The Culture Practice Of Vani Sociology
Culture is the systems or manner of life, which is shared by a big figure of people. In civilization, some patterns and activities create the societal differences with other societal group. Actually the civilization is entire of activities, and stuff or religious things. It is fundamentally the logical and self made system of value belief every bit good as set of pattern which become their characteristic and travel over clip to clip or coevals to coevals. It besides gives to single individuality and go the portion of that civilization. ( Stavenhagen. R, 1998 )
The tradition is inheriting elements of civilization which move one coevals to another. Actually tradition is set of imposts or patterns, which are on a regular basis, perform in our day-to-day life and which support the people in every fortunes that how they can pass their life. ( Stavenhagen. R, 1998 )
In every civilization the tradition and patterns are link every one life and ruling their every portion of life like birth, marriages decease ceremonial etc. In Pakistani civilization there are some tradition related to matrimony are exists like watta satta, Karo Kari, vani, Swara etc. ( aˆ¦aˆ¦
Vani is a Pashto word derived from “ Vanay ” which stands for blood. Vani is civilization pattern which is really common in Pashtoon households. This cruel usage besides patterns in Punjab particularly in Mianwali and neighbouring countries, which becomes there societal norm. Mianwali is a part in the north-west of Punjab state, in Pakistan. ( Hashmi, A. & A ; Koukab, 2004 )
Harmonizing to vani it is the method of deciding differences like Qatal and Zana and settling debts between households and folks. Harmonizing to this a usage, female who is the member of condemnable male ‘s household are married or given to the victim ‘s household as a compensation of his wickedness. These determinations are frequently concluding by a Jirga. ( Chaudhry.R, 2006 ) .
In phaktoon household, misss are given Vani matrimony for as compensation of slaying, criminal conversation, abduction and snatch which is committed by the work forces of the household. ( Usafzai, Ali. Z. 2004 )
In the tribes vani is pattern, which has no written regulations and ordinance. In vani, If one household or folk of a small town kills member of other household or folk, so the condemnable household or folk offer a miss or adult female to the aggrieved household to settle the hostility ” . ( Khattak, R. 2009 ) .
Vani Tradition is an old age tradition. This tradition started about 400 old ages ago when two ‘Pathan ‘ folks of Mianwali fought a bloody war. During the war about 800 people were killed. At that clip Nawab of Tank tried to work out the job. He called the “ Girga ” ( Jirga ) who decided that misss are given as Qisas. Subsequently on this determination became a usage which passed over coevals to coevals. This tradition is practiced in different countries of Sindh, Punjab and NWFP. ( Hashmi, A. & A ; Koukab, 2004 )
These matrimonies are known as Vani, Sakh, Sawara, Sharam, Khoon Baha, and Sang Chatti with the difference of linguistic communications in different countries. ( Zofeen T. E, 2006 ) In Punjab it is known as “ Vani ” , Sindh it is known as “ Sang Chati ” , Baluchistan it is known as “ Ijai ” , and NWFP it is known as “ Swara ” . These are an original agencies of different difference declaration instrument. ( Ramzan, I. 2009 )
The usage and tradition are unwritten and there are no difficult and fast regulations. So vani has pattern in different ways. Largely the vani determination is made harmonizing to the nature of offense. Hidden vani is the sort of vani when some sort of offense done for which both households are non wanted to open it for the interest of honor so it is done. It is type of secret vani. Largely these issues are zana either zina bil jabar or zana measure raza. In this type of instances female indirectly convince the male for the peculiar proposal. ( Salamat, R.2007 ) . The 2nd sort of vani which is done in forepart of folk, in this instance the determination is made by Jirga. Largely the determinations are done harmonizing to effected household will. ( Salamat, R.2007 ) .
