Female Foeticide Is Truly A Curse Sociology Essay Example
Female Foeticide Is Truly A Curse Sociology Essay Example

Female Foeticide Is Truly A Curse Sociology Essay Example

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  • Pages: 10 (2640 words)
  • Published: September 22, 2017
  • Type: Research Paper
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Female foeticide is a prevalent issue in Indian society and is mentioned in Atharva Vedic literature. This harmful practice occurs due to the preference for male children and has resulted in the alarming crime of aborting female fetuses through ultrasound scans. Consequently, India faces the grim reality of declining sex ratios as mothers, under pressure from various sources such as their husbands, in-laws, or even their own parents, deliberately engage in these acts.

Despite advancements for women after independence, negative perceptions and biased attitudes towards females still persist. The lack of sufficient dowries also contributes to the killing of over 6000 women each year by their in-laws (UNICEF, 2000). This issue is part of a broader set of urgent concerns identified by UNICEF that includes female foeticide, female infanticide, malnutrition, illiteracy, child marriage, dowry torments, and dowry deaths.

In Afghanistan, Ma


jumdar (2008) expresses concerns regarding human rights violations like Taliban kidnappings, assaults beatings threats insults and torture that jeopardize people's security and dignity. According to UN statistics reported in 2007, there were 1500 civilian deaths in Afghanistan.

Mander (2008) argues against employing manual scavengers to clean human waste since it violates the law.Both public and private institutions continue the practice of manual scavenging, despite its insecure nature. Manual scavengers feel ashamed and afraid of losing their only source of support, which traps them in a cycle of stigma, segregation, poor health, and education. To cope with this situation, they often turn to destructive mechanisms such as alcohol and drugs.

According to Fuller (2008), xenophobic violence in South Africa led to an increase in violence against women. This resulted in over 50 deaths, hundreds of injuries, and thousands being displaced

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Many instances of sexual violence were used as a means to control and punish women who preferred foreign men.

In Bangladesh, the imposition of emergency rule by the caretaker government resulted in curtailment of civil rights and various human rights violations. While initially accepted by some, there is now widespread apprehension among the population.

Veisskopf (2006) reports that every country in South Asia has racial or ethnic communities whose well-being is significantly lower than that of the overall population based on social and economic indicators. In order to address these long-standing disadvantages faced by marginalized communities, several states have implemented policies that favor underrepresented cultural communities for desirable positions in society.(2007) delve into the topic of corruption and its impact on human rights. They discuss how corruption can lead to various violations of civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights. The authors highlight the significance of addressing these issues from a human rights perspective.

In their analysis, Rajkumar (2006) notes that the National Human Rights Commission has examined corruption as a human rights concern for the first time. The author emphasizes that the gravity of human rights violations resulting from corrupt practices is comparable to other forms of violation such as physical force or infringement on various rights.

Rastogi and Therly (2006) address multiple societal issues including domestic violence, sexual harassment, bonded labor, poverty, and police misconduct and torture. Their aim is to explore the ongoing discrimination faced by women in society and how education empowers them in fighting against dowry practices. Additionally, they discuss the challenges women continue to encounter.

Kaarthikeyan (2005) explores several topics such as poverty, gender equality, and children's rights. He highlights the role of law

enforcement in protecting human rights with a specific focus on terrorist acts. The author stresses that ensuring fair justice and enforcing laws within their limits are crucial for a well-functioning society.

Chaudhary (2005) argues for an interconnectedness between human rights and poverty but acknowledges that poverty is not the sole form of human rights violation. These violations have historical, contextual, global, and local causes according to Chaudhary.

Malhotra et al. (2007) further examine corruption's impact on human rights. They emphasize addressing these issues from a human rights perspective due to their significant consequences on civil,political,economic,social,and cultural aspectsAccording to (2005), human rights violations occur daily in various forms within a country, despite constitutional safeguards. The text highlights numerous infringements such as the violation of civil and political rights, discrimination against minorities, women, and marginalized groups. It also mentions arbitrary arrests and torture leading to death while in police custody, female infanticide, killings of activists during police custody, religious violence, child labor, cultural killings, and kidnappings for ransom.

Additionally, it emphasizes that the degradation or pollution of the environment itself constitutes a violation of human rights. Those who pollute or destroy nature not only commit a crime against nature but also violate human rights. Poverty is described as denying or violating basic human rights as it undermines one's dignity. Instead of being viewed as a natural occurrence, poverty should be seen as a violation of human rights that manifests in various ways.

