The Life History Of Sikh Gurus Theology Religion

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Sikh means the searcher of the truth. The word Sikh is derived from the Sanskrit word shishya which means adherent or pupil and the Sanskrit significance of the word ‘Guru ‘ is teacher, honoured individual, spiritual individual or saint, though in Sikhism a really expressed account of the word ‘Guru ‘ . In Sikh faith, the wordA ‘Guru’A is non used in its usual significance such as a instructor or an expert or a usher or any ordinary homo organic structure, but this is composed of two words-A GU and RU where GU means darkness and RU means light. Therefore, Guru is one who dispels darkness and obscureness with light and glow thereby leaving godly counsel and leading to mankind. The term ‘Guru ‘ is rather common in the Indian civilization, but in Sikhism it enjoys a really distinguishable significance. Guru epitomizes a religious instructor who enlightens his adherents for their all unit of ammunition development, inculcates in them devotedness and Godly love, shows them the way ofA righteousness and justness, heals them with the medical specialty of ‘Naam ‘ , refines their thought procedures and leads them into a province of balance, instills in them the spirit of service to the community and learn them the art of achieving release while taking the life of a homeowner ( Grover, 2009 ) .

In the Sikh faith, the rubric Guru applies merely to the 10 Gurus who founded the faith, get downing with Guru Nanak Dev, A the first Guru andA Guru Gobind Singh, A the last Guru in human signifier. When Guru Gobind Singh left this universe, he declared Sri Guru Granth Sahib, A the finalA Sikh Guru. The construct of Guru embraces more than the 10 Gurus. The Gurbani ( vocalization of the Guru ) is embodied in the Bible. Since the decease of Guru Gobind Singh in 1708, it has been consulted and venerated as a life usher, known as Sri Guru Granth Sahib ( Nesbitt, 2005 ) . The Godhead spirit was passed from one Guru to the other. The Sikh Gurus are to be perceived as one psyche in the signifier of 10 organic structures reincarnating from one signifier to another. The Gurus were enlightened and progressive psyches whose intent in life was the religious and moral munition of the people. The instruction of the gurus sought to edify people to populate righteous and spiritually carry throughing lives with truth, self-respect, honor and autonomy. Sikh Gurus were the enlighteners and couriers of the dateless ageless wisdom. During the span ofA 239A old ages, the Sikh Gurus laid down within the sacred Bibles, the regulations and guidelines that enshrine the manner of life that was to be followed by all rehearsing adherents of this faith. The history and the literature present the followings of the religion and others with the natural stuff required to larn about the beliefs and patterns propagated by the Gurus. The Gurus were clear besides to sketch rites, patterns and beliefs that were non appropriate and were non to be followed by the faithful adherents. They promoted the wont of reciting of sanctum anthem called Shabads ; populating in changeless recollection of theA Supreme CreatorA and populating a simple life of truth, decency and virtuous rules ( Grover, 2009 ) .

The Sikh Gurus were an prototype of virtuousnesss, righteous actions and honorable behavior. They were the illustrations of virtuous and moral life. In the words of Guru Nanak Dev, “ Without virtuous life, there can be no devotional worship ” ( SGGS, 4 ) . The Gurus guided their followings by words and workss. They were receptive to truth wherever they found it, and their religious penetration and spiritual ardor combined with their dynamic activity and forming ability to give rise to a distinguishable faith and a spiritual community that exists in India today ( Loehlin, 1958 ) . They preached the doctrine and ideals they believed in and enforced these in their really ain lives. Their lives were model for the searchers of truth and guided them to populate a wholesome and meaningful life. The lives of Gurus depicted a cardinal virtuousness unique to their personality. While Guru Nanak was an graven image of ‘Humility ‘ , Guru Angad immortalizedA ‘Obedience ‘ , Guru Amardas fortified the spirit of ‘Equality ‘ , Guru Amardas demonstrated the kernel of ‘Selfless Devotional Service ‘ , Guru Hargobind was an apostle of ‘Justice ‘ , Guru Har Rai sanctified ‘Mercy ‘ , Guru Harkrishan idolized ‘Purity ‘ , Guru Tegh Bahadar was an ocean of ‘Calmness ‘ and Guru Gobind Singh embodied ‘Royal Courage ‘ ( Dhillon, 2010 ) .

The demand of the Guru was emphasized by Guru Nanak Dev to ferry across the ocean of complicated and troubled life. To make Nam, the Guru is the ladder, boat and raft. The Guru is the ship to traverse the ocean of the universe ( SGGS, p-17 ) . The Guru is indispensable in the life of a searcher to get the better of the problems of the life and to steer the searchers to walk on the righteous way. The Guru is a religious usher who helps his adherents to traverse the wilderness of the universe with assuredness. The Gurus taught that there is merely one God, that all people are every bit of import before God and that everyone can achieve freedom if they live their lives with love and are faithful and obedient to God ( Mayled, 2002 ) .A

4.2 TIMELINE OF SIKH GURUS:

The ageless visible radiation was passed on from one Guru to another and now dwells in the Bible, Sri Guru Granth Sahib, which holds the wisdom of the Gurus. From the birth of Guru Nanak Dev in 1469, through the life ofA Guru Gobind Singh, the era of theA 10s gurus spans 239 old ages. In 1708, Guru Gobind Singh bestowed the rubric of Guru to the Holy Scripture, Sri Guru Granth Sahib. The timeline of 10 Sikh Gurus is depicted in the table below-

Table-4.1

Time Span of Sikh Gurus

Name

Born

Guru at Age

Guruship

Time period of

Guruship ( year )

Merged with

Eternity aged

1.

Guru Nanak Dev

1469

1469 to 1539

70

70

2.

Guru Angad Dev

1504

35

1539 to 1552

13

48

3.

Guru Amar Das

1479

73

1552 to 1574

22

95

4.

Guru Ram Das

1534

40

1574 to 1581

7

47

5.

Guru Arjan Dev

1563

18

1581 to 1606

25

43

6.

Guru Hargobind

1595

11

1606 to 1644

38

49

7.

Guru Har Rai

1630

14

1644 to 1661

17

31

8.

Guru Har Krishan

1656

5

1661 to 1664

3

8

9.

Guru Tegh Bahadur

1621

44

1665 to 1675

10

54

10.

Guru Gobind Singh

1666

9

1675 to 1708

33

42

Source-www.sikhiwiki.org

The Guruship was attained by Guru Har Krishan at the stamp age of 5 old ages whereas it was attained by Guru Amar Das at the mature age of 73. Guru Har Krishan reigned the Black Marias of multitudes for a period of 3 old ages whereas Guru Nanak Dev was Guru for a span of 70 old ages. Guruship was transferred on the footing of virtuousnesss and religious degree, and was wholly situational. The pictural representation of the timeline of Sikh Gurus is given below-

Timeline of the Sikh Gurus.jpg

A Source- www.info-sikh.com

Guru Gobind Singh Ji briefly puts transmigration of psyches of Sikh Gurus in His composing ‘Bachitra Naatak ‘ as under-

The Holy Nanak was revered as Angad,

Angad was recognized as Amar Das,

And Amar Das became Ram Das,

The pious proverb this, but non the saps,

Who thought them all distinct ;

When Ram Das was blended with God,

He gave the Guruship to Arjan.

When Arjan was traveling to God ‘s metropolis,

He seated Har Rai in his topographic point,

Har Krishan his boy afterwards became Guru,

After him came Teg Bahadur aˆ¦

As one lamp is lit from another ( Macauliffe, 1989 ) .

The Godhead Gurus, in the life span of 239 old ages, gave a really practical faith to the multitudes. Sikhism, unlike other faiths, is a manner of life alternatively of simply being a manner of worship. The chief virtuousness of Sikhism is its simpleness, with no topographic point for supernaturalism or mythology and opposed to all ritualism and formalism. The godly words of Gurus, in the signifier of Gurbani, permeate the Sikh consciousness through the power of Gurus ‘ word boulder clay this twenty-four hours. Sikhism preaches aA message of devotedness and recollection of God at all times, A true life, equality of world, A denouncing superstitious notions and blind rites. Sikhism is unfastened to all through the instructions of its 10 Gurus enshrined in the Sikh Holy Book and Living Guru, Sri Guru Granth Sahib ( Pashaura Singh, 2000 ) . Sri Guru Granth Sahib is a holy Bible drenched in practical wisdom, moral and religious rules and scientific idea, and gives positive way to life of the searchers. It strongly advocates the thought of cosmopolitan peace, unity, brotherhood, autonomy and contentment. Unlike some other Bibles, A Guru Granth SahibA is neither history nor mythology nor a aggregation of conjurations. Rather, its contents are spiritualA poesy, the vision of cosmic order and exhortation to the higher life. In that regard, it is a alone Bible among the beginnings of spiritual books ( Ahluwalia, 2008 ) .

Guru Gobind Singh declared Sri Guru Granth Sahib as the ageless Guru of the Sikhs and administered the stewardship of Sikhism to the Divine Sri Guru Granth Sahib. He said, “ As ordained by the Lord Eternal, a new manner of life is evolved. All the Sikhs are asked to accept the Holy Granth as the Guru. Guru Granth should be accepted as the life Guru. Those who wish to run into God will happen Him in the Word ” ( Duggal, 2010 ) . Therefore, Word became Guru in Sikhism. The lessons of managerial sagaciousness from the life history of the 10 great Gurus are interpreted as under harmonizing to the sequence of great Guru:

4.3 GURU NANAK DEV:

Guru Nanak Dev was the first Sikh Guru and the laminitis of the Sikh faith. He preached the equality of all worlds. Guru Nanak Dev preached that all people are the kids of one God. During a clip of great societal confusion and spiritual decay, Guru Nanak Dev spoke against dictatorship, societal unfairness, spiritual lip service, empty rites and superstitious notions and besides rejected the Hindu patterns of caste system, fasting and pilgrim’s journey, carnal forfeit, portents, asceticisms and devotion. He travelled extensively throughout India and foreign lands to distribute his message and his sermon ‘s were in consonant rhyme with the life he led. Guru Nanak Dev laid forth three basic rules by which every homo being should stay: Remember the name of God at all times, earn an honest life as a homeowner and portion a part of your net incomes with the less fortunate. His message served as a novel and undefiled attack towards life, spiritualty and God. Guru Nanak Dev ‘s instructions centered on believing in and retrieving the name of one true God, gaining through honest agencies and sharing a portion of such net incomes with others and loving all people.

4.3.1 Lessons of Managerial Sagacity from the Life History of Guru Nanak Dev:

Guru Nanak Dev was the first leader of the Sikhs and so puzzling was his personality that even after 543 old ages, he has a big followers and people still look upon his word and seek counsel from his sermons and his life narratives. Guru Nanak Dev was an incarnation of acumen, judiciousness, compassion, devotedness and truth. He taught the profoundest truths, utilizing metaphors and symbolic presentations. He was apostle of love and modestness. By his magnetic and magnetic personality, he mesmerized 1000000s of people in his life-time. He was respected likewise by Hindus every bit good as Muslims. A pair became really popular in the Punjab- Baba Nanak, the great adult male of God. The Guru of the Hindus and the Pir of the Mussalmans ( Duggal, 2010 ) . He was a great airy and leader and was non scared to seek anything new and alone in his clip.

4.3.1.1 Clear Plan and Vision:

At a clip when there was communal inharmoniousness and swayers and emperors repressed and exploited the common people, Guru Nanak Dev came with a mission to circulate the spirit of cosmopolitan brotherhood. He envisioned a classless and casteless society and planned to present an independent and distinguishable religious system. Guru Nanak Dev believed in one God and took this message far and broad. He travelled in all four waies – North, East, West and South- under a particular and lucid program and mission, distributing the message of peace, compassion, righteousness and truth, and heightening the followers of Sikh faith. So intense was his strong belief in his mission that when Daulat Khan, his old employer, stopped him from continuing for the 3rd journey, Guru did non travel back on his program. Guru said, “ I can non remain till my psyche tells me to. I hear an interior voice stating me to travel and I must obey ” ( Dhillon, 2010 ) . He was an original mind and believed in believing advanced, believing different and believing socially relevant.

4.3.1.2 Effective Communication:

To distribute the message of brotherhood and peace, Guru Nanak Dev travelled all over the state and even outside it. He visited legion topographic points of Hindu and Muslim worship. In those times illiteracy was rampant. He elucidated and depicted through his prophesying the absurdness and futility of ritualistic and ascetic patterns prevalent in those times and preached the philosophies of his new faith and mission at the topographic points and centres he visited. He reached out to people at grass-root degree through his travels and distribute his thoughts far and broad, thereby deriving popularity for the Sikh faith. He used synergistic attack for discoursing with the people. He used the common people parlance and linguistic communication to convert the people who came into his contact.

4.3.1.3 Structured the Congregations:

Guru Nanak Dev organized Sikh societies at topographic points he visited with the assembly topographic points called Dharamsalas where Sikh fold and spiritual assemblages of the followings were held. A specific plan was followed in the Dharamsalas, in the forenoon, Japji ( His foremost composing ) was recited in the fold and in the eventide Sodar and Aarti were recited. Food was besides served here to the hapless. The first known Centre set by Guru Nanak Dev was the residence of Sajjan ( a darnel ) , which he was antecedently utilizing for plundering guiltless travellers but Guru evoked his religious scruples by his discourse and transformed him into a existent ‘Sajjan ‘ which in English means a thorough gentlemen ( Duggal, 2010 ) . He created synergism and remained polite even with his oppositions.

4.3.1.4 Path of Truth and Enlightenment:

Guru Nanak Dev carried the torch of truth on his ocean trips and enlightened people who were enduring out of hatred, falsity, greed and lip service. He travelled and taught through pattern and principle. On the Bankss of river Ganga, he cautioned people offering H2O to their dead ascendants in the part of Sun to slake their thirst, against false rites and superstitious notions and directed them to follow the way of truth and enlightenment ( Loehlin, 1958 ) . He broke the rites and traditions which had become meaningless. He non merely preached but practised in missive and spirit what he said. He had the backbones and bravery to dispute the swayers of the clip for their incorrect behaviors. He appealed the people as one of them and non as a superior to them.

4.3.1.5 Philanthropy/Concept of Social Responsibility:

Guru Nanak Dev asserted the importance of assisting the needy and the hapless. He himself ever helped the hapless and he served nutrient to them. While working as a shopkeeper, he used to pass a big portion of his net incomes to feed the hapless and the hungry. Guru asserted that assisting the destitute by activities like feeding the hungry and supplying apparels to the bare makes the giver a receiver of God ‘s grace, and emphasized that such contributions should be made out of one ‘s honorable net incomes. He opined that even the receiving system should non be greedy and accept merely what suffices to carry through his demands, and no more. He emphasized the construct of sharing out of honest agencies and dissuaded the impression of gaining through unjust agencies and so offering a portion of it as charity or repentance.

4.3.1.6 Honest Means of Life:

Guru Nanak Dev encouraged honest work and life and condemned development of homo and natural resources. Guru Ji declared, “ He entirely, O Nanak, knows the manner, who earns with the perspiration of the forehead and so portions it with others ” ( SGGS, p-1245 ) . During one of his travels, he preferred to remain with Bhai Lalo, who was a low caste craftsman, as he earned his life in a merely manner with his ain labor and attempts, worsening the invitation of a high caste rich landlord, Malik Bhago, because the latter lived by working the hapless and committed atrociousnesss on them, snaping away their portions and mistreating the power he possessed ( Dhillon, 2010 ) . So he associated himself with the lowest of the low.

4.3.1.7 Re-engineering of Personalities:

Guru Nanak Dev ne’er ignored or out-casted people who did non possess good personalities but worked to reform and re-engineer them and was able to transform them into all right persons. He transformed into soft folk people like Sajjan, the darnel, Malik Bhago, the user of the hapless and the downtrodden, Nur Shah, the practician of black thaumaturgy, Kauda, the head-hunter, Duni Chand, the hoarder of wealth, to cite a few ( Ghatage,2005 )

4.3.1.8 Equality of World:

Guru Nanak Dev gave the message of equality of world. He taught that God has created the existence and he is everyplace and in every being. So, one can non know apart people on the footing of caste and credo etc. when God has created them as peers. He introduced the pattern of community kitchen where people from all castes and credos sat together to eat without any differentiation of societal hierarchy. Harmonizing to the Guru, all human existences had the visible radiation of the Lord and were the same and merely by repressing one ‘s pride and self-importance, could one see this visible radiation in all.

4.3.1.9 Cultivation of Inner Strength:

Guru Nanak Dev accentuated the value of virtuousnesss of the human character and advised control of frailties. The frailties like self-importance, choler, greed, lecherousness and amour propre can be conquered through introspection and self-fulfillment. He said, “ See the brotherhood of all world as the highest order of Yogis ; suppress your ain head, and suppress the universe ” ( SGGS, p-6 ) . He urged all the people at all the topographic points to overmaster their heads and abstain from the evil patterns. It is our compulsion with self-love, greed, sensuous pleasances and a grabbing outlook which make our life and society around us full of sorrows and agony ( Tarlochan Singh, 1998 ) . He was a mass leader non a category leader.

4.3.1.10 Sequence on Merit:

Guru Nanak Dev was kindhearted and sensitive but was non swayed by the emotions and sentiments that is why he took a fresh enterprise when he conferred the bid of Sikhism to Bhai Lehna, a devout Sikh, in penchant to his ain boies, Baba Sri Chand and Baba Lakhmi Das. By this move, he brought home the fact that transportation of place should be based on the properties of the character and non simply familial. He wanted the continuity of the basic idea and doctrine so as the motion started by him could go on for the times to come.

4.3.1.11 Model of Moral and Ethical Living:

Guru Nanak Dev cultivated his lands and besides continued with his mission and sermon after the travels. He gave the theoretical account of uprigtheous life where he called upon his followings to go to to their households and societal responsibilities, and make good to others, yet intercede about God at all times. Guru Nanak Dev says, A ” A individual can take an ideal life as a homeowner ( grihasti ) making his normal activities, while being profoundly soulful and absorbed in contemplation and devotedness to God. The searcher or scholar – a Sikh – must go to to his familial and societal responsibilities, and make good to others, yet hold his ain being in God ” ( Ahluwalia, 2007 ) . His theoretical account of moral and ethical life can be presented as under:

Model of Moral and Ethical Living

4.4 GURU ANGAD DEV:

Guru Angad Dev compiled the anthem of Guru Nanak Dev and spread his instructions and collected the life narrative of Guru Nanak Dev, known as the Janam Sakhi. He introduced Gurmukhi book and bucked up people to larn Punjabi which was at that clip the linguistic communication of the multitudes. For this, he started a school at Khadur Sahib to learn kids the Gurmukhi alphabet. A The Guru told Bhai Gurdas, his intent as under: A Make the Granth into an ample volume. Write it out inA GurmukhiA characters.A In theA PattiA devised by Guru Nanak, A are included 35 letters. In these letters record the entireA BaniA of the Guru, Which all may be able to read with easeaˆ¦ Homeowners engaged in day-to-day labor, which have small acquisition, A Yet seek cognition, may analyze it with easeaˆ¦Therefore write you down theA GurmukhiA letters. ‘ From the above citation, it is clear that the intent of the holy Guru in composing the Bani in the popular lingua, and composing it out in popular books, was to convey Godhead cognition, religious experience and ethical idea to the simple, working common people ( Ahluwalia, 2008 ) .

4.4.1 Lessons of Managerial Sagacity from the Life History of Guru Angad Dev:

Guru Angad Dev was instrumental in taking Sikhism from its infant phase to the following phase. He laid the foundation of a Sikh community that was pious, educated and enlightened. Guru Angad Dev believed in the service and wellbeing of all world, and non merely of his ain followings. He emphasized the demand for character edifice instead than public presentation of rites and formalities. Guru Angad Dev motivated his Sikhs to follow the way where enlightenment could be achieved through service and good actions, devotedness and worship of one God. In his ain manner, Guru Angad Dev was able to take Sikhism to its pinnacle.

4.4.1.1 Harmony between Thought and Action:

Guru Angad Dev was a religious instructor and a adult male of action. He opined that there should be harmoniousness between idea and action and pureness in life. He sermonized, “ Making something unwillingly or making under force per unit area from person, does non convey either virtue or goodness. That entirely is a good title, O Nanak, which is done by one ‘s ain free will ” ( SGGS, p-787 ) . He farther elaborated, “ Persons are known by their actions ; this is the manner it has to be. They should demo goodness, and non be deformed by their actions ; this is how they are called beautiful. Whatever they desire, they shall have ; O Nanak, they become the very image of God ” ( SGGS, p-1245 ) . He continued the thought procedure of Guru Nanak Dev.

4.4.1.2 Upliftment of Society/ Empowering Peoples:

In his clip, Sanskrit was the linguistic communication of the high category Hindus. Thus, its cognition was restricted to them merely. Guru Angad Dev popularised the book of Gurmukhi for the multitudes. He created a separate and distinguishable individuality of the people by giving them their ain linguistic communication, therefore doing them knowing for unhindered growing and development. This helped to raise the morale of the downtrodden and secured the unhampered development and enlargement of Sikhism. Hymns of the Gurus are expressed in Gurmukhi book and present the true significance and message of the Gurus without the range of colored reading. As no state, administration or mission can win without the promotion of the society, so their instruction is indispensable.

4.4.1.3 Emphasis on Physical and Spiritual Growth:

Guru Angad Dev gave huge attending to the instruction of the kids and opened many schools for their direction and therefore increased the figure of literates. He motivated people to take healthy lives. He advocated that higher ends can be attained in life if one is physically fit, as a sound head can be merely in a sound organic structure. For the young person, he started the tradition ofA Mall Akhara, where physical every bit good as religious exercisings were held. Guru Angad Dev was considered a rigorous martinet.

4.4.1.4 Women Authorization:

In the times when adult females were non allowed to travel out of their houses, Guru Angad Dev gave equal position and freedom to his married woman, Mata Khivi. She worked along with Guru Angad Dev and enlarged the function of adult females in the tribunal of the Guru. Her function was alone and radical because adult females were normally non seen in the head of the society.

4.4.1.5 Egalitarianism:

Guru Angad Dev furthered the mission of the first Guru of casteless and classless society in which no 1 was superior or inferior to the other. He advised his followings to abstain from frailties of greed or selfishness since these forced one to encroach upon the rights of others. The establishment of free community kitchen, langar, was maintained and developed by Guru Angad Dev and his married woman personally worked and supervised the community kitchen to advance the credence of societal equality. He besides tried to cut down the spread between the rich and the hapless.

4.4.1.6 Fearlessness:

Guru Angad Dev taught the people to take a righteous and unafraid life by steering them to fear merely God, alternatively of kneeling before work forces. He motivated people by his ain illustration and set a new life and spirit in them by alining himself with the down-trodden and less fortunate people. He said, “ Those who have the Fear of God, have no other frights ; those who do non hold the Fear of God, are really afraid. O Nanak, this enigma is revealed at the Court of the Lord ” ( SGGS, p-788 ) .

4.4.1.7 Ethical motives of Honest Work:

Guru Angad Dev did non populate on the contributions of followings but earned his life by writhing harsh grass into strings used for fingerstalls. A common fund was created for offerings by the followings. Guru Angad exemplified the moralss of honorable work and altruistic service, lending all of his net incomes to the community kitchen.A

4.4.1.8 Sustainability of the Mission:

Guru Angad Dev was the torch carrier of the first Guru and travelled widely and visited all of import spiritual topographic points, prophesying the ideals of Sikhism. He launched a figure of new centres of Sikhism and therefore strengthened and crystallized its base. In this stage, Sikhism established its ain separate spiritual individuality. He besides collected the facts about Guru Nanak Dev ‘s life from Bhai Bala ( Guru ‘s Accompanist ) and wrote the first life of Guru Nanak Dev and was, therefore, instrumental in distributing his ideals. The swayer of that clip, King Hamayun, visited the Guru to seek his approvals.

4.4.1.9 Devotion and Obedience to the Maestro:

Guru Angad Dev was an prototype of devotedness and altruistic service. Guru Nanak Dev chose Guru Angad Dev as his replacement over his boies after proving his devotedness, dedication, doggedness and forbearance. There are many anecdotes of these trials where he excelled and Guru Nanak Dev ‘s boies and his other followings failed to demo obeisance, trueness and devotedness. Once, when, Guru Nanak Dev asked his Sikhs and his boies to transport three packages of grass, which were moistures and muddy, for his cattles and American bisons, Guru Angad Dev was the lone one to obey the maestro and carried the grass bundles on his caput without trouble oneselfing that his apparels were acquiring soiled. Guru Nanak Dev was satisfied with Guru Angad Dev ‘s devotedness and bestowed upon him the Guruship. To this twenty-four hours, Sikhs see the three packages as of import symbols of religious personal businesss, temporal personal businesss and the Guruship ( Duggal, 2010 ) .

4.4.1.10 Meritorious and Impartial Sequence:

Like Guru Nanak Dev, Guru Angad Dev and the consecutive Gurus selected and appointed their replacements on virtue. The Gurus were judged on their religious energy and aptitude to carry through the duties of the mission.A

4.5 GURU AMAR DAS:

Guru Amar Das, the 3rd Sikh Guru, institutionalized the free community kitchen calledA langarA among the Sikhs. He preached the equality of people and tried to promote the thought of adult females ‘s equality. He tried to free adult females from the patterns ofA solitude ( have oning a head covering ) and advocated strongly against the pattern ofA sati, the ritual ofA a Hindu adult female firing herself alive on her hubby ‘s funeral pyre. He was known for his committedness and dedication to the service of the Guru.

4.5.1 Lessons of Managerial Sagacity from the Life History of Guru Amar Das:

Guru Amar Das was a theoretical account of benevolence and kind-heartedness. His instructions were simple. He advocated, “ Do good to others by giving good advice, by puting a good illustration and by ever holding the public assistance of world in your bosom ” ( Dhillon, 1999 ) . He gave the perfect manner of leading implying that a leader should ever be at that place for his followings steering by principle and pattern with the general wellbeing of all as kernel of all determinations.

4.5.1.1 Concept of Pangat and so Sangat:

Guru Amar Das possessed strong organizational accomplishments and he systemized the organisation of community kitchen in a really punctilious manner. He made it compulsory for each of the followings and visitants to foremost hold nutrient from the free kitchen, langar, and so fall in the fold, sangat. Even Emperor Akbar had to stay by this regulation. Emperor Akbar sat for langar with the common adult male and so was allowed to fall in the fold and run into the Guru. He was impressed with this system. Guru Amar Das persuaded Akbar to relinquish off toll-tax ( pilgrim ‘s revenue enhancement ) for non-Muslims while traversing rivers Yamuna and Ganga and Akbar did so ( Ghatage, 2005 ) .

4.5.1.2 Established the Sikh Administration System:

Guru Amar Das established the Manji System to propagate Sikhism in a logical and planned manner. He divided Sikh fold countries into 22 Manjis and a local sermonizer was made in-charge of each Manji. He trained the group of 146 followings, out of which 52 were adult females, to go to to the religious demands of the people. He besides appointed sermonizers called Masands, who went across the state to distribute the Gospel of Sikhism. He specified the codification of behavior for and importance of these couriers in the undermentioned words, “ He entirely is a selfless retainer, who serves the True Guru, and walks in harmoniousness with the True Guru ‘s Will. The True Shabad, the Word of God, is the True Praise of God ; enshrine the True Lord within your head. The Gurmukh speaks the True Word of Gurbani, and self-importance departs from within. He Himself is the Giver, and true are His actions. He proclaims the True Word of the Shabad. The Gurmukh plants, and the Gurmukh earns ; the Gurmukh inspires others to intone the Naam. He is everlastingly unattached, imbued with the Love of the True Lord, intuitively in harmoniousness with the Guru ” ( SGGS, p-753 ) . It was taken as a great measure in decentalisation.

4.5.1.3 Prohibited the Practice of Baseless Rituals:

Guru Amar Das lifted the position of adult females and prohibited the evil patterns of SatiA ( the immolation of the married woman on her hubby ‘s funeral pyre ) , Parrda ( veil to cover the face ) , female infanticide and such immoralities. He advocated widow re-marriage much against the ways of his clip. He envisioned an equal position for adult females common people and worked for it. He braved the unfavorable judgment of the so called high-class people for forbiding baseless and colored rites of the clip.

Embodiment of Compassion:

Guru Aman Das maintained his cool even when incited. He displayed sugariness and humbleness in all fortunes. Once when Datu, boy of Guru Angad Dev, who was frustrated for non acquiring the Guruship, kicked Guru Amar Das with his pes when he was seated on Gurgaddi, the Guru did non express even a individual word of anguish. Rather, he sympathized with him stating that his pes must hold been hurt by his difficult castanetss. Guru Amar Das ever displayed compassion, empathy and kindness towards others ( Duggal, 2010 ) .

Passionate and Avid Worker:

Guru Amar Das adopted Guru Angad Dev as his religious usher at the mature age of 62. He served Guru Angad Dev for twelve old ages with passion and ardor, unparallel in history. He undertook to bring fresh H2O for the Guru ‘s ablutions merely earlier morning from the river Beas, and ne’er failed in his responsibility, be at that place rain or storm. His focal point was on functioning his Guru with unblinking ardor and pure dedication without any subterranean motivation. He was an prototype of service.

Social Duty:

Guru Amar Das constructed Baoli ( deep good ) at Goindwal Sahib, Punjab holding 84 stairss as he realised that the H2O of the Beas river was non fit for human ingestion. This non merely provided safe imbibing H2O to the people but besides helped to make an eco-friendly environment. Baoli at Goindwal became a Sikh pilgrim’s journey Centre for the first clip in the history of Sikhism. It besides helped in hiking the individuality of the new religious order.

4.6 GURU RAM DAS:

Guru Ram Das founded the metropolis of Amritsar in 1574. He standardised the Sikh matrimony ceremonial, known as theA Anand Karaj and stressed the importance ofA anthem vocalizing, which remains an of import portion of Sikh worship even today. He was instrumental in distributing Sikhism in North India and worked for making an organized construction of Sikh society.

Lessons of Managerial Sagacity from the Life History of Guru Ram Das:

Guru Ram Das was a adult male of simple and severe thought and even as a immature male child ; he preferred the company of holy work forces. He was the owner of a expansive spirit of service, delighting manners and refined behavior which made him gain the love of all who came in contact with him.