In vani usage the relation are decide at the clip of determination in Punchayat that can be nikah, engagement or ruksati. In battle the determination of vani adult females and work forces are decide and ruksati are decided subsequently harmonizing to both party will. Largely this determination is done when misss are minor or non born but their determination of matrimony is done. In 2nd type of vani is that nikah are done instantly in Jirga. This determination is done when terrible sort of difference is between two households. That clip parents and no 1 has permission to detain the nikah. In largely instances the male parent or brother accepts the nikah on the behalf of miss. Immediately going of bride it besides portion of vani. In some instances the bride leave parents place instantly after the determination of vani and in some instances the twenty-four hours and month of going are decided in Jirga and harmonizing to the determination the going are done. ( Salamat, R.2007 )
In some instances money and belongings is besides given to the victim household with the adult females. This happen largely in the instances of long term hostility. Second when rich households give vani to hapless household so for the improvement of their girl condemnable households give belongings or money to effected household. ( Salamat, R. 2007 )
In the tribal country Vani is performed as good instrument because this pattern is decide the difference and bind the enemy in strong relation which ne’er breaks once more. When there is hostility between two households and folks due to any ground so people of both folks arrange the matrimony for the interest of new and strong relation. The condemnable party accepts offense and gives her female to other party, through giving female to his household is compensation of wickedness and aggrieved party forgive them. In simple word the miss is used for compensation. ( Salamat, R. 2007 ) .
The chief thought behind vani is that in difference effected household really loss their hounor because of condemnable party. Womans are see the hounor of household in that tribal countries so accomplished party take adult females of accomplished household as compensation. So through adult females really they return their hounor. ( Salamat, R. 2007 ) .
Harmonizing to Islamic jurisprudence of Qisas and Diyat, in compensation ( Badal-i-Sulh ) of slaying, the condemnable paid or given to a Wali, hard currency or in the signifier of movable or movable belongings, which done harmonizing to common willingness of both parties and Shariah. ( Chaudhry, Sharif, M. 1993 ) . But in vani pattern adult females give to another party as compensation. The some people are hapless when they murder some one, so it is impossible for them to pay the Qisas and Diyat. So they give them adult females for compensation without money. Actually it is incorrect. It is done to salvage the money and belongings, Due to mercenary universe now a twenty-four hours even rich people of tribal countries besides give the adult females as vani and salvage their money and belongings. ( Salamat, R. 2007 ) .
Harmonizing to vani custom the any misss and adult females of condemnable party accept as vani but in community the usage are non like this. There are some proffered misss or adult females for compensation intent. These are sister, girl, girl of brother ; etc if miss of that condemnable party is non available so they can purchase the miss and give effected household. But largely it is preferred that the miss and adult females are child of that condemnable individual or group. In the accomplished household male member are besides required for matrimony intent. There is no specification for male or bride groom. On accomplished side male can be brother, boy, father etc. Largely that individual is chosen who are older, unnatural and those by whom matrimony is non possible. ( Salamat, R. 2007 ) .
It is cold and unislamic pattern that is violates of adult females basic human right. It is barbarous beastliness towards adult females, handling them as a belongings and cowss that is used to settle differences. Womans pay for that offense which she ne’er did. This tribal tradition makes the life of 1000s of misss a life snake pit. ( Ehsan A. 2006 ) .
Violence against adult females through customary pattern like Vani, Watta satta, hounor violent death, exists in Pakistan, Which was making serious upset in the society and work the adult females life. These pattern is become the societal norms, Like Vani ‘marriages has become as a societal norm in tribal countries of Pakistan. ( Hashmi, A. Koukab, Mushtaq. R, 2004 ) . These pattern are continuously pattern, in 2008 in Pakistan 50 instances of vani are done and under the Jirga system and 210 instances of forced matrimonies are registered. ( Awan. A, Z. 2009 ) .
Vani is a pre-Islamic tradition which has no range in Islam. These patterns must be condemned and punished. Vani is besides against the instructions of Islam. In Islam all matrimony prohibited which done under any sort of force per unit area. The Holy Prophet ( PBUH ) has at many illustrations to halt such sort of matrimonies. These matrimonies were known as ‘Sabaya ‘ , which is pattern in the yearss of Jahiliya ( ignorance ) . In which Arabs used to capture the ladies of enemy and beaten after the conflict. Vani is besides the illustration of that matrimony in two manners. A adult female is married without her consent and punished for that offense which she ne’er committed. Which is restrict in Islam ( aˆ¦aˆ¦..