The text further states that these violations are increasing daily at an alarming rate and affecting people both internally and externally. Human rights violations are regarded as one of society's most distressing problems today because any form of violence

contrary to accepted social norms and equality for all individuals is regressive (Shamsi 2004; Sharma 2002; Narain 2005).Terrorism is a global violation of human behavior that disregards the value of life (Stephen 2002). It is necessary to respond creatively in everyday life to overcome human rights violations, particularly those relating to women's empowerment through education. Historically, society has not viewed education as a means to empower women holistically but rather as a prerequisite for successful marriage and the attainment of social and economic freedom.

The objectives of this survey are multifaceted. They aim to analyze the behavior of both literate and illiterate women in reducing female foeticide, identify key factors contributing to this issue, examine its impact on sex ratios, and explore strategies for its reduction. To achieve these objectives, personal interviews with 50 women from JAGADHRI have been conducted using judgment sampling. Data from newspapers, magazines, and websites has also been collected. Data analysis focuses on comparing the actions of educated and uneducated women towards reducing female foeticide. The questions asked during the interviews are categorized according to literacy level and cover topics such as marital status, family situation, and reasons behind female foeticide.

In society's perception, determining a child's gender is often attributed to God; however, if the gender is known before birth, preferences may arise towards a specific sex. Interestingly enough, after the birth of a male child, there may be an increased demand for having a girl child.Both parents share responsibility for educational expenses. The future implications resulting from female feticide are significant, including a lack of social security measures for females, an increase in polygamy, diminished self-respect among women, a rise in

rape incidents, and declining moral values among children. This text discusses the societal consequences of a shortage of girls which leads to male dominance and an imbalanced society. The main objective is to understand why female feticide occurs because girls are seen as consumers while boys are regarded as providers. Due to immense pressure on women to have sons, they may resort to sex determination and aborting female fetuses. Factors such as illiteracy, poverty, and the burden placed on girls contribute to the preference for male children. Consequently, women are compelled into repeated pregnancies and abortions solely producing male offspring like breeding machines. Technological advancements now enable parents to determine the gender of their child before birth and selectively abort until they have a son. Despite its prohibition in India, families still go through great lengths like visiting scanning centers or traveling to neighboring states where it is legal just to find out the gender. In India during the early 1990s, ultrasound machines popularized their application for female foeticide purposesThis unethical practice affects women of all ages and contributes significantly to a profitable industry valued at $224 million in the United States. These incentives perpetuate and encourage further wrongdoing. In Indian society, there is a prevailing belief in the rights of individuals to life and dignity; however, these rights are frequently violated, especially among vulnerable groups like women and girl children. The main cause of female foeticide is the dominant decision-making power of men. Women face discrimination within families and society as a whole, encountering double standards across education, marriage, relationships, domestic violence, patriarchal laws, property laws, dowry system, sexual morality, sexual harassment, and biased

social stigma. Additionally, women's work often lacks recognition and respect. The preference for male children is evident even before birth with the exclusion of girls from family trees since sons are viewed as primary sources of income. Despite advancements made by women in various fields today, there persists a misconception that men are expected to support and care for their parents and households. Adult women who get married are often treated as commodities sent off to another family while their parents feel relieved that their "daughter" is settled.
Factors such as education, health status, economic role, and participation in professions play a significant role in determining the societal status of women and their decision-making power within the family. These factors are heavily influenced by societal beliefs and values. The root cause of this issue lies in the lower status assigned to women in a patriarchal social model, which favors sons over daughters.

The advancement of healthcare technology has made it easier for selective sex abortion through methods like CVS, amniocentesis, and Ultrasound. This convenience benefits manufacturers of high-tech equipment used for these tests. In fact, many hospitals have long-term contracts with these companies, leading to profit sharing and exploitation of vulnerable situations.

This exploitation extends even further to cases of rape, assault, and violence against adult females. Due to fear of isolation and humiliation, many such incidents go unreported. Additionally, the persistent dowry system adds another dimension to this issue as parents often avoid having daughters altogether due to the significant amount required for marriage.

Religion and other cultural and economic factors also contribute significantly towards reducing women's status. Unfortunately, the legal system generally does not effectively address dowry

practices resulting in frequent dowry deaths in India. The pressure to provide dowries for daughters while expecting them for sons creates an economic strain on families especially due to low female literacy rates.

