Womens In Turkey Throughout History Sociology Essay Example
Womens In Turkey Throughout History Sociology Essay Example

Womens In Turkey Throughout History Sociology Essay Example

Available Only on StudyHippo
  • Pages: 8 (2012 words)
  • Published: August 28, 2017
  • Type: Research Paper
View Entire Sample
Text preview

The main focus of this study is the decision-making process that adult females in Turkish society undergo when they attempt to balance their responsibilities towards family and career. The increase in female labor force participation has been observed in developed countries, whereas developing countries like Turkey are experiencing a decline. Women's engagement with the labor force varies between rural and urban areas, presenting significant challenges. To understand these challenges, factors such as societal norms, gender discrimination, lack of education, and urbanization have been studied. Despite some progress made on gender equality and access to education for Turkish women, there exist substantial barriers that hinder educated women from finding work and negatively impact female labor force participation. This research aims to highlight how cultural norms dictate that women should stay home to care for their families while ur


banization has led many Turkish women to lose their jobs after relocating from rural to urban areas. Furthermore, those who wear headscarves find it difficult to complete higher education or secure employment in public places due to these norms.Women who only have primary or secondary education face difficulties in securing employment because of gender bias, resulting in lower pay compared to men holding similar positions. Despite the increasing rates of female education, many women still encounter discrimination when job hunting. This situation is exacerbated by societal practices that favor adult males for security and retirement benefits. Nevertheless, educated females in Istanbul began advocating for women's rights during the fall of the Ottoman Empire. Subsequently, progress was made with the implementation of Tanzimat reforms that enabled Ottoman women to demand equality with regards to access to education, work opportunities an

View entire sample
Join StudyHippo to see entire essay

abolition of polygamy up until 1923 when establishment of the Turkish Republic transformed feminist movement into Kemalist modernization movement. Fortunately, polygamy was banned and equal rights were granted regarding divorce and inheritance while voting rights and local office holding were extended to women in 1930; however, gender disparity persisted leading women's movements took action against male violence and harassment through public protests during the 1980s.The government established "the General Directorate for Status and Problems of Women" in 1990 as part of their efforts towards addressing these issues.Turkey has been party to the Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women since 1985.In 1993, Tansu Ciller made history as Turkey's first female Prime Minister. Later, the country appointed its first female President to the Constitutional Court. Although some strides have been made towards gender equality in Turkey such as equal rights for men and women granted in 2004 and the minimum age for marriage raised to 18, Islamic headscarves remain prohibited in state offices, schools, and universities. This is despite over a fifth of Turkish women wearing them. Political progress has been made regarding female representation; however only about 14% were elected after the latest general election which remains low compared to past years (10.9% in 1975 and 16.3% in 2006). Women face multiple challenges related to education, employment, and social security with cities having just a small percentage of managerial positions held by women (5.58%). Additionally, across the country's combined governors there is only one woman serving as governor Violence against women continues to be a concerning issue with reported murders increasing from 66 in 2002 to an alarming count of953 seven years

later .Women living rurally may experience forced marriage or violence including honor killings but also enjoy more job opportunities than their urban counterparts.Education presents significant obstacles for Turkish women overall but particularly those residing rural areas where adult illiteracy rates are high and growing.It is shocking to learn that half of adolescent girls aged between 15-19 are not attending school or participating in the workforce. The female labor force participation rate in Turkey falls below the EU average, with only an estimated 28% of women being involved. Although almost a quarter of adult females have been pressured to quit their jobs by partners or spouses, around half believe that economic independence is unnecessary. Furthermore, approximately four-fifths of rural-based women lack any form of social security coverage in Turkey compared to Saudi Arabia and Iran where more significant numbers participate actively in the workforce. Traditional values still promote early marriages resulting in up to fifty percent occurring before age eighteen, especially among those residing within eastern or central Anatolia regions. Despite this, the government provides social security for women who require medical assistance and allows them to have abortions within ten weeks as well as file for divorce under the Civil Code. However, female labor force participation has significantly decreased from 72 percent in 1955 to 26 percent in 2000 resulting in disparities between urban and rural areas. Factors such as urbanization contribute to high unemployment rates despite economic growth and increases in female education levels. The Marshall Plan aimed at improving infrastructure which led to more movement of people and goods/services.The process of urbanization in Turkey has led to the loss of unpaid jobs for

women, such as agriculture and home production/volunteering. However, despite this shift towards urban areas, there has not been a corresponding increase in job opportunities for married adult females. As a result, female employment has decreased in Turkey's cities. In rural markets, male dominance in education and higher-paying jobs after leaving agricultural work has also contributed to declining female labor force engagement over the past two decades. The level of education is an essential factor affecting female participation rates - educated women are better able to balance work and family responsibilities at higher levels. Women with low levels of education face significant economic and cultural obstacles when trying to join the workforce during urbanization processes. In 2006, only 19.9% of women participated as part of the labor force within urban areas. However, this figure was substantially higher (69.8%) for educated women; furthermore, there was a noticeable difference among educational statuses: primary-educated women had just a 13.3% participation rate while those with secondary education had slightly increased rates at 15.3%.The challenges faced by women in the workforce include poor working conditions, long hours, low pay, and a lack of affordable childcare options that allow them to manage household responsibilities while prioritizing caregiving duties. Women with inadequate education often find themselves in informal sector jobs with little compensation compared to more formalized roles. In Turkey specifically, traditional beliefs lead many women to leave their jobs due to inadequate pay and a lack of government-supported childcare facilities. Only 3.3% of employed women use these establishments while others rely on family members for help. Additionally, elderly care is typically assigned to women in Turkey which further hinders their ability to