Centre of Spirituality and Trade:

Guru Ram Das laid the foundation of Amritsar on 13th June, 1577 and called upon the Sikh devotees to do contributions for run intoing the demands of the community kitchen and building of a holy armored combat vehicle, and got overpowering response. The Guru sent his agents to assorted parts of the state to roll up parts for the building of the sanctum armored combat vehicle and care of free kitchens. These agents came to be known as masands. The Guru was called Sacha Padshah. He invited bargainers to settle around the metropolis and the bargainers lief accepted this offer as it suited them due to Amritsar ‘s propinquity to Lahore.

Strengthened the Sikh Administration:

Guru Ram Das was invariably in contact with the Manjis and they became more efficient and effectual under his counsel and leading and as a consequence, the figure of followings of Sikh faith besides increased multiplex under this direction.

Benevolence:

Guru Ram Das used to gain his support by selling poached grains. Bing generous and benevolent by nature, really frequently he would freely give away the poached grains to the needy and the hapless. This property greatly impressed Guru Amar Das.

Fear and Humility:

Guru Ram Das was of a really low and mild temperament. Once when Sri Chand, boy of Guru Nanak Dev, sardonically asked him the ground for featuring a long face fungus, Guru Ram Das replied that it was for cleaning his pess and removed the dust off the pess of Sri Chand with it. Sri Chand was moved by this gesture and blessed him. Guru Ram Das displayed great humbleness and fear and was devoid of frailties of self-importance and arrogance ( Ghatage, 2005 )

4.6.1.7 Veracity and Honesty:

Guru Ram Das advocated and apprehended veracity, earnestness and honestness. He unfailingly attended to the personal amenitiess of Guru Amar Das. Besdies, he was ever willing to give a assisting manus wherever it was needed. He won every bosom with his difficult labor and godliness, including Guru Amar Das himself. It was his devotedness that earned him the manus of Guru ‘s younger girl, Bibi Bhani. Even when, he became the boy in jurisprudence of Guru Amar Das, he continued to be every bit devoted to him as of all time.

4.6.1.8 Social Reformer:

Attempts had been afoot since Guru Nanak ‘s clip to free Hindu society of the rites and chokehold of the priestly classes. The mass of people were soaked in superstitious notions and privileged categories exploited their ignorance. Guru Ram Das introduced societal reforms, peculiarly in the nuptials ceremonial, doing it a simple matter and induing it with the sacrament of the sanctum word. He composed a long verse form in four parts to be recited at the clip of the ceremonial perambulation.

4.7 GURU ARJAN DEV:

Guru Arjan Dev compiled the Adi Granth in 1604. He built a glorious Gurudwara in the center of the holy armored combat vehicle got constructed by Sri Guru Ram Das. This Gurudwara was named Harmandir Sahib. Later on, the English started naming it Golden Temple due to its aureate expression caused by its gold plating by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. He composed the supplication of peace, Sukhmani Sahib. He started the pattern ofA tithe, lending one ten percent of one ‘s net incomes for community intents. Guru Arjan Dev was the first Sikh Guru to be martyred. He was imprisoned and martyred in 1606 by Emperor Jahangir for non amending the Adi Granth, the Sikh sanctum book. Guru Arjan Dev was made to sit on a scorching Fe home base and had boiling sand poured over his organic structure. Guru Arjan Dev bore the hurting and Saturday at that place intoning anthem.

4.7.1 Lessons of Managerial Sagacity from the Life History of Guru Arjan Dev:

Guru Arjan Dev gave a distinguishable individuality to the Sikhs by constructing the Harmandir Sahib at Amritsar and by roll uping the Adi Granth which was later called Sri Guru Granth Sahib. In his martyrdom he conveyed the message to his followings that they must ever confront courageously the immorality, inhuman treatment, subjugation and unfairness. The 4th superb replacement of Guru Nanak Dev, Guru Arjan Dev was a dynamic personality- societal reformist, religious wise man of high order, moral martinet, organiser, a great essayist, a orderer and a exhaustively witting being devoted to the cause of truth on Earth. Because of his achievements and devotedness to the higher causes, he grew to be the cynosure of the people and a force to think with ( Gandhi, 2007 ) .

4.7.1.1 Harmandir Sahib, the Symbol of Tolerance towards All:

Guru Arjan Dev taught tolerance and regard for all faiths and castes. He invited Mian Mir, a Muslim Saint, to put the foundation of the Harmandir Sahib at Amritsar. The edifice was designed in such a manner that it had doors in all waies which signified its credence of all the four castes and every Religion.

4.7.1.2 Compilation of the Text of Wisdom for Generations to Come:

Guru Arjan Dev compiled the anthem of the predating four Gurus in their original signifier in the signifier of a Bible known as Adi Granth or Pothi Sahib, thereby continuing the hoarded wealth of great wisdom for the future coevalss and airing of the religious cognition. At the same clip, it threw visible radiation on the modern-day political and societal life. And most of all, he wanted to set up the credibleness of the Sikh Religion as a casteless and secular society. Laced among the Hymns of the earlier Nanaks, he added his ain composings every bit good as the heavenly vocalizations of Sheikh Farid, and Bhagat Kabir, Bhagat Ravi Das, Dhanna Namdev, Ramannand, Jai Dev, Trilochan, Beni, Pipa, Surdas and some others. All these saints belong to different times, beliefs, religious orders, and castes from high and low.

4.7.1.3 Knowledge and Acumens:

Guru Arjan Dev compiled Adi Granth in a systemized manner, taking attention of the mixture of lingual constructions and harmonisation of Godhead idea. He had complete cognition and acumen for the undertaking he undertook. Sri Guru Granth Sahib is a godly poetic composing set in a systematic mode, with a consecutive order in the quoting of anthem, of usage of ragas, of poetic signifier and sequence of the subscribers.

4.7.1.4 Acknowledgement and Appreciation of Effort:

Guru Arjan Dev emphasized that modest and altruistic service of followings should be acknowledged. On the completion of Harmandir Sahib he honoured the dedicated and low profile adherent Bhai Banno for his effortsA by puting the first platter of the banquet before him.

