Cell Cycle In Order Flashcards, test questions and answers
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What is Cell Cycle In Order?
The cell cycle is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells. This process involves four distinct phases: interphase, prophase, metaphase, and telophase. During interphase, the cell replicates its DNA and grows in size as it prepares for division. During prophase, the chromosomes condense and become visible under a microscope. Metaphase follows with the lining up of chromosomes in pairs along the equatorial plane of the dividing cell. Finally, during telophase the chromosomes reach opposite ends of the cell and new nuclear membranes form around them creating two separate daughter cells. The entire cycle typically takes place over 24 hours in most eukaryotic cells with each phase lasting between 1-2 hours.During interphase, DNA replication occurs in preparation for mitosis or meiosis depending on whether asexual or sexual reproduction is taking place respectively. As part of this process, enzymes are activated that start to break down certain parts of cellular structures such as centrosomes that will be needed for division later on. Additionally during this stage specific proteins called cyclins are expressed at different levels leading to what is known as checkpoints where progress through the cell cycle is monitored and regulated accordingly. Prophase marks an important transition from interphase to mitosis or meiosis as chromatin condenses into visible chromosomes that can be seen under a microscope. These condensed strands of genetic material serve to ensure proper segregation during metaphase when chromosome pairs line up along an equatorial plane so they can separate correctly after division. Metaphase requires specialized microtubules organized by centrosomes at each end of the dividing mother cell (also known as poles) that create tension between them causing chromatids to move towards what is called an equator (or middle) forming chromosome pairs ready for separation. Telophase marks completion of separation into two daughter cells which now have their own sets of genetic material enclosed within new nuclear membranes surrounding them. Finally cytokinesis completes this process where cytoplasmic membrane splits forming two completely separate entities capable of initiating their own cycles again if conditions are right.