This paper was made possible by 2nd twelvemonth Medical Biology Students in De La Salle University-Dasmarinas taking up REED 143 under Mr. Gelly Jose Talledo.
Members of the group divided the constituents of the paper. Gianfranco Jonson was one of the subscribers for the group decision. Jericho Labitag added information on the causes and effects of harlotry and wrote about the actions done by the authorities sing the issue. Divine Rose Legaspi wrote the initial overview, discussed harlotry in item and its consequence on cocottes. Jan Aubrey Dominique who printed the paper besides wrote about harlotry and jurisprudence enforcement in the Philippines. Kathleen Grace Maniago wrote the debut and the instructions of the church and finalized the paper overview. Cassandra Gia Mari who compiled the plants besides wrote on the causes and effects of harlotry. Maniago and M...
ari besides did the initial cogent evidence reading and redacting. Muriel Mae Monding, elaborated the subject by farther specifying it and gave an thought on why is harlotry considered as a moral issue. Julienne Kae Navarra deduced the group decision based on the information provided by the group. Each member of the group submitted his/her ain decision and did the concluding cogent evidence reading. The whole group collaborated on the relation of harlotry and morality.
`` Of all dictatorships a dictatorship unfeignedly exercised for the good of its victim may be the most oppressive. '' ( C. S. Lewis ) Prostitution or normally known as `` pagbebenta nanogram katawan '' is a pattern of supplying sexual services to another individual in exchange for a deficient necessity of the cocotte normally in pecuniary signifier. It is considered as a profession in
the sex industry It involves two parties: the cocotte being the service supplier and the receiving system of the sexual service which comes in assortment of signifiers. Prostitution can be traced back in clip. Even though it has roots in the history of the Philippines, harlotry in the state including its assorted parts still continues to be a widespread world to this coevals. Prostitution is viewed as a prevalent epidemic of the society, in contrary of its nature as a beginning of pleasance and income. It has a long scope of causes from intrapersonal to interpersonal facet of a individual, normally from a deficit of basic demands for life. Its reverse effects starts within the individuals involved in the act and spread to the community, on the other manus its positive consequence of net income does n't last long. It is considered as a typical societal wickedness in the state. The virtuousness of celibacy and construct of sexual act is in struggle with this moral issue. It negatively affects human self-respect, unity and gender which is the sum sum of a human being 's societal, physical, rational, emotional and religious facets. ( Salibay, 2008 ) Prostitution is considered as a offense which regress the development of the state. The authorities revised the penal codification, implement Torahs and launch undertakings to counter this misdemeanor. The nature of harlotry makes everyone apt for this moral issue.
Morality is a criterion by which we judge our actions to be good or evil. Further, Christian morality aims to assist the single grown in cognition and love of God. Prostitution presents a broad scope of subjects that will impede individuals from
being Christ-like as possible. It includes sensitive subjects about gender, human self-respect, unity and wickedness.
Prostitution is the act or pattern of supplying sexual services to another individual in return for payment. The individual who receives payment for sexual services is called a cocotte and the individual who receives such services is known by a battalion of footings, including `` John '' . Prostitution is one of the subdivisions of the sex industry. The legal position of harlotry varies from state to state, from being a punishable offense to a regulated profession. Estimates place the one-year gross generated from the planetary harlotry industry to be over $ 100 billion. Prostitution is sometimes referred to as `` the universe 's oldest profession '' .
It occurs in a assortment of signifiers. Whorehouses are constitutions specifically dedicated to harlotry. In escort harlotry, the act may take topographic point at the client 's abode or hotel room ( referred to as out-call ) , or at the bodyguard 's abode or in a hotel room rented for the juncture by the bodyguard ( called in-call ) . Another signifier is street harlotry. Tourism refers to going, typically from developed to developing states, to prosecute in sexual activity with cocottes. Sexual activity trafficking, one type of human trafficking is defined as utilizing coercion or force to transport an unwilling individual into harlotry or other sexual development. ( Wikipedia,2012 )
A Brief Historical Overview of Prostitution in the Philippines
Pre-Colonization Time period
When the Spanish came they chronicled some preexistent sexual patterns by Filipinos which they considered lewd, barbarous and perverse. They observed that society did non value either virginity or monogamous matrimonies. The Spanish
chroniclers wrote that virginity was, in fact, believed to be a hinderance to marriage and that to make the topographic point of ageless cloud nine, adult females must hold lovers. There were males who would even offer their services for originating adult females to the sexual act. Unwed female parents did non diminish their opportunities of matrimony. Despite this sexual freedom, most of our ascendants kept monogamous alternatively of polygamous relationships. There were Torahs which penalized illicit behaviour between work forces and adult females, efficaciously curtailing promiscuousness and forestalling harlotry.