4.7.1.5 Value of Good Company:

Guru Arjan Dev exemplified the value of good company because it had good a consequence on the temperament of the individual. He observed, “ In the company of saints, adult male learns how to turn enemies into friends, as he becomes wholly free from immorality, and bears malice to none. In the company of the good, there is no sheering from the way, no looking down upon anybody as immorality. Man sees all unit of ammunition him the Lord of Supreme Joy, and liberating himself from the hectic sense of ego, wantonnesss all pride. Such is the efficaciousness of family with a holy adult male, whose illustriousness is known merely to the Lord: The retainer of the ideal is kindred to his Maestro ” ( SGGS, p-271 ) .

4.7.1.6 Protector of Needy and Healer of Sick:

Guru Arjan Dev ever heeded to the demands of the sick, the hapless and the helpless. He took particular attention of the lazars who were treated as outcastes by the society and non cared for even by their ain relations. He personally took attention of the lazars and provided them with medical specialties and dressings. All the Sikhs followed the illustration of the Guru and assisted him in the attention of bounders.

4.7.1.7 Masand System and Concept of Daswand:

Guru Arjan Dev reorganized the system of Masands ( missionaries ) and directed his followings to lend tenth part of their net incomes for the societal and spiritual causes which was collected by the Masands. The construct was to portion net incomes of the more fortunate people with the less fortunate people and dispersed prosperity amongst all.

4.7.1.8 Cultivation of Skills:

Guru Arjan Dev called upon his followings to larn Equus caballus siting to efficaciously contend the conflict of freedom against the onslaughts of Emperor Jahangir as he could visualise the at hand times. He encouraged them to take up Equus caballus trading as a profession. He wanted his followings to be ready for all types of eventualities and state of affairss.

4.7.1.9 Humility in Character:

Guru Arjan Dev emphasized the worth of unimportance and humbleness. He opined that people should non allow pride and self-importance overtake their good sense. Guru Arjan Dev said, “ Among all individuals, the supreme individual is the 1 who gives up his narcissistic pride in the Company of the Holy. One, who sees himself as lowly, shall be accounted as the highest of all. One, whose head is the dust of all, recognizes the Name of the Lord, Har, Har, in each and every bosom. One who eradicates inhuman treatment from within his ain head, looks upon the full universe as his friend ” ( SGGS, p-266 ) .

4.7.1.10 Personification of Tolerance:

Guru Arjan Dev was an prototype of spiritual tolerance. Emperor Jahangir could non digest the lifting celebrity of Guru. He ordered Guru to take certain transitions from the Adi Granth, which he felt were obnoxious to Muslims. On the Guru ‘s refusal to make so, he tortured the Guru but the Guru bore all the tortures calmly. He did non express even a suspiration of heartache. Neither did he show any choler against those who were tormenting him. He remained engrossed in the godly recollection of God and repeated, “ Sweet is your will, O God ; the gift of your name entirely I seek. ” ( Duggal, 2005 )

GURU HARGOBIND:

Guru Hargobind transformed the Sikhs by presenting soldierly humanistic disciplines and arms for the defence of the multitudes. He put on two blades – one signifyingA Miri, temporal power, and otherA piri, religious power. He donned the garb of a soldier to contend against the atrociousnesss of the Mughal swayers. He fought four conflicts with the Mughal swayers who were coercing people to change over into Muslims. He was imprisoned in the garrison of Gwalior for one twelvemonth. When he was released, he insisted that his 52 fellow captives, who were Rajput male monarchs, should besides be set free. To tag this juncture, the Sikhs celebrate Bandi Chod Divas which coincides with the celebrated Indian festival, Diwali. He besides built the Akal Takht in 1608 at Amritsar in Punjab.

4.8.1 Lessons of Managerial Sagacity from the Life History of Guru Hargobind:

Guru Hargobind was really courageous and benevolent. He was advanced and make bolding as he introduced the construct of saint-soldier and was known as True male monarch, Sacha Patshah. Guru Arjan Dev trained Guru Hargobind in linguistic communications, doctrine, uranology, medical specialty, scientific discipline and public disposal, along with preparation in soldierly art and horse-riding. He became popular for his concern for the underprivileged and the vulnerable.

4.8.1.1 New Turn to Sikh Way of Life:

Guru Hargobind was a great pioneer and changed with the altering times and state of affairss. He converted saints into saint-soldiers, thereby giving a new bend to the faith of Sikhism. He set upon the mission of doing Sikh community brave and autonomous and fixing his followings against dictatorship and subjugation. He girded two blades, one typifying the religious authorization ( piri ) and the other temporal power ( Miri ) ( Bhalla, 2002 ) . He directed of his saint-soldiers to be extremely cultured, morally virtuous, utilizing the blade merely for protection of righteousness and for self-defence

4.8.1.2 Defined Seat of Temporal Authority:

Guru Hargobind built Akal Takhat, the supreme place of temporal authorization, in the Harmandir Sahib composite. At this place, he deliberated on secular affairs and specified that Golden Temple was for religious counsel. Here the Guru held his tribunal, received envoys, settled differences, administered justness and decided affairs of military scheme and policy ( Jugraj Singh, 2009 ) .

4.8.1.3 Combat Oppression and Injustice:

Guru Hargobind opined that one should non originate the battle but when faced with unfairness and subjugation, one should take appropriate reaction. This was the ground Guru Hargobind resorted to a new manner of life. When questioned about his move, he reasoned that in the altering times, the hapless and the downtrodden demand to be protected. Bhai Budha, excessively, on seeing the immature Guru in military harness mildly remonstrated him. The Guru replied, “ It is through thine intercession I obtained birth ; and it is in fulfillment of thy approval I wear two blades as emblems of religious and temporal authorization. In the Guru ‘s house, faith and worldly enjoyment shall be combined- the cauldron to provide the hapless and destitute and the scimitar to smite oppressors ” ( Macauliffe, 1989 ) .

Emphasis on Military Training:

Feeling the difficult times in front and on the direction from his male parent, Guru Arjan Dev, Guru Hargobind started developing his followings in soldierly art and directed them to donate Equus caballuss and arms along with contributions to free kitchen. He laid down a rigorous modus operandi for himself and his soldiers, get downing from supplications in early hours of the forenoon ; so continuing to exert and pattern of soldierly art and horse-riding. He was a rigorous undertaking maestro and was extremely disciplined.