In Islam there is no favoritism between individuals on the footing of gender, colour, race, nationality, wealth, etc. merely the high quality of a individual is base on justness, and moral excellence. So how it is possible, that any individual exploited the adult females ‘s life on the name of usage is Islamic pattern. Islam gives adult females regard, award, right to inherit belongings, to get married anyone with their ain pick and the right to disassociate. ( aˆ¦aˆ¦..
Harmonizing to Islamic jurisprudence a penalty should hold four features. It should be disciplinary, retaliatory, reformatory and a bound. But vani has non any of these characteristic, because condemnable himself goes free and guiltless misss pay their limitless cost. In Islam, there is no clear duty that every individual must bear the load of his/her ain actions, and in Islam no construct of adult females gives as compensation in Badal-i-Sulh. It violates the jurisprudence of Qisas and Diyat. ( Anis, F. 2003 )
Harmonizing to Universal Declaration of Human Rights in article 1 that all human being born free and equal right and self-respect, but the vani pattern is direct struggle with it 1 article. In vani pattern the miss punished for those act which she ne’er did. She is besides born free and equal right like work forces. But she exploited in the manus of work forces and become trade good. As a human being she is free for take any determination, but in vani without her consent she gets marries with any individual for resurgence. Article 16 of Universal Declaration of Human Right, that there is no restriction for any work forces and adult females to get married and organize a household. Without any favoritism of race, nationality or faith they can bask their matrimony and household. There is free full consent for both work forces and adult females to take their partner. But in vani neither the work forces consent is asked or nor the adult females consent for matrimony. Both work forces and adult females force to get marrieding to stop of hostility. ( Hashmi, A. & A ; Koukab, 2004 )
The vani pattern is besides violates the constitutional jurisprudence. Like in vani adult females autonomy and mobility are restricted but in Article 9 of the Constitution are warrants that any individual whether work forces and adult females has freedom of autonomy. It besides violates Article 4 of the Constitution that guarantees that every citizen has full right to bask the protection of the jurisprudence but in vani pattern jurisprudence do n’t back up her. It has declared in Supreme Court that vani usage un-Islamic and unconstitutional under the Constitution of 1973. ( Chaudhry, M.G. & A ; Ulfat, A. 2007 )
Pakistan is the member of CEDAW ( Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women ) which work to protect the adult females from favoritism, force against adult females and protect their rights. In article 16 of CEDAW in which stated that all parties shall take all proper measure to extinguish favoritism against adult female in all affairs associating to marriage and household dealingss and guarantee, on a footing of equality of work forces and adult females. In this article adult male and adult females both has right to come in in matrimony and freely chosen the partner. But in vani pattern there are no concept consent and equal right for matrimony. Women oppress for matrimony by male parent, brother or other male member of society. ( Hashmi, A. & A ; Koukab, 2004 )
Vani is illegal pattern. In 2002, the Chief Justice of Pakistan declared vani as un-Islamic pattern. In March 2004 a imperativeness studies of the Law and Justice Commission stated that,
All people who include in vani determination must be punished. The Commission besides came with a bill of exchange amendment to article 366-C of the Pakistan Penal Code. Harmonizing to it:
Those full individual who take portion in the determination of vani whether any individual to offer or accept of adult females as vani, or whether the portion of Punchayat they shall be punished in gaol. Which is minimal 3 twelvemonth or it can transcend 10 old ages and besides apt to a all right. Whether it is done with the consent of both the parties, or it is done with the consent of the female herself, it must be punished. But still this amendment has non been passed. ( Chaudhry, M.G. & A ; Ulfat, A. 2007 )
In vani pattern matrimony are done without the consent of miss so it is besides violate the Hudood regulation subdivision 6 in which force matrimony under this pattern demand to protection of jurisprudence, because it is illegal. ( Hashmi, A. & A ; Koukab, 2004 )
Vani pattern is done largely as kid matrimony which is prohibited in Islam and all over the universe Torahs. Harmonizing to UN Convention in which kid matrimony are prohibited under Rights of Child in article 2. At the same harmonizing to Muslim Family Law Ordinance, that at the clip of matrimony the miss must hold range at the age of 16 and a male child must make at the age of 18, and both proper consent taken earlier matrimony.
Harmonizing to Punishment for Parent or Guardian Concerned in a Child Marriage Section 6. If any individuals promote the kid matrimony in any instance or in any manner shall be punished minimal 1 month or with all right which extends to one 1000 rupees or with both. But vani largely girls given over are below the age of 18 which is in struggle with these jurisprudence and convention. . ( Ebrahim, Z. 2009 ) .
Government takes enterprise against vani, Like Human Rights Commission of Pakistan and different NGOs are working against the usage of vani. The Supreme Court of Pakistan has besides taken action of forced matrimonies in different countries of parts of Sindh, Punjab and N.W.F.P. National Judicial Policy doing Committee in a meeting announced that vani is unislamic pattern and it must be punished. ( Minallah, S. ( 2007 ) . In 2004 Pervez Musharraf, Pakistan ‘s ex- president, passed jurisprudence against vani during visit by the US president, George Bush. But it did n’t implement because of Torahs limited influence in rural countries. In rural country feudal system is so strong so merely 15 vani instances have been tried under the new jurisprudence in Mianwali. ( aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ .
There are several cultural factors which become the grounds of force against adult females in Pakistan. Patriarchal society, misunderstanding of Islam, and cruel patterns in civilization are major cause of low adult females position. Womans are sing as object and belongings. Vani pattern is one of the major customary patterns which become critical cause of adult females development. The adult females pay the cost of that wickedness which really they ne’er did. The lone wickedness of adult females is that she had the blood relation with evildoer or felon. Because of this her whole life are exploited. ( Jehanzeb, 2004 ) .
If girl married as vani and went to enemy house so there is no topographic point in society. They are treated by their new households without any kindness. Even parents of vani victims are mistreat with her after matrimony and non value her giving. They have no topographic point in either place or in-laws. The guiltless misss are enduring everlastingly in an environment of resistance Due to psychological injury it hard to manage the nerve-racking demand of their hubby, kids and in-laws. ( Jehanzeb, 2004 ) .
Vani is considered an evil tradition and sever penalty, particularly by the women’s rightists because the chief victim is the guiltless and mute miss who sacrifices for the interest of her brothers and parents. It is a barbarous behaviour towards females because adult females bear the penalty of that offense which she ne’er committed. ( aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..
Harmonizing to the one-year study of Human Rights Commission of Pakistan ( 2003 ) , Vani is like of decease penalty for victim adult females. Although they are non physically killed, but the humiliation, maltreatments and wretchedness which they face in her hubby place is awful penalty which she faces in her whole life. Women face this for that offense which she ne’er did. ( p.56 )
Vani miss is merely like a slave in their house, because she comes from the enemy ‘s household. The Taunts, expletives and force become the destiny of vani adult females in mundane life, because she has blood relation with that individual who killed their loved 1. She is a continuously reminder in the in-laws of the decease of their loved 1. They try to give hurting to the miss and her household members. ” ( Ullah Khan, Z. 2006 )
This usage is like proclamation of decease sentence for misss, because she knows that she has to populate in unwelcoming and suffering scenario till the terminal of her life. She must populate in aggressive state of affairs and she will ne’er be happy at that place, because there no 1 love and attention about her. Everyone maltreatment and twit her, because she has blood relation with evildoer. ( Ebrahim, 2006 ) .
Vani whether is used decently or is misused, is against the norms of human rights. The vani miss has to bear psychological and mental anguish till the terminal of her life. That miss will hold to populate in an unsympathetic state of affairs and she will ne’er be happy over at that place. The guiltless miss ne’er understands the cause of hurting upon her. Her organic structure, head and psyche would traumatise till she dies. They have to confront awful cost of that determination. ( Khan, 2009 ) .