This disparity in education ultimately leads to the subjugation of women while simultaneously increasing demand for dowries during marriages.Rajasthan, a state known for its low female literacy rate, is faced with challenges related to harmful customs like sati, female foeticide, and child marriage. In contrast, Kerala has higher levels of female literacy but still grapples with the issue of dowry. Some states in India have higher sex ratios such as Punjab (126.1) and Haryana (122.0). Over time, there has been an increase in the sex ratio among infants and children aged 0-6 years: from 104.0 per 100 males in 1981 to 105.8 in 1991, further rising to 107.8 in 2001 and reaching a high of 109.4 in 2011 according to the Indian Census study conducted that year which also revealed an average sex ratio throughout India of -933 females per every thousand males.

The rural sex ratio stands at -946 while the urban sex ratio is -900. Among Indian states, Kerala boasts the highest female sex ratio at 1058 while Haryana exhibits the lowest at 861.[3] Different countries have varying sex ratios: Vietnam -892/1000, South Korea -934/1000, USA-962/1000, Canada-943/1000, United Kingdom-952/1000, and Sri Lanka-961/1000.[4] To effectively tackle these issues, it is recommended to take further steps including enacting laws that declare female foeticide illegal and prohibiting antenatal anticipation of a child's gender. Strict penalties should be implemented for offenders through these laws. Additionally , social security provisions should be made available for parents above

the age of 65 who have only daughtersGirls should be provided with free and mandatory education until higher secondary level to decrease any perceived bias against investing in them. The government should implement various employment strategies specifically targeting females to offer them economic opportunities, such as reserving positions in fields like education, nursing, and telephone operation for women. Additionally, policies supporting women's rights to own and inherit property should be established, while highlighting the societal responsibility of girls to equally support their parents as boys do. These values must be enforced by legal measures. Religious instruction and moral education in schools play a vital role in advocating against practices like female foeticide, dowry, and discrimination against girl children. It is crucial to shape children's minds from an early age so they perceive themselves as equals to men, which will positively impact future generations. The Advisory Committee provides expert and technical assistance to the Appropriate Authority in their efforts. The Act imposes penalties on first-time offenders who violate its provisions, including fines of Rs 10,000 and imprisonment for up to three years. Repeat offenders face even higher fines and longer prison terms. If medical professionals are found guilty of breaching the Act, the Appropriate Authority notifies the central or state medical council leading to suspension or revocation of their practice.Legislation alone is insufficient in discouraging dowry practices among educated and higher social class households, as it is deeply ingrained in Indian society. Preaching alone cannot completely eliminate this issue. However, both individual and governmental efforts should persist. To address dowry-related cases, strict laws should be implemented with expedited trials conducted by special courts. Temporary shelters for

battered women should also be established. Physicians who perform female fetus terminations upon client request should permanently lose their licenses. Companies like GE that unlawfully promote gender determination and abortion in unaccredited clinics must face severe penalties. Deliberate attempts by parents to harm unborn children should result in substantial fines and legal repercussions. To significantly reduce selective sex abortion, widespread events and seminars targeting young adults and potential parents are crucial for educating them about the negative impacts of this practice. Raising awareness can profoundly impact saving the lives of future female relatives such as sisters, mothers, girlfriends, and wives.Amir Khan's television show "Satyamev Jayate" is an exemplary initiative that addresses the issue of gender discrimination and societal attitudes towards girls. To combat this problem, it is crucial to make free education for girls up until secondary level mandatory. This approach challenges the perception that investing in girls is unnecessary and also relieves financial burdens on parents, as highlighted in survey responses.

In addition, policies should be implemented to guarantee women's rights in terms of property ownership and inheritance. It is important to emphasize daughters' social responsibility in supporting their parents, similar to sons' obligations. Accessible legal assistance should be made available for enforcing these principles.

The Ministry of Women and Child Welfare should commend couples who have baby girls to counteract the shame and embarrassment often associated with having multiple daughters. By celebrating the birth of a girl child, the government can raise awareness that it is a joyful occasion and boost the confidence of mothers who may otherwise feel judged when giving birth to a girl.

The main task at hand is ensuring strict enforcement of

existing legislation while increasing public awareness through a scientific and humanistic approach. Both individuals and NGOs have roles to play in educating the general public and strengthening the position of women in society [5].To summarize, the text highlights the importance of both daughters and mothers. It emphasizes that there is no present, past, or future without girls. Female foeticide is condemned as a self-destructive act, emphasizing the need to protect girl children for securing the future. The societal impact of this issue includes increased exploitation of women as sex workers and a rise in harassment and rape incidents. The unequal sex ratio in Delhi has been linked to sexual offenses, with demographers predicting a shortage of brides within 20 years due to this imbalance. Ultimately, the text urges an end to the destruction of girl children, using poetic lines about letting buds bloom and spreading their sweet fragrance while igniting the light of life.

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