Conflict declaration and transmutation are issues which have become really topical in arguments and treatments on Zimbabwe. This is non merely because Zimbabwe is characterised by many struggles, but much more so due to the realisation that in most instances the struggles have negative impacts the a state 's socio-economic and political development. Thus struggle declaration and peace edifice procedures have become really indispensable in work outing the job of struggles in the state. This chapter intends to analyze the grassroots conflict declaration and peace edifice processes in Zimbabwe with a focal point on Tongogara territory as instance survey. It will besides seek to research the context, in which traditional leaders operate, the procedures that link them to the people every bit good as how other bookmans view them in footings of their effectivity.
nders ( 2000 ) defined literature reappraisal as a hunt and rating of the available literature in a given topic or country. Reviewing related literature helps the research worker addition penetration on what other research workers have done and establishes bing spreads which the research seeks to finally make full. Punch ( 1998 ) considers the reappraisal of related literature as a research worker 's roadmap in the quest to change over probationary research jobs to a elaborate and concise program of action. Lincoln ( 2005 ) augments the same impression by proposing that it is of importance to be guided by related literature as this will fit the research worker with needed accomplishments to measure assorted point of views establishing on the work that other research workers have done.
The literature reviewed in this chapter seeks to analyze the function of traditional
leaders in struggle transmutation, the construct of struggle transmutation, the common struggles experienced at grassroots degree and more significantly the attacks that are used by the traditional governments in transforming struggles. It farther seeks to analyze the theoretical and scholarly positions on the effectivity of community procedures that are employed in struggle direction and peace edifice.
2.1 Background to conflict theory
The period from 1970 to the present, has witnessed a singular involvement in surveies in struggle direction and transmutation. This was motivated by a figure of factors which include ideological alterations in the international system, the independency of most African provinces and the rise of many civil wars in Africa and the rise of new histrions in struggle declaration paradigm. Interestingly nevertheless, most of the literature produced focuses chiefly on the certification of struggles, their nature, and types of declaration that can be achieved pretermiting the country of struggle bar, declaration, transmutation and direction ; hence the demand to research on the practical ways that can assist in the accomplishment of sustainable peace particularly at grassroot degree. Gaps have besides been noticed in footings of the degree at which struggle analysis is taking topographic point as many bookmans tend to put conflict declaration and transmutation at the high degree of administration non sing that many causes of struggle are profoundly rooted in the grassroots and necessitate the grassroots level histrions to move on them to accomplish sustainable peace and development.
Sandy ( 2004 ) topographic points accent on the conditions that are necessary for the transmutation of struggles. He argues that any effort to joint the nature of struggle and struggle declaration, must turn to those conditions,
which are favorable for its outgrowth. He mentioned engagement, battle, freedom, justness and human rights as pre necessities for the accomplishment of struggle transmutation. Sandy ( 2004 ) besides mentioned the demand for Community edifice and democratisation as of import schemes in struggle declaration and transmutation.However Sandy does non take out on how the democratisation and community edifice can be used to accomplish struggle transmutation at the lowest degree of administration where there are traditional leaders and council members as cardinal histrions in administration. This therefore leaves out participants like the grass root leaders and other influential people in the communities who are besides of import in peace edifice. The Online Journal of Peace and Conflict Resolution ( 2010 ) focuses on definitions of peace and struggle, conveying the different sorts of peace that are at that place and the pre-requisites for struggle transmutation and peace, the mechanisms of accomplishing this peace is nevertheless frequently overlooked. This therefore leaves a spread in footings of literature that explores practical ways of deciding struggles and peace edifice,
Rumel ( 2004 ) looks at alternate constructs of struggle declaration and the rules underlying those constructs. He mentions peace, as being a province of head, that is, if the head is at remainder, so it follows that there will be peace and frailty versa. Rumel ( 2004 ) views the human head, as major subscriber to conflict as he points out that, for every bit long as one has unsatisfied desires he/she wo n't be at harmoniousness with the others. He brings out an of import facet in struggle transmutation when he states that a human being demands to be
satisfied with oneself and the result of any declaration exercising that possibly employed.
Harris and Reilly ( 2005 ) , emphasize the demand to construct a strong grassroots background every bit critical in turn toing profoundly rooted struggles. They emphasise on the importance of turn toing the root causes of struggles through the engagement of parties involved in the struggles. Their focal point is nevertheless more inclined to cultural struggles and tribal struggles, as they believe these struggles are more a consequence of individuality than anything else. This work is of import, as it looks some of the practical ways in struggle declaration that are needed to accomplish peace more so at grassroots level as most cultural and tribal struggle are noticed at lower degrees of disposal like the territories and the small towns.
Most of the literature on struggle turns a blind oculus on the function of grassroots histrions in struggle transmutation as normally their focal point is big scale degree, this frequently does non convey sustainability and progressive development, furthermore this besides leads to the extinction or diminution in relevancy of the grassroots attacks that are being used in the rural communities in developing states.
2.2 The construct of Conflict transmutation
Conflict transmutation is the term that has come into common use over the old ages from the early 1980s, as a construct and a procedure that encompasses assorted facets of struggle bar, peace edifice, back uping local capacities for peace and transformational development. Conflict transmutation arose as an option to the dominant paradigms of struggle declaration. As advocated by Lederach ( 1995 ) , conflict transmutation was conceptualized to supply a comprehensive model for turn toing
struggle throughout its stages, that is from the initial phases of indirect struggle, to all-out direct struggle to in conclusion, its declaration. Conflict transmutation seeks to turn to inquiries frequently neglected on struggle declaration ; structural force, civilization and cultural individuality and the function persons can play in decreasing struggle strength and continuance ( Miall et al 1999 ) . However, struggle transmutation has besides been articulated as an extension of current patterns incorporated in peace-building ( Miall et al 1999 ) . This differentiation does non nevertheless, affect the primary ends and aims of a transformational attack.
A figure of struggles theoreticians like Lederach ( 1998 ) advocator for the chase of struggle transmutation as opposed to conflict declaration and struggle direction, this harmonizing to Lederach ( 2000 ) is because struggle transmutation reflects a better apprehension of the nature of struggle itself. Conflict declaration implies that struggle is bad therefore something bad should be ended therefore struggle can be `` resolved `` for good though mediation and other intercession procedures, struggle direction on the other manus right assumes that struggles are long term processes that people can be directed or controