The History Of Sufism Theology Religion
Mankind everlastingly seen things otherwise, possibly this is due to our singularity in the manner we think, believe and act. Sufism in this modern universe for illustration, has many tariqas and different Shayks. Harmonizing to Sufis, Sufism existed before Islam, Jesus disciples and Mohammed companies were all Sufi ‘s ( Istanbuli, 2008 ) . The Simplified Arabic Encyclopedia mentioned in respect to Sufism that Christian mysticism or Islamic Sufi ‘s are the one ‘s whom are seeking to unclutter them self ‘s from dross and fight the Nafs[ 3 ]in order to go worthy of the Transfiguration. The August 6 increases the feeling of God ‘s love and being close to him, and the stronger this feeling, the more the psyche become pure until the minute it unite with God ( 1965 ) . This essay will discourse what Sufism in Islam, and how did it started and by whom. Furthermore, this paper will discourse the plants of Al Ghazali, Al Kalabthe and the Sufi Literature, these bookmans are celebrated among Sufi ‘s, Ibn Tymiah work will be discussed every bit good, where his beliefs can be considered against the some of the Sufi patterns.
Before the treatment of Sufism, we must supply a definition of the word and it derivation. It is clear that there is a legion definitions of this word and each one derive from different class, and even up to now, bookmans could non hold on one definition. Abu Baker Al-Kalabthe the celebrated Sufi bookman, mentioned few definitions in his book ( Al Ta’rof ) , and they are:
Group said: Sufi called this name due to the ( Safa ‘[ 4 ]) repose of their secretes, and the pureness of their effects and hints.
Other people said: it named Sufi because they are in the first ( Saff[ 5 ]) in the custodies of God, due to their work of seeking to near God.
Others said: It called Sufi because their descriptions and wonts are similar to ( Ahul As-Suffa[ 6 ]) . Where others mentioned that Sufi com from ( Soff[ 7 ]) , because they used to have on it, as it was a inexpensive fabric.
The last two definitions clearly were depicting their visual aspect, that they were people who left the ( Dunia[ 1 ]) and give their life for the love of God and his prophesier. Sheikh Muhammad El Shaarawy who was anA EgyptianA Muslim legal expert ( 1911-1998 ) , mentioned that there are people who become close to God Dignity through obeisance, but there is others who through God Dignity will go obeisance, for illustration, person wanted to eat from your house, he will strike hard on the door so you will feed him, on the other manus, you called a individual to fall in you for your dinner and you insisted, harmonizing to El Shaarawy, sometimes a individual love others, but others do non love him back, but God ever love who loves him. Al-Sufi is the individual who has a relation with God, and they love each other, so they call this relation Mussafa[ 2 ]in Arabic, and from this word the phrase Sufi is derived from ( El Shaarawy ) .
The History of Sufism:
Peoples argued that there is no clear day of the month of Sufism, the same when they argue about its significance. Ibn Tyamiyyah, Ibn Al Jawzi and Ibn Khuldon all agreed that the word Sufi was non celebrated at the first three centuries after Hijra, it merely became celebrated after that day of the month. Al Seraj Al Twasi, old Sufi bookman died in 378 Hijra, said that he has been asked about Sufi ‘s during Sahaabah yearss, and he answered that there was no 1 who heard about Sufism during the prophesier and Sahaabah epoch, and non even the people whom followed them, nevertheless, we heard about these people who are ascetic and hapless worshippers of God ( Sror & A ; Mahmoud, 1960 ) . Ahmed Alwosh stated that many people might inquire why there was no Sufi motion during the first old ages of Islam, and even during the yearss that followed the Shahaaba, and the reply is really simple, because there was no demand for such a motion like Sufism during that epoch, the people at that clip were piousness and devout and good worshippers by their nature, due to the fact that they were near the yearss of the prophesier and some of them lived with him. For illustration, a true Arabic individual will larn the linguistic communication organize his household without larning it form books or larn the grammar, they merely inheritance the civilization of the linguistic communication, so they will go good poesy without larning the systems, nevertheless, when they mixed with aliens and their address in Arabic become weaker, an intercession must take topographic point through distributing consciousness and publishing grammar books.
Sahaaba and the people followed them were Sufi ‘s even if they were non named Sufi ‘s ( Alowsh, 1956 ) . When the yearss of Islam has spreaded to many states and races, and the circle of scientific disciplines became wider and spreded among the state, each civilization started codification their best country, for illustration, Arabic literature, Jurisprudence, Quran Interpretation, Arts and so on, spiritual spiritualty among all of them started to worsen, Ibn Khaldun mentioned in his celebrated book “ Al Mugadima[ 3 ]“ that this cognition ( Sufism ) is legitimate in Islam, and its beginnings thrusts from Shaabha patterns, such as, khalwa, turning off from money and life pleasances, retiring from people and itikaf, nevertheless, people after that epoch started to lose their spiritual patterns, but there was people who did non lose it, whom they called themselves Sufi ‘s. The following paragraph will discourse the work of Abu Baker Al-Kalabathe, “ Al-Ta’rff ala Matheb Ahl At-Tsuff[ 1 ]“ .
Abu Baker Al-Kalabthe:
The book “ Al-Ta’rff ala Mathab Ahl At-Tsuff ” considered to be one of the oldest and most accurate books about Sufism ( Shams-Addain, 1993 ) . This book has been written during the 4th century after Hijra, at that clip, Sufism reached the extremum of flawlessness in footings of Shayks and Knowledge ( Shams-Addain, 1993 ) . Al-Kalabthe mentioned in his debut that the purpose of this book is to rectify the people believes about Sufism, and he started his book by supplying definitions of the word Sufi, about 20 definitions has been mentioned, so, he started supplying the Shyks of Sufism, and the first he mentioned was Ali Ibn Al-Hussain and his boy Zain-al-A’bedain, after that, he talked about the first people who wrote and spread the cognition of Sufism, and they are, Al-Junaid Al-Bghadadi and Abul-Hussain Al-Nuri. Al-Kalabthe so starts depicting the Sufi believes and political orientations. For illustration, he starts with this sentence “ What they are stating aboutaˆ¦ . ” In the beginning of each chapter, and due to word restriction, merely chief subjects will discussed from his book. “ What they are stating about Twahied ” , all Sufi ‘s harmonizing to Al-Kalabthe agreed that there is merely one God, ne’er dice, all cognizing Godhead.
Al-Kalabthe so depicting God in the following 14 pages based on what Sufi ‘s agreed upon. Another chapter is “ What they are stating about Isra ‘ and Mi’raj ” , and most of them agreed that that the prophesier did non see God. Interesting chapter was “ What they are stating about Angles and Messengers ” , and some said that Messengers are better than Angles ; others said that we are all God creative activity and merely God himself decide which one above the other, and they used these Poetries from Quran as grounds “ And it is your Lord That knoweth best all existences that are in celestial spheres and on Earth: We did confer on some Prophetss more ( and other ) gifts than on others: and We gave to David ( the gift of ) the Psalms[ 2 ]“ and “ Those Messengers We endowed with gifts, Some above others: To one of the Allah spoke ; Others He raised[ 3 ]“ . An Important chapter is “ What they are stating about Sufism ” in this chapter Al-Kalabthe said that he heard Abaul-Hassan Al-Farsi one time said that Sufism has ten Arkan[ 4 ], the first 1 is abstraction of fusion, which means a clear flawless Tawheed. Second, understanding of hearing, the individual should hear his psyche non merely knowledge merely. Good company, Altruism, Seeking the truth, Remembrance of God, Traveling and they quote from the Quran “ Say, [ O Muhammad ] , “ Travel through the land and detect how He began creative activity[ 5 ]“ , these are all the Arakan of the Sufi ‘s which has agreed upon harmonizing to Al-Kalabthe. The other chapters are about, Modesty, Patience, Children, Adult, Fear, Thanking and Praising, the Truth, Thiker[ 1 ], Affability and 51 other subjects. The following paragraph will discourse the work of Abu-Hamid Al Ghazali.
Abu Hamed Al-Ghazali:
Al-Ghazali was aA PersianA MuslimA theologist, A legal expert, A philosopher, and mysterious. He published legion sums of books ; nevertheless, this paragraph will discourse two of his chief books sing Sufism, “ Ihya ‘ Alom Ad-Dain[ 2 ]“ and “ Minhaj Al-A’bedain[ 3 ]“ . The book “ Minhaj Al-A’Bedain ” is supplying the readers sing the right methods to idolize God, and he explain the chief obstructions that the truster might happen during his life, the first 1 he mentioned was Knowledge, “ without cognition you ca n’t pull off ” ( p,59 ) . Al-Ghazali encourages his readers to seek cognition because God created us merely for two grounds, Seeking Knowledge and Worship the Godhead. The 2nd obstruction is Tubah[ 4 ], Al-Ghazali said “ oh searchers of God, Tubah is of import for two grounds, foremost to acquire approvals from God, secondly so your work is accepted by God ” ( p.71-72 ) . Al-Ghazali so continues his advices for his readers in order to make the right way of worshiping.
The book “ Ihya ‘ Alom Ad-Dain ” , is a big book that contain four parts, and this book received important unfavorable judgment because of the doctrine content, and quotation marks from old bookmans. The unfavorable judgment of this book will be discussed in the Discussion subdivision at the terminal of this paper.
Sufi can be divided into three subdivisions, the first subdivision was since the rise of Islam until the 2nd century of Hijra, and it was rich with wisdom and spiritual discourses, and it was taking to distribute asceticism, asceticism and piousness among the Muslims, and it was clear that Sufism was simple at the epoch. The 2nd subdivision started from the late 2nd century until the 4th century, in which the people at this epoch were blending, and this was obvious in there poesies, for illustration, new systems in Poetries and new doctrines and political orientations that aimed to remind the people of God. Until that minute, there were no clear Sufi phrases and constructs, yet it started at the terminal of the 4th century. The 3rd subdivision was the aureate subdivision ( Amin, 1969 ) . It started from the late 4th century until the mid 8th century, and it was rich in footings of doctrine and the good structured Arabic literature systems that have been used. The Sufi literature reached the extremum at that clip through celebrated Arabic poets like, Ibn Arabi, Ibn Al-Fared and Farsi poets such as Ar-Rumi. At that epoch, the Sufi poesies became something similar to a philosophy, which included their phrases and constructs and there political orientations, the Sufi poesies besides started to praise the prophesier and the saints ( Daif, 2001 ) ( Al-Salami, 1960 ) .
Sufism was a world without a name during the yearss of the prophesier and his comrades, nevertheless, it now a name without a world. Scholars still argue about the significance of this word, Mohammed Noh Al-Qadda said that Sufi name originally came from wool, where Mohamed El-Sharawwy said that the name came from Mussafa, and the definition of El-Sharawway is non truly accurate, because it contradicted with Al-Kalabthe work, the Sufis agreed that God is all-powerful and nil is similar to God, but El-Sharawwy in his illustration steps God with his creative activities through Mussafa. Furthermore, the Sufi argued that Sufism came before Islam, and the people who fight their desires are Sufis, but it is celebrated in the Arabian Peninsula that a adult male becomes to the full mature and a leader when he beat his desires, Antarah ibn Shaddad for illustration in his celebrated rime “ Mua’lqt Antarah ” he described himself as a true adult male who does non follow his wild “ Nafs ” . Hosni Abdul-Jalil wrote a book about “ Nafs ” in old Pre-Islamic Arabic literature[ 1 ], and the consequence is that contending the “ Nafs ” was celebrated among the Arabs.
The work of Al-Kalabthe was taking to rectify the people conception about Sufis, but the book was by and large depicting the normal Muslims position about the faith. It is either the work of Al-Kalabthe is incorrect or the current Sufis are incorrect, Al-Kalabthe in his chapter of Thiker, did non advert what the current Sufi are making in footings of tariqa or following the Shayk. Basically, the purpose of the book is to rectify the people believes about this group of people, but he did non discourse the tariqas, because it was non existed at that clip, but the people criticized them due to their excess religiousness, and started to oppugn their believes. Then, the state started blending to a great extent, and new political orientations, humanistic disciplines and civilizations started blending together ; this is when Sufism circle became wider, bookmans and poets started to fall in them from around the state, at that clip, Al-Ghazali issued his celebrated book “ Minhaj Al-A’Bedai ” to direct the searchers of God to the right way, with great cognition non merely for Sufis, but for every Muslim. Current Sufis usage this book as a Manhaj[ 2 ], and it is rare when another bookman knock this book. “ Ihya ‘ Alom Ad-Dain ” on the other manus, received important unfavorable judgment due to the fact that Al-Ghazali combined both Fiqh[ 1 ]and Philosophy, and no 1 has done that earlier, yet he quoted many of the old Sufi bookmans such as Al-Bghadadi.
Ibn Taymiyyah argued that “ Ihya ‘ Alom Ad-Dain ” contains important cognition, but there is some condemnable parts sing Tawhied and Philosophy. Ibn Taymiyyah argued that the term Sufi was non celebrated, but the hapless worshippers were everyplace but with different names, for illustration, “ Al Jyoeya ” in Syria, “ Al Fagrya ” in Basra ( Iraq ) and “ Al Magaraba ” in Khorasan, and the significances of these words are a combination of poverty, piousness and religiousness. IbnTaymiyyah argued about “ At-Tasuff Al-Haq[ 2 ]“ that Sufis are all Muslims, and some of their books have been interrupted by others, and some bookmans crisized them and take them from the circle of Islam, because they said that they are the best after God Prophetss, nevertheless, Ibn Taymiyyah said that due to the incorrect deformation books, some bookmans made the incorrect judgement about them, but they are persevering Muslims, and as any human, some make errors but the bulk of them are n’t, and if they continued with the good work without any crazes, so they will go the best people after God Prophetss.
What I observed while go toing a Sufi Ziker session in Ghamkol Sharif Mosque in Birmingham, is that the people at the Ziker session are wholly incognizant of what they are stating in Arabic, they made few minor errors but a important error was made and non even the Shayk noticed it, which is “ Noor Mohammad Sali Alla ” its literally means, Light Mohammad Praise Upon, and grammatically it is wrong, yet they repeted it about a 100 clip. Sufism should about devout and piousness manner, but some of these people and the Shayk among them changed their fabrics after the Isha pray to more modist fabrics, the Shayk removed his satiny fancy Moroccan Jalabya[ 3 ], and wearied Punjabi, and other from denims to Punjabi every bit good.