work as there are not enough establishments catering for both children and the elderly simultaneously. Despite older people preferring living with their children, this option is not always possible due to insufficient facilities being available in Turkey. Muslim women who wear headscarves also face difficulties finding employment due to cultural and religious beliefs which makes it challenging for them even after graduation from school or securing public sector positions such as teaching jobs. Marital status also influences the LFP (Labor Force Participation) of women in Turkey.Married and single women prioritize different aspects of employment. Women with children prioritize jobs that allow them to care for their kids, while single women seek jobs with health insurance and retirement benefits. Men have higher engagement rates than married women, but widowed women have the lowest rates. In 2000, urban married women had an LFP rate of approximately 13%, whereas rural married women had a rate of around 41%. However, divorced urban women have high engagement rates as they need to support their families and children. Turkey shifted its industrialization policy from import substitution to an export strategy in 1980 which led house proprietors creating small companies that employed lower-paid women who could work from home to reduce costs. This allowed them to earn money but also meant working longer hours and earning lower wages. Despite having higher levels of education than men in recent years, women still face challenges in male-dominated workplaces where men hold better-paid jobs with more benefits. Economic theory suggests that higher female wages have positive permutation effects but negative income effects on female labor force engagement as the need for wives to work decreases

when husbands receive higher wages. Additionally, the pay differences between men and women within the same industry result in fewer working hours for females overall compared to males.Divorced or single women have been found to earn more than their married counterparts, and job experience plays a lesser role in female income compared to additional years on the job for males. Nonetheless, highly educated women actively seek opportunities to work and provide better lives for their children. It is crucial for the government to increase female wages as it encourages more women to pursue higher education and career growth. This could potentially lead to better educational outcomes for future generations since investing in highly educated mothers has been linked with positive impacts on daughters' education investments.

In Turkey's labor market structure, wage employment is deemed more lucrative than self-employment. Self-employed workers made up 43.8% of the male labor force while wage earners were at 20.5% in 1955; however, by 1990, self-employment had decreased substantially to 30.7%, while wage employment rose significantly to 50.1%. Unfortunately, daughters often receive less attention when it comes to education investments; thus investing in highly educated mothers could positively impact future generations.

Despite delayed marriage due to employment opportunities and support from spouses, various factors such as urbanization, societal norms, cultural beliefs surrounding gender roles and pay gaps still greatly affect Turkey's female workforce even though many highly educated Turkish women now have jobs.The migration of rural women to cities has resulted in a decrease in employment options for females. While men find work in industry due to educational advantages, many women lose their agricultural jobs. Education plays a critical role in decreasing the

female labor force; families that did not educate their daughters create difficulties finding jobs during migration due to lack of experience and qualifications. Economic pressures forced women into low-paying jobs without social security, causing them to exit work when their husbands earned more money. Cultural expectations on married women limit education options and job opportunities as they are expected to care for family members at home after marriage. Women challenging traditional beliefs by earning their own income struggle with decision-making independence about their lives.

Additionally, the lack of developed preschools makes it difficult for married women in Turkey to balance work with childcare upon having children forcing them either to abandon their jobs or seek childcare arrangements elsewhere.Despite the desire for help, some women face opposition from their husbands and difficulty finding flexible work hours..This challenge is further complicated by wearing a headscarf which can limit job opportunities in public institutions and restrict flexibility in private establishments.The gender pay gap discourages women from continuing to work despite having higher education levels than men.Women often earn lower salaries compared to men in the same profession and are denied access to benefits like social security, retirement plans, and income for dependent children. These challenges lead many women to choose staying at home over seeking outside employment. Cultural factors also play a role in this decision-making process; women who grew up with non-working mothers may view working as unnecessary or against tradition while societal pressures keep highly educated Turkish women at home even if they have options for caregiving support. Husbands may discourage their wives from working due to concerns about infidelity and perceived threats to their decision-making power

if their wives earn money. Many Turkish women do not feel compelled to work since their husbands can financially support the family, but gender pay disparity within Turkey dissuades female employment because of lower wages compared to men's wages in similar professions with less favorable working conditions overall. Despite earning less than their husbands, many women opt to leave the workforce entirely in order to look after their children at home due to high costs associated with working outside of the home, such as childcare and cleaning services that outweigh any benefits gained from employment.

Get an explanation on any task
Get unstuck with the help of our AI assistant in seconds