Colonization Time period
aˆ? Spanish Time period
The Spaniards preached values of virginity and celibacy to the `` indigens '' or Filipinos and condemned their immoral sexual patterns. However, they besides failed to populate out what they preached. They carried out sexual dealingss with native adult females outside their matrimony ensuing in the birth of many Spanish ladino kids. By the nineteenth century, casas catering to peninsulares ( Spaniards ) , insulares ( Philippine-born Spaniards ) , and indios ( native Filipinos ) existed in Manila. The casas housed immature virgins ( normally girls of provincials sold to cover their parent 's debts ) to provide chiefly to Spanish soldiers and functionaries.
aˆ? American Time period
The red-light territory at the clip was the Gardenia Gardens in Sampaloc, where immature adult females were classed harmonizing monetary value and housed in different homes. The first category house had American and European adult females, the 2nd category house had the fresh rural indigens and mestizas, and the third-class house had older cocottes with a separate show window showcasing Nipponese geishas. During the World War 1 music hall, nightclubs and lodging houses became
popular. The ruddy visible radiation territory subsequently shifted to Sta. Ana and Lerma where dance floors were divided between the Filipinas and Americans. Outstanding society and political figures were said to hold patronized these cabarets.
aˆ? Nipponese Time period
Following the Nipponese invasion, many parents were forced to sell their kids, peculiarly immature misss, to Nipponese soldiers and affluent Filipino confederates. It was at this clip that the premier residential subdivision of Manila. Ermita was transformed into a `` straggling Yoshiwara '' . Many adult females, including immature married womans, were besides abducted from their places to function as `` jugun comfort woman '' or soothe adult females for the Nipponese Imperial Army. In the whorehouse, comfort adult females normally had to serve 10 to 40 soldiers a twenty-four hours, and more on weekends. Many who were infected by genital disease were treated with big doses of harmful drugs ; others had to undergo forced abortion ; many besides died in the procedure of anguish and colza.
Post Colonization Period
Soon after WWII, the Philippines signed an understanding with the US to supply for the Americans ' `` unhindered usage '' of 23 military installations all over the state for 99 old ages. The escalation of regional struggles in which the US participated saw the inflow of weary American soldiers into the bases and subsequent growing of harlotry. With the early expiration of the bases after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo the amusement nines around these countries slowed down but were subsequently revived by occupant aliens to tourers and local work forces. The institutionalization of touristry and the increasing figure of migratory workers are besides lending factors to the
go oning rise of sex bondage in the state. ( Samaritana, 2012 )
Prostitution in the Philippines
It was indicated that Philippines exceed the list on the states practising Prostitution even though it is illegal ( Wikianswers,2012 ) . There are an estimated 800,000 adult females working as cocottes in the Philippines, with some of them believed to be minor. It is a serious offense with punishments runing up to life imprisonment for those involved in trafficking. It is covered by the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act. Prostitution is sometimes illicitly available through whorehouses ( besides known as casa ) , bars, karaoke bars ( besides known as KTVs ) , massage parlours, street Walkers and bodyguard services.
Prostitution in Assorted Regions
Prostitution caters to local clients and aliens. Media attending tends to concentrate on those countries providing to arouse touristry, chiefly through bars staffed by bargirls. Cities where there is a high incidence of harlotry are Angeles City, Olongapo, Subic Bay and Pasay City, with the clients normally foreign business communities from East Asian and Western states.
Prostitution in Olongapo City and Angeles City was extremely outstanding during the clip of the U.S. military bases called Subic Bay Naval Base and Clark Air Base, severally. When Mount Pinatubo, a vent, erupted in 1991, it destroyed most of Clark Air Base and the US closed it down in 1992.
Most of the associated harlotry trade closed with it, but when the city manager of Manila, Alfredo Lim, closed down the sex industry country of Ermita in Manila during his first term, many of the concerns moved to Angeles, happening a new client base among sex tourers.
