Microbiology Exam 5 Test Questions

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How are most CNS infections caused?
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Result from trauma, an anatomic defect, or an infection elsewhere
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True or False: Depending on age of the patient and the etiologic agent, some may cause permanent brain damage
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True
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What is encephalitis
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Inflammation of the brain
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What is inflammation of the meninges (or spinal fluid between them) called?
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Meningitis
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Describe the anatomy of the brain
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Inside the skull; nerves and blood vessels enter, separated from tissues by the blood-brain barrier; ventricles, spaces filed with fluid inside the brain; cranial nerves enervate the head directly
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Describe the anatomy of the meninges
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Three membranes, the dura is the outer membrane, with spinal fluid between the pia and the arachnoid membranes
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Describe the anatomy of the peripheral nerves
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Motor nerves run from the spinal cord to the muscles in the body; Sensory nerves run from the tissues to the spinal cord
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What is the clear colorless fluid that is derived from blood, produced by the ventricles and feeds the CNS
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Cereberospinal fluid
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Describe the circulation of the CSF
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Flows from the ventricles out the brain base, around the brain, down the spinal cord and back up to the brain, where it is reabsorbed
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Give an example of a virus that can travel along the nerve axons
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Rabies
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Give an example of a disease that can remain latent in the nerve ganglia
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Herpes viruses
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How can Herpes infect the brain
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Via nerves
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True or False: Infections of the skull, sinus, middle ear, mastoids, skull factures, nasopharyngeal colonization can all lead to CNS infections
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True
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Describe the etiology of Streptococcus agalactiae
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Neonatal period (<1 month); maternal vaginal flora, sepsis causes meningitis
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What form of bacterial meningitis is now rare due to the vaccine given to children at 2,4, and 6 months
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Haemphilus influenzae
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What is the fastest progressing meningitidis, common in college students?
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Neisseria meningitidis
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What are the symptoms of Neisseria meningitidis?
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Produces fever, headache, with a petechial rash
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True or False: Neisseria meningitidis has a vaccine that is conjugated to a protein
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True
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What type of meningitis effects all age groups
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Streptococcus pneumoniae
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What type of meningitis is caused by foodborne microorganisms
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Listeria monocytogenes
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Describe the pathogenesis of Bacterial meningitis
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Direct spread from the nasopharynx, sinustitis, otitis, or bacteremia
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What are the symptoms of bacterial meningitis
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Headache, fever, stiff neck
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How is meningitis diagnosed?
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With a spinal tap; do Gram stain, culture, antigen tests, PCR, measure white blood cells, glucose and protein
Bacterial meningitis should show bacteria, WBCs, low glucose and high protein
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How is Bacterial meningitis treated?
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All 5 bacterial types respond to high-dose IV ceftriaxone
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Which types of bacterial meningitis have vaccines?
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H.influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, S. pneumoniae
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Mycobacterium leprea is an infection of what?
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The peripheral nerves
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What does Mycobacterium leprae (Leprosy) look like in tissues
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M. tuberculosis
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Where is leprosy common?
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In tropical countries
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True or False: Leprosy can be cultured in armadillos
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true
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What type of tissue does mycobacterium leprae prefer?
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Cooler tissues such as the nose, fingers, or toes
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What are some symptoms of leprosy
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The patient looses sensation in the affected areas; injury and immune response destroys tissues
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How long is the incubation period for leprosy
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3 years
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How is leprosy treated
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WIth 6 months of antibiotics
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What group do most viral meningitis viruses belong to
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Enterovirus group; RNA
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Describe the epidemiology of viral meningitis
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Common in summer, fecal-oral spread, by swimming in contaminated water
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Describe the pathogenesis of viral meningitis
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Virus is swallowed, absorbed, viremia, causes a mild, self-limiting meningitis
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True or False: A positive test for viral meningitis will show no bacteria, normal glucose and protein
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True
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Is there a vaccine for viral encephalitis?
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No, not for humans
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What organ does Arthropod-borne viral encephalitis affect
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the brain
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When and where was the first case of West Nile Virus?
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Retired people in Central Park, NYC in 1999, probably imported from Israel
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How did West Nile spread across the US
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Each season from East to West
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What is Polio
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A GI virus that attacks the motor nerves, causes paralysis
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How is Polio spread
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Contaminated water
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How was the epidemic of Polio in the US solved
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Chlorinated drinking water
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What was the therapy for Polio
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the “iron lung”
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How is Rabies transmitted?
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To humans through animal bites
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Describe the pathogenesis of Rabies
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Enters the motor nerve at the nerve-muscle junction, follows the nerve up to the brain, multiplies in the brain to cause encephalitis, high mortality at this stage
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What is the treatment for Rabies
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Immune globulin
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What microorganism causes cryptococcal meningitis
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Cryptococcus (Filobasidiella) neoformans
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Where is cryptococcus neoformans commonly found
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common in soil
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True or False: Cryptocococcus neoformans are encapsulated and killed by lung macrophages
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False
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Within what type of patients is cryptococcal meningitis common
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AID;immunocompromised
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What are the signs and symptoms of cryptococcal meningitis
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Slow progression of headache, dizziness, weight loss, fever
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What is the treatment for cryptococcal meningitis
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IV amphotericin B
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What are Naegleria fowleri?
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free-living amoeba in water
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How is Naegleria fowleri acquired?
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swimming in water without chlorine
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What does Naegleria fowleri cause
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Meningoencephalitis
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What is another name for Trypanosomiasis
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African Sleeping Sickness
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What causes African Sleeping Sickness
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Trypanosoma spp;
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Where is the reservoir for ASS
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In wild animals, spread by Tsetse fly
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What are the signs and symptoms of ASS
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Slow progressive fevers, loss of mental activity, come and death
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What causes Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy
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Prions
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What happens to patients with transmissible spongiform encaphopathy
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slow, chronic, degenerative destruction of brain tissue
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What is transmissible spongiform encephalopathy called in sheep? In elk? In cows?
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Scrapie; chronic wasting disease; mad cow

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