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Reviewing Research In Place Attachment Sociology Essay Example
Reviewing Research In Place Attachment Sociology Essay Example

Reviewing Research In Place Attachment Sociology Essay Example

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  • Pages: 6 (2939 words)
  • Published: September 10, 2017
  • Type: Essay
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Interest in people-place dealingss grows. Literature hunt in the most popular databases and major diaries with entries such as topographic point fond regard, topographic point individuality and related footings, has resulted in over 100s documents published within the last 40 old ages. At present the literature on people-place relationships is rich with empirical consequences, conceptual differentiations, and writers ' ain ways of forming the stuff. This paper reviews research in topographic point fond regard and organizes the stuff into three subdivisions: the conceptualisation, forecasters and effect of the concept. Research spread is discussed for future surveies.

The conceptualisation of topographic point fond regard

For some clip, the chief trouble the research worker has encountered when covering with the survey of topographic point fond regard has been the diverseness of attacks available at the theoretical degree every bit good as the empirical. There was no understanding sing its name, definition or methodological attack best suited to cover with it. We can happen many similar footings such as community fond regard ( Kasarda & A ; Janowitz, 1974 ) , sense of community ( Sarason, 1974 ) , topographic point fond regard ( Gerson et al. , 1977 ) , topographic point individuality ( Proshansky, 1978 ) , topographic point dependance ( Stokols & A ; Shumaker, 1981 ) , etc. , such that it is frequently hard to state whether we are speaking about the same construct with a different name or different constructs. This terminological and c

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onceptual confusion has earnestly blocked progresss within the field as many writers have pointed out ( Giuliani & A ; Faldman, 1993 ; Unger & A ; Wandersman, 1985 ) . Presently, there seems to be a certain consensus in the usage of the term `` topographic point fond regard '' .

In general, topographic point fond regard is defined as an affectional bond or nexus between people and specific topographic point. For illustration, for Shumaker and Taylor ( 1983 ) it is `` a positive affectional bond or association between persons and their residential environment '' ( p.233 ) . Hummon ( 1992 ) considers it `` emotional engagement with topographic points '' ( p.256 ) , and Low ( 1992 ) defines it as `` an person 's cognitive or emotional connexion to a peculiar scene or surroundings '' ( p.165 ) . These definitions may be appropriate to depict this particular feeling toward certain topographic points, but they have the drawback of being excessively equivocal and do non let us to distinguish fond regard from other closely-related constructs such as, for illustration, residential satisfaction, which has been defined as `` the positive or negative feeling that the residents have for where they live '' ( Weidemann & A ; Anderson, 1985 ; p.156 ) . For this ground, we consider it necessary to farther delimit it. Towards this purpose, we fall back on what we understand to be the chief feature of the construct of fond regard: the desire to keep intimacy to the object of fond regard ( Ainsworth & A ; Bell, 1970 ; Bowlby, 1969, 1980 ) . This characteristic, althoug

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is inexplicit in many definitions and operationalizations of the construct, has seldom been explicitly emphasized. If we incorporate this specific belongings into the old definition of topographic point fond regard, it could take the follow signifier: a positive affectional bond between an person and a specific topographic point, the chief feature of which is the inclination of the person to keep intimacy to such a topographic point.

The measuring of topographic point fond regard

Although some have treated the people-place relationship as one-dimensional, conceptual and empirical surveies have indicated its multidimensionality ( e.g. , Bricker & A ; Kerstetter, 2000 ; Williams et al. , 1992 ) . Widely accepted within the literature is Schreyer et Al. ( 1981 ) every bit good as Williams and Roggenbuck 's ( 1989 ) planar conceptualisation of topographic point fond regard.

Topographic point dependance. Place dependance reflects the importance of a topographic point in supplying characteristics and conditions that support specific ends or coveted activities of tourers. This functional fond regard is embodied in the country 's physical features, and may increase when the topographic point is near adequate to let for frequent trial.

Topographic point individuality. Place individuality is defined as `` the connexion between the ego and a peculiar scene that consists of a aggregation of memories, readings, thoughts and related feelings about physical scenes every bit good as types of scenes '' ( Proshansky et al. , 1983, p.155 ) . Reviewing the many and sometimes cloudy definitions of topographic point individuality in the literature, this survey identified for major conceptualisations which are deserving separating on theoretical evidences ( see figure 1 ) .

A first axis in the literature has been the impression of `` extended ego '' -- the thought that topographic points are experient cognitively as `` portion of the ego '' . Self-expansion theory ( Aron et al. , 1998 ) posits that people possess an built-in motive for self-expansion, or a desire to integrate others ( herein the topographic point ) into their construct of `` ego '' . The more an entity ( topographic point ) is included in the ego, the closer is the bond that connects them. Attachment develops over clip, a cognitive reorganisation takes topographic point such that the ego expands to include the entity. Peoples develop a positive feeling a `` unity '' with the entity ( Aron et al. , 1992 ) and tend to see the entity 's resources as their ain ( Mittal 2006 ) .

A 2nd axis revolves the impression of `` ecological ego '' ( Bragg, 1996 ) , besides captured in the construct of `` environmental individuality '' , whereby persons develop a subjective sense of suiting into, or being portion of their physical environment. This has some resonance besides with the construct of `` rootedness '' , which has been examined in the context of residential scene ( McAndrew, 1998 ) . Therefore, I view the sense of a topographic point as suiting into or belonging to is another aspect of topographic point individuality.

A 3rd axis is related to the impression of congruousness between ego and topographic point,

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