Other tourer countries such as Cebu have
besides developed a high profile harlotry industry.
Prostitution on Morality
( little thought KO nakalagay sa presentation )
group coaction here
Causes and Effectss
Prostitution affects our society in many ways. It is more than merely a sexual related offense but it can really take to more offenses and force on the streets. Unfortunately, when buying a cocotte, many purchasers do n't believe about the serious effects that come with street sex. Sexually familial disease, unwanted gestation, unfaithfulness, force, larcenies and many offenses take topographic point with the mean prostitute exchange.
Poverty and unemployment has triggered the rapid spread of harlotry in the Philippines. Peoples use it to supplement low incomes. It provides those involved in this profession a considerable sum of income to back up their households every bit good as supply a steady flow of remittals from urban to rural countries or from cocottes working overseas. Desperate to hold money for their demands and endurance, adult females have been tricked into harlotry with warrants of nice occupation chances in the metropolis or abroad or have been kidnapped and so forced to work as cocottes that would take them holding no pick. A survey by the Psychological Trauma Program of the University of the Philippines notes that harlotry may now be the state 's 4th largest beginning of GNP.
Family outlooks and jobs are besides common factors why many enter the harlotry concern. Womans in peculiar are pressured to pay for their sibling 's instruction or back up a ill household member. Other facets such as dysfunctional households or changeless maltreatment from parents have lead striplings to go forth their places and are attracted by the easy net incomes from harlotry.
is a sexual activity ; the work forces and adult females indulge in it in exchange of money. Therefore, money is the chief cause of harlotry. Prostitution will boom every bit long as there are work forces willing to pay for sex ; and there are adult females willing to offer sex in exchange of money. It is easy taking over streets and many metropoliss. After a few cocottes set up and stalk a corner, before long that whole street is nil more than a harlotry ring and is filled with offenses to include force, colza, larcenies and many more flagitious offenses.
Many work forces and adult females have received and have passed along sexually transmitted diseases without cognizing and some without even caring. It is non ever the cocotte that does that go throughing of the STD either. Many people with STD feel that they can non hold a sexual relationship with the spouse in fright of go throughing the disease to them. However, they find it acceptable to happen a cocotte on the corner who they will ne'er hold to run into once more, and pass the STD along in order to alleviate sexual defeat. In return he or she will kip with several other people before even cognizing they have an STD. Then the STD gets passed on by those people every bit good. Wifes, hubbies and guiltless sexual spouses become victim to the STD. Many of which are terrible and even life threatening.
Aside from sexually transmitted diseases, harlotry may take to pregnany. Unwanted gestation causes overpopulation in the Philippines and this leads to illegal abortion. Insecure abortions render adult females vulnerable non
merely to infections and other wellness complications, but even to decease. Because these abortions are carried out in illegal abortion clinics there is no record of how many adult females and kids, if any, dice each twelvemonth as a consequence. This, doing them less likely to be missed and be reported losing.
In add-on to go throughing on diseases, many work forces and adult females pick up cocottes non caring about how their married woman or hubby at place may experience if they of all time found out. Today, society is covering with a higher divorce norm than of all time before. Having the ability to travel out and pick up a cocotte for sexual favor will merely promote that figure to go on to lift.
Society is threatened by much more so diseases and divorce related to harlotry. Violent offenses are one of the most terrible effects on society. Womans are exposed to mistreat, physical, emotional and psychological injury ; low self-pride and damaging their organic structure and spirit. Prostitutes experienced emotional wellness effects such as terrible injury, emphasis, depression, anxiousness, self-medication through intoxicant and drug maltreatment. They could hold been raped, beaten and killed over many decennaries and the figure continues to turn. They are seen as weak, vulnerable, and an easy mark for work forces to acquire their sexual favours and so to kill and dispose of. Since the cocotte is in a bad adequate state of affairs to necessitate to sell themselves so opportunities are that there is no 1 near plenty to assist or make out to them. They are frequently referred to as felons, which is the existent victims of the
system of harlotry. The force and abuses they suffer in the custodies of clients and procurers cause deep lesions in their being.
A 1994 survey conducted with 68 adult females in Minneapolis/St. Paul who had been prostituted for at least six months found that half the adult females had been physically assaulted by their buyers, and a 3rd of these experienced buyer assaults at least several times a twelvemonth. 23 % of those assaulted were beaten badly adequate to hold suffered broken castanetss. Two experient force so barbarous that they were beaten into a coma. Furthermore, 90 % of the adult females in this survey had experienced force in their personal relationships ensuing in abortion, knifing, loss of 5 consciousness, and caput hurts ( Parriott, Health Experiences of Twin Cities Women Used in Prostitution )
Work forces are n't the lone perpetrator in violent harlotry related offenses. Many cocottes have beaten and killed their purchasers every bit good. Many cocottes will rob their clients during or after the sexual Acts of the Apostless while the client is non anticipating it. After all, they ca n't name the constabulary and state them they were robbed by a cocotte as harlotry is illegal.
Violence and Coercion Against Prostitutes
Womans and kids involved in harlotry are vulnerable to ravish, slaying, AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases.
Surveies of adult females working as masseuses indicated that 34 % of them explained their pick of work as necessary to back up hapless parents, 8 % to back up siblings and 28 % to back up hubbies or fellows. More than 20 % said the occupation was good paid, but merely 2 % said it was
easy work and merely 2 % claimed to bask the work.
Over a 3rd reported that they had been capable to force or torment, most normally from the constabulary, but besides from metropolis functionaries and mobsters.
A study conducted by the International Labor Organization revealed that in the experience of most of the adult females surveyed, harlotry is one of the most alienating signifiers of labour. Over 50 per centum of the adult females surveyed in Philippine massage parlours said they carried out their work `` with a heavy bosom, '' and 20 per centum said they were `` conscience-stricken because they still considered sex with clients a wickedness. '' Interviews with Philippine saloon misss revealed that more than half of them felt `` nil '' when they had sex with a client ; the balance said the minutess saddened them.
Teachings of the Church
Social wickedness is used to depict state of affairss or constructions which cause or support evil, or fail through complicity or indifference to right immoralities when possible. Such iniquitous constructions are ever `` rooted in personal wickedness. `` One of the typical societal wickednesss in the Philippine context is harlotry.
This typical societal wickedness in the Philippines, harlotry, is prohibited by the commandment of Jesus Christ `` You shall love your neighbour as you love yourself '' and under this commandment is the 6th commandment of the Decalogue. It states that one must non perpetrate criminal conversation. This commandment liberated individuals from `` indecency '' , lauding insouciant, self-generated sex without committedness or love ( CFC 1125 ) which is apparent during the pattern of harlotry.
Harmonizing to the Post Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici of
His Holiness John Paul II on the Vocation of the Lay Faithful in the Church and in the World, the self-respect of the individual is the most cherished ownership of an person. As a consequence, the value of one individual transcends all the material universe. The words of Jesus, `` For what does it gain a adult male, to derive the whole universe and to give up his life? '' ( Mk 8: 36 ) contain an enlightening and rousing statement about the person: value comes non from what a individual has every bit much as from what a individual `` is '' . Associating to harlotry, the net income the one has gained from such activity does non number every bit much as the good of the cocotte himself/herself with diminished self-respect.
In virtuousness of a personal self-respect the human being is ever a value as an person, and as an person, and as such demands being considered and treated as a individual and ne'er, on the reverse, considered and treated as an object to be used, or as a agency, or as a thing. Sing the moral issue, harlotry violates the self-respect of the cocotte for he/she is treated as an object of pleasance and agencies of net income.
Sex is viewed as a cardinal constituent of personality, a good thing created by God, restored by the power of Jesus Christ and enriched by the salvaging activity of the Church, and by which the whole individual enters into communicating with others. Sexuality is non the same as the sex act. All human individuals must develop their God-given gift of gender. ( CFC 1121 ) Sexuality
is non merely biological but portion of the deepest nature of adult male and adult female as designed by God. Prostitution is an discourtesy against gender of the individuals involved in the Acts of the Apostless involved.