4.8.1.5 Considerate and Empathetic:

Guru Hargobind ‘s encouragement to his Sikhs to be good versed in physical and arms developing made Emperor Jahagir insecure and he ordered the imprisonment of the Guru. But subsequently recognizing his error, he ordered release of the Guru to which Guru Hargobind refused and asked for release of unjustly imprisoned male monarchs along with him, thereby demoing his concern for others.

4.9 GURU HAR RAI:

Guru Har Rai continued the military traditions started by his gramps, Guru Hargobind. He maintained the honor of Sri Guru Granth Sahib by declining to modify its contents. During his clip, Sikhism became more popular and stronger. The Guru passed on the Guruship to his boy, Guru Harkrishan, when the latter was at the age of merely five.

4.9.1 Lessons of Managerial Sagacity from the Life History of Guru Har Rai:

Guru Har Rai was compassionate and merciful and possessed the cognition of medical specialty. Keeping gait with the times, he furthered the military traditions and maintain 2200 mounted soldiers at all times. Guru Har Rai was good versed in linguistic communications, swordsmanship, archery and horse-riding. He was a pious, polite and soft-hearted individual and dedicated his life to the service of world and was ever immersed in the speculation of God ‘s Name.

4.9.1.1 Environmental Sensitivity:

For every sapling he trampled upon by opportunity, Guru Har Rai used to a works sapling. He was sensitive since childhood. Once as a kid while he was walking through the garden, a delicate subdivision with flowers got entangled to his fluxing frock and some flowers got trampled.A Guru Har Rai ‘s bosom was pained by this incident and he became witting of his milieus.

4.9.1.2 Human-centered Service:

Guru Har Rai used to be given the sick. For this intent, he started a dispensary and employed two doctors. This installation was available to all free of cost. The medical specialties were prepared from the herbs brought from mountains. This fact became celebrated far and near. Once when Emperor Shah Jahan ‘s boy, Dara Shikoh, got ill, he was cured by Guru Har Rai.

4.9.1.3 Self-dependent:

Guru Har Rai believed in self-dependence and autonomy in the running of his missions. Once when Dara Shikoh offered some land for community kitchen, Guru Har Rai courteously refused the offer, stating that with the grace of God, the caissons of the community kitchen will ever be sufficiently stocked.A

4.9.1.4 Prerequisites of Good Administration:

Guru Har Rai while reding the male monarchs of hill provinces on the art of proficient and efficient administration stated the requirements of good administration. He preached to the Kings, “ Do non demo off merely because you are male monarchs. It is non good to problem the people. Do non run every which way, because you have got the power. Do non destroy everything in lecherousness. Peoples are the roots of a land. Do non axe the roots. The male monarchs, who harass their people, merely ache their roots. The gross income should be used for the public assistance of the populace. Dig Wellss and pools, unfastened schools and concept choultries. One should work for the faith ” ( Ghatage, 2005 ) .

4.9.1.5 Disciplined Way of Life:

Guru Har Rai was a steadfast martinet. He counselled his followings to stay by a rigorous codification of life and follow the manner shown by Bhai Gurdas. A true Sikh arises before the dark terminals and turns his ideas to God ‘s Name, to charity and sanctum bathing.A He speaks meekly and meekly he walks. He wishes everyone good and he is happy to give away gifts from his hand.A Therefore, he receives the Guru ‘s true direction. He sleeps but a small and a small does he eat and talk.A He lives by the labor of his custodies and he does good workss. Howsoever, eminent he may go, he demonstrates non himself. He sings God ‘s congratulationss in the company of holy work forces. Such company he seeks dark and twenty-four hours. Upon Word is his head fixed and he delights in the Guru ‘s Will. Un-enticed he lives in the universe of temptations.

4.9.1.6 Trust in Followings:

Guru Har Rai, while delegating undertakings to his fans, trusted them wholly. He used to give clear and luxuriant instructions for transporting out the work assigned. He had a sincere fan, Bhai Gonda who had the temperament of a saint. Sending him on a mission Guru said, “ O Bhai Gonda, travel 1000 to Kabul, instruct the Sikhs there in the worship of the true Name, and preach the Sikh religion. Feed holy work forces and pilgrims with offerings 1000s receive, and direct what remaineth for the care of my kitchen. These are thy responsibilities, and I am confident that 1000 wilt dispatch them ” ( Macauliffe, 1989 ) .

4.10 GURU HAR KRISHAN:

Guru Har Krishan was bestowed with Guruship at the age of five. He cured the sick during a smallpox epidemic in Delhi. Gurdwara Bangla Sahib in New Delhi was constructed in the Guru ‘s memory as he had stayed at that place during his visit to Delhi. Before Guru Har krishan died of variola at the age of eight, he nominated his great-uncle, Guru Tegh Bahadur, as the following Guru of the Sikhs.

4.10.1 Lessons of Managerial Sagacity from the Life History of Guru Har Krishan:

Guru Har Krishan was a individual of assurance, shrewdness and intelligence. Even though he attained Guruship at a really stamp age, he commanded great regard and fear of fans of the Sikh faith and general multitudes due to his puzzling personality. He dedicated his life for the wellbeing of the people.

4.10.1.1 Born Leader and Divine Spirit:

Guru Har Krishan was a godly leader bestowed with intelligence, mature wisdom, compassion and wellbeing of people at bosom. Bhai Santokh Singh observes that Guru Har Krishan, though little in age, was like the Sun, which may look little in early hours of the twenty-four hours but emits light everyplace. Once when he was in Delhi as invitee of Raja Jai Singh, he visited the emperor ‘s tribunal. The emperor, desiring to prove the Guru, offered him two big trays. One of these displayed decorations, apparels and playthings and the other had in it a holy adult male ‘s cloak. Guru Har Krishan declined the tray incorporating decorations and apparels, and accepted the one incorporating the cloak. The emperor was convinced of his sanctity and spiritual-being.

4.10.1.2 Intelligence and Astuteness:

Guru Har Krishan was really intelligent, crisp and celebrated for his mind. Raja Jai Singh and his Queen planned to prove his intelligence and mental ability and harmonizing to one of the versions, Raja Jai Singh requested him to place the existent queen out of the otherwise dressed ladies present at that place. Guru, due to his acuteness of head and shrewdness, could easy

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