Cranial Nerves Flashcards, test questions and answers
Discover flashcards, test exam answers, and assignments to help you learn more about Cranial Nerves and other subjects. Don’t miss the chance to use them for more effective college education. Use our database of questions and answers on Cranial Nerves and get quick solutions for your test.
What is Cranial Nerves?
The cranial nerves are a set of 12 pairs of nerves that originate from the brain stem. They carry sensory, motor and autonomic signals to and from the brain to all parts of the body. They are responsible for a variety of functions ranging from vision, hearing, taste and smell to controlling facial movements, eye movements and pupil dilation.The first pair is the olfactory nerve which carries information about smell from receptor cells in the nose to the brain. The second pair is the optic nerve which carries visual information from receptors in the eyes to the brain. The third pair is termed as oculomotor nerve which controls most eye muscles as well as pupil size. The fourth pair is known as trochlear nerve which controls movement of one eye muscle in particular called superior oblique muscle. The fifth pair is trigeminal nerve responsible for sensation on areas such as face, mouth and teeth along with some control over chewing muscles too.The sixth pair is known as abducens nerves which control lateral gaze by contraction of certain muscles around eyes allowing us look sideways without moving our head. The seventh paired facial nerve allows us sense taste on front two thirds of tongue along with helping us talk by controlling facial muscles like those involved in smiling or frowning etc. Eighth cranial nerve (vestibulocochlear) helps us maintain balance while also transmitting sound signals from inner ear to brain. Ninth (glossopharyngeal) sends taste sensations to back part of tongue along with carrying some information related to swallowing process. Tenth (vagus) regulates many organs like heart rate and digestion, eleventh (accessory) carries motor signals for shoulder shrugging movement whereas twelfth (hypoglossal) helps move tongue forward or backward. In conclusion cranial nerves play an important role in normal functioning of human body through transmission of sensory, motor inputs/outputs between head/neck area and rest parts like torso or arms etc., hence any damage or disease related issues in these can cause significant impairments in our daily life activities depending upon severity level so it’s very important we take good care about them.