To protect 1s gender, God gave forth the Spirit who bears the fruit of celibacy. Chastity pertains straight to all individuals harmonizing to their different provinces of life is the pureness of bosom directed toward love ( CCC 2349, CFC 1107 ) . Chastity for the married consists in fidelity to their matrimony vows, and to their regard and fear for what is good and lovely in their matrimony vows. Self-denial is demanded by celibacy of both individual individuals and of married twosomes. In both, this `` mastering of oneself '' is an built-in portion of the formation of good character and the spirit of selflessness. ( CCC 2339 ) On the other manus tthe celibacy of the individual individual is seen in both virginity and individual beatitude. The individual individual besides has the career to love, in love 's `` dynamism, inherent in gender, of self-denying openness to others. '' Such celibacy regulations out all sexual intercourse which, by its unequivocal nature finds its proper significance in married province entirely. ( CFC 1110 ) The pattern of criminal conversation in harlotry bring upset to household integrity and into society itself, interrupting the matrimony vows of life-long self-giving in connubial love.
The virtuousness of celibacy and pureness of bosom base in direct resistance to harlotry ( CCC 2354-55 ) . In the Philippine context, both present and utmost instances of development and unfairness, foisted on the hapless by flush. Rather
than chiefly a job in sexual morality, both are excessively frequently merely the effects of dire poorness and destitution. Yet, both constitute a dehumanizing, egoistic and immoral usage of our God given gender.
A cocotte who serve as a `` sex object '' is robbed of his/her self-respect as a individual by being reduced to a mere means for the selfish pleasance of the purchaser. There is perfectly no committedness, no love, no service of life. ( CFC 1115 )
The pattern of harlotry is besides a failure to demo regard which is an indispensable component in the very construction of society, since the intent of the whole of society is geared to the human individual. It is besides a failure to rediscover and do others rediscover the inviolable self-respect of every human individual, an indispensable undertaking to render to the human household.
Civil Law Enforcement ( delight edit Po: ) )
We are populating in yearss when the Catholic Church has set out to fundamentally invalidate the Filipino Revolution, by doing authorities the instrument for the extension of the Faith. In all things related to gender, the hierarchy wants a return to artlessness. Prostitution is everyplace in our land, and this has been so since clip immemorial. In the 1970s Nick Joaquin even wrote a short history of harlotry combined with a travelogue of the best topographic points to happen female flesh, circa pre-martial jurisprudence Manila. No success has been met in extinguishing it. Possibly the option left is to set adult females in control non merely of their organic structures, but of the fruits of their labour should they make up one's mind that sex is to
be their trade.
Samuel Johnson wrote that, In all states there has been fornication, as in all states there has been theft ; but there may be more or less of the 1, every bit good as of the other, in proportion to the force of jurisprudence. All work forces will of course perpetrate fornication, as all work forces will of course steal. And, Sir, it is really absurd to reason, as has been frequently done, that cocottes are necessary to forestall violent effects of appetency from go againsting the nice order of life ; nay, should be permitted in order to continue the celibacy of our married womans and girls. Depend upon it, terrible Torahs, steadily enforced, would be sufficient against these immoralities, and would advance matrimony. Now there is a normally repeated and abusive piece of conventional wisdom that says a certain town in the Bicol part produces merely two types of people: priests and cocottes. This is, of class, non true, but it is utile to reiterate it here because it calls attending to a upseting dichotomy in our state: we are celebrated for our Catholicity and our piousness, and we are ill-famed for the plenty of our cocottes.
And, since this is the epoch of globalisation, foreign cocottes have been geting in appreciable Numberss, peculiarly Russians in the Ramos old ages, said to be much sought after by the Chinese community: one Russian cocotte in Davao did so good that she retired and set up a beauty parlour from which derived a comfortable and impeccably honorable life. South Americans from Colombia and Brazil have made it to our shores, as have gigolos from
the Middle East, reportedly favored by matrons.
