Electron Transport Chain Flashcards, test questions and answers
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What is Electron Transport Chain?
The Electron Transport Chain (ETC) is a series of reactions that take place inside cells, resulting in the production of energy. It’s an essential part of aerobic respiration and helps to power all sorts of activities within the cell. The ETC begins with molecules called NADH and FADH2, which donate electrons to the chain. These electrons are passed from one molecule to another until they eventually reach oxygen, where they combine with hydrogen ions (protons) to form water. As this happens, energy is released in the form of ATP molecules. This process generates most of our body’s energy needs as well as providing us with metabolic pathways for producing other compounds like amino acids or lipids that are vital for life. We can generally break down the ETC into four distinct stages: release, transfer, synthesis and oxidation-reduction. In the first stage – release – NADH and FADH2 donate their electrons to proteins located on specialised organelles such as mitochondria or chloroplasts (in photosynthetic organisms). These proteins then pass these electrons along a carrier system known as â€˜the electron transport chain’. During this stage energy is also released in small amounts which are used by cells for various processes such as protein synthesis or cellular repair. In the second stage transfer – electrons move through different complexes found on either side of an inner membrane within the mitochondria/chloroplasts undergoing a series of redox reactions called respiratory chains until they finally arrive at complex IV where oxygen acts as a final acceptor for them in what is termed oxidation-reduction reaction before forming water. Along this pathway many protons are also pushed out across this membrane creating what is termed a proton gradient which gives rise to potential energy which can be captured by ATP synthase enzyme during oxidative phosphorylation resulting in ATP formation; hence why it’s referred to as oxidative phosphorylation since both ATP synthesis and oxidation occur simultaneously here. In addition there are two additional steps associated with ETC: Synthesis & Oxidation-Reduction Reactions; Synthesis involves releasing large amounts of energy when bonds between molecules like carbohydrates break apart while Oxidation-Reduction breaks apart larger molecules allowing smaller ones (like carbon dioxide) escape into atmosphere thus completing full cycle from food ingestion/uptake through respiration all way back out. This entire cycle occurs without any direct input from ourselves but rather relies upon steady supply oxygen available environment around us so we don’t have worry about running out anytime soon. Overall, understanding how electron transport works greatly contributes towards better comprehending our own bodies’ metabolism since it serves basis most bodily functions involving biochemical processes that require free radicals being produced and transported throughout organism efficiently without overwhelming host cells themselves due its high efficiency rate compared traditional methods such burning sugar or fats directly produce heat etc…