Violence against adult females is non merely brings physical hurts, psychological impacts of force become the cause of force per unit area on their power of thought and behaving. This force leaves a long lasted injury which with no proper healing. ( Babur Udin, Z. 2007 ) . Because of vani adult females life becomes suffering. So being a female parent suffering status and deficiency of security makes kids turn into indirect victims. Apart from the adult females enduring jobs with self-esteem, their kids face terrible emotional and behavioural jobs turning up with the traumatic. ( Jehanzeb, 2004 ) .
Violence against adult females is non merely about adult females force on sex, or about struggle. It is about control, their mobility, their entree to material resources and their both productive and generative function ( Heise, Ellsberg and Gottemoeller ( 1992 ) high spot: p.2 )
In patriarchal society adult females has low position, because adult male considered as personal belongingss which control every facet of lives of adult females including their life manner, behaviour and motions etc. Work forces make the determinations, and adult females pressurize to follow those determinations in household, folk, community and society. Because of male ruling society adult females consider minority in society. ( Hassan, 1995 ) .In many tribal countries, adult females are even non considered as human existences. She is cattle or personal belongings which used for trade or to settle debts or struggles. These types of patterns become adult females low position in society. ( Shaheed, 1990 ) .
In our society adult females are face favoritism and force on a day-to-day life, due to the cultural and spiritual norms and belief. In our society the construct of “ Char Divari, ” a term translated literally to intend “ the four walls of the house ” restricted adult females mobility. ( Shaheed, F. & A ; ghazdar, A.1998 ) Harmonizing to societal norm adult females restricted in her male parent and brother place and after marriage the unrecorded in hubby ‘s place. There is no other option for her. In the society the adage like ( aurat baap K ghar KO chorti hai dole mai or shohar K ghar KO casket mai ) mean adult females leave father place in nuptial palankeen and that of their hubby ‘s merely in casket. These types of societal norms restricted adult females mobility. She faces psychological and physical force but ne’er daring to go forth it. ( shaheed, F. & A ; ghazdar, A.1998 )
In vani pattern at the clip of going no brides are made in proper manner and when she leave the male parent place that clip their comparative and parents weep bitterly because they know that now her mobility is restricted. Even she ne’er allows coming parents place expect peculiar juncture. ( Salamat, R. 2007 ) .
In our society adult females continuously become the victims of this mindless force. The hounor of household associated with adult females. Through out life it is internalized on her in socialisation that household hounor are linked with her action. Women spend whole life in entry and fright that she does n’t make any thing which becomes the consequence of household dishonored in society. ( Shaheed, F. & A ; ghazdar, A.1998 ) All her life she faces menaces. She accepts all sort of force for the interest of male parent, brother, or conserve hounor and really these relation makes adult females lives more suffering. So through out whole life adult females have force per unit area to safe the hounor of male and household in society. In vani same adult females has societal force per unit area to safe the life and hounor of his male member of household. For the interest of his household alleged honor she spend whole life in snake pit ( Babur Udin, Z. 2007 )
Harmonizing to Human rights attorney Hina Jilani ( 1998, p.143 ) , adult females protection in the name of household honor from immoral activities is done for the interest of societal morality really is the subjugation of basic human rights of adult females.
Gender-based force included physical, psychological force on adult females, which is done by her hubby or by another individual household. Physical force includes anguish crushing combustion and murdering of adult female. Psychological force includes verbal aggression, humiliation, maltreatment, twit etc. ( International Planned Parenthood Federation ( 2000 ) . When vani adult females went hubby place where she face physical force like whipping, anguish of hubby or other household member and besides psychological force like expletives, maltreatment, twit so how her life are secured. This force has no restriction, adult females face it till decease. ( U, Ubaid. K, Ullah, Zia. & A ; F, Aliya. 2006 )