Crimes Against Humanity
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime has designated human Trafficking as a offense against humanity. In 2002, the International Criminal Court ( ICC ) was established in the Hague ( Netherlands ) and the Rome Statute provides for the ICC to hold legal power over offenses against humanity. For the intent of this Statute, `` offense against humanity '' means any of the undermentioned Acts of the Apostless when committed as portion of a widespread or systematic onslaught directed against any civilian population, with cognition of the onslaught:
Murder ; ( B ) Extinction ; ( degree Celsius ) Enslavement ; ( vitamin D ) Exile or physical transportation of population ; ( vitamin E ) Imprisonment or other terrible want of physical autonomy in misdemeanor of cardinal regulations of international jurisprudence ; ( degree Fahrenheit ) Anguish ; ( g ) Rape, sexual bondage, implemented harlotry, forced gestation, implemented sterilisation, or any other signifier of sexual force of comparable gravitation ; ( H ) Persecution against any identifiable group or collectivity on political, racial, national, cultural, cultural, spiritual, gender as defined in paragraph 3. or other evidences that are universally recognized as impermissible under international jurisprudence, in connexion with any act referred to in this paragraph or any offense within the legal power of the Court ; ( I ) Enforced disappearing of individuals ; ( J ) The offense of apartheid ; ( K ) Other inhumane Acts of the Apostless of a similar character intentionallycausing great agony, or serious hurt to organic structure or to mental or physical wellness.
The effort to perpetrate the
offense of child harlotry under this Act, or, in the proper instance, under the Revised Penal Code.
Republic Act 6955 fundamentally declares as improper `` the pattern of fiting Filipino adult females for matrimony to foreign subjects on a mail order footing. `` -
Republic Act 8042. Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act. The act contains commissariats which regulate the enlisting of abroad workers ; mandate constitution of a mechanism for free legal aid for victims of illegal enlisting ; direct all embassies and consular offices to publish travel advisories or circulate information on labour and employment conditions, migration worlds and other facts ; modulate repatriation of workers in ordinary instances and supply a mechanism for repatriation in extraordinary instances ; mandate constitution of a Migrant Workers and Other Overseas Filipinos Resource Center to supply societal services to returning worker and other migrators ; mandate the constitution of a Migrant Workers Loan Guarantee Fund to supply pre-departure and household aid loans ; establishes a legal aid fund for migratory workers ; and other commissariats related to Filipino migratory workers. The act, approved on June 7,1995, mandates that pursuant to the aims of deregulating the Department of Labor and Employment ( DOLE ) shall, within a period of five ( 5 ) old ages, phase-out the regulative maps of the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration ( POEA ) .
House Resolution No. 779. House of Representatives of the Philippines Citizen 's Battle Against Corruption ( CIBAC ) Reps. Emmanuel Joel Villanueva and Cinchona Cruz-Gonzales, on September 24, filed House Resolution No. 779 to escalate the battle against human trafficking on all degrees, from statute law, policy preparation, enforcement and prosecution,
to rehabilitation and support for victims. Villanueva said: `` Human trafficking is fast going a major multinational offense next merely to the illegal drugs trade and illegal weaponries trade. Most of the victims of trafficking are being exploited as commercial sex workers, forced labourers and even unwilling organ givers. We must see the studies of the victims that deficiency of financess and resources are cardinal jobs in the full execution of the Anti-Trafficking of Persons Act, including the necessary support and protection. '' The National Bureau of Investigation ( Philippines ) reported `` more than 400,000 individuals from both authorities and non-government organisations who are victims of trafficking and about 100,000 of these victims are kids. '' Cruz-Gonzales said: `` As of last twelvemonth, merely a small over a 1000 instances were officially reported. ''
Action of the Government
The PNP and DSWD both maintained adult females 's aid desks to help victims of force against adult females and to promote the coverage of offenses. With the aid of NGOs, officers received gender sensitiveness preparation to cover with victims of sexual offenses and domestic force.
Many adult females suffered exposure to violence through their enlisting, frequently through misrepresentation, into harlotry. Punishments for harlotry are light, but detained cocottes were subjected to administrative indignities and extortion. The DSWD continued to supply impermanent shelter and reding to adult females engaged in harlotry. This helped merely a little per centum of victims. From January to September, DSWD provided impermanent shelter and reding to 108 adult females who were victims of nonvoluntary harlotry. Some local functionaries condoned a clime of impunity for those who exploited cocottes. There were no strong beliefs under
the proviso of the jurisprudence criminalizing the act of prosecuting the services of a cocotte.
Sexual activity touristry and trafficking in individuals for sexual development and forced labour were serious jobs. A 2003 antitrafficking jurisprudence outlawed a figure of activities specifically related to trafficking and provided stiff punishments for convicted wrongdoers. The authorities seldom deported or charged victims of trafficking with offenses ; nevertheless, constabularies sometimes charged alleged cocottes with vagrancy. No dependable statistics bespeaking whether these persons were victims of trafficking were available.
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