritual affect the spacial layout of the mosque?
In the praying rite of an Islam believer, is it required that all the supplication must be performed confronting in the way of Mecca, therefore organize the Qibla wall that presence in all the mosque of the universe. This ritual in point of fact impacting the orientation of infinite in a mosque where the way of the Qibla wall is fixed and the place of the portal or the entryway must be perpendicular with the Qibla wall, therefore the supplication hall is form straight.
Analysis Diagram of National Mosque
Analysis diagram of First Mosque
The act of supplications must besides continue by self-purification through ablution installations or the fountains in the courtyard. Therefore, before come ining the supplication hall, there will be a fountain or pool or any sort of ablution installations therefore, it provided another bed of infinite.
Overall Analysis diagram
Overall Analysis diagram of the National Mosque
Overall Analysis diagram of the First Mosque
Besides, the segregation between adult male and adult females is straight contributed to the spacial layout of the supplication hall where two infinites were created for work forces and adult female. Back to the history, adult females are really non encouraged to pray in the mosque.
i??i??I know that you adult females love to pray with me, but praying in your inner suites is better for you than praying in your house, and praying in your house is better for you that praying in your courtyard, and praying in your courtyard is better for you than praying in your local mosque, and praying in your local mosque is better for you than praying in my mosque.i??i?? -Prophet Muhammad ( Sex segregation and Islam, 2012 ) .
However, Prophet Muhammad does non prohibit adult females from come ining the mosque alternatively he arrange that adult females should sit on the last row while the work forces on the first row. This agreement is to let the adult females to go forth the mosque foremost without holding contact with work forces after the fold supplication.
Analysis diagram of Prayer Hall
In the First mosque, the segregation method is work forces in forepart and adult females at the dorsum. ?
The National mosque has a alone manner of segregation, by utilizing the circle as usher, where the outer most beds is for adult females which is near the entryway and the inner most is for adult male.
First Mosque National Mosque
Prayer hall confronting the Qiblah
The chief entryway are located at the opposite Qiblah wall
Have a meeting topographic point where spiritual meeting between imaum took topographic points
Male and Female segregation
Way of segregation
Agreement where male at the forepart rows and female at the back rows Male and Female segregation
Way of segregation
2layer of infinites where interior circle is for male supplications and outer circle for female supplications
No Minarets Minarets
Ablution utilizing fountain Fountain as cosmetic component
Uses other ablution installations
This is the house of Prophet Muhammad, where he lived for 10 old ages, his house became the centre for all spiritual and community activity Mausoleum
a memorial enveloping the interment infinite or burial chamber of a asleep individual or individuals
What are the differences and similarities of both of the Ancient mosque and the Contemporary Mosque in term of orientation of infinite?
From the history, at the beginning through the Umayyad period in the 7th and early 8th centuries, the architecture of the mosque was based on the Propheti??i??s house in Medina. Even until now, some of the mosque design is still influenced by the First Mosque which is the Prophet Home. Thus, the constitution of the First Mosque marked as an of import event in the history of Islamic Architecture. However, some of the modern-day mosques for illustration the National Mosque of Malaysia are still a spot difference comparison to the First Mosque.
In term of spacial layout, the National Mosque has a bigger graduated table and more compact infinites, it besides contain a mausoleum, Makam Pahlawan which is the most typical characteristic of the National Mosque. The Makam Pahlawan is dedicated to the seven statemen of the state. Purity and sedateness can be felt easy from the white marble floor and the pool environing it besides enhances the ambiance of repose. This Mausoleum is considered as one of the best illustrations of modern mausoleum architecture in the state ( Long & A ; Hussain, 2007 ) . On the other manus, the First Mosque contained a residential country which is the house of Prophet Muhammad and adjustment merely for those who needed.
The courtyard of these two mosque is about the same in term of construct, but the map of the pool and fountain are different. For the First Mosque, the Centre of the courtyard contain a fountain for a figure of believers to utilize for ablution. However, in the modern-day mosque, the National Mosque, the simple rectangular of unfastened H2O in the courtyard are chiefly for cosmetic intents hence, there was a ablution installations since the fountain fulfils an arnamental function.
In term of segregation of sexes in the supplication hall, the method used by the First Mosque and the National Mosque are wholly different. The First Mosque uses a simple manner where adult male on the forepart row and adult females on the last row in order to let adult females to go forth the hall foremost. The National Mosque uses architectural engineering to segregate adult male and adult females by making two degree, the land floor for adult male ( interior circle ) and 1st floor for adult females ( outer circle ) . In National Mosque, there even a stairway provided merely for ladies.
Besides that, the presence of minaret is one of the characteristic of National Mosque that is absence in the First Mosque. The minaret of the National Mosque is placed within a H2O characteristic in the courtyard surrounded by the gallery. The minerat wall is decorated by fenestration composed of Islamic forms. The minerat dominates the whole landscape of the country with its tallness, besides functioning as a reminder to the believers to reply the naming of God.
In term of similarities, both of the mosque contain a compulsory characteristic which is the Qibla wall and the entryway is opposite of the wall in order to stress on the inside of the supplication hall. Meeting infinite besides presence in both of the mosque where spiritual meeting between Imams took topographic points.
There are similarities and differences between the all mosque in the universe due to the architecture engineering, the typography, the local climatic factors and the local civilization context. Merely fact that have been confirmed is all the mosque in the universe derived from the First Mosque and through it undergo certain alterations.
In the architecture mosques, confrontation within communities begins to take on the physical signifiers of the place base or of the prevailing cultural group by showing cultural individuality through edifice manner. Immigrant communities seem to follow the same procedure. However, the state of affairs becomes less clear when a figure of different societal, cultural or national groups try to set up a corporate individuality through a individual edifice composite. The frequently eclectics solutions are merely on occasion advanced. It is deserving cognizing that mosque design today has to be considered in relation to such thoughts as the mosque as sacred infinite, since the impression of a fixed sacred infinite is non built-in to Islam. The person can pray anyplace, as can a group, and the chosen topographic point of supplication is sacred for the continuance.
Last, in the modern universe the mosque, more than any other edifice type of Islam, signals and reflects the values both of client groups and of society, and therefore go a manifestation of alterations happening in Muslim society ( Frishman & A ; Khan, 1994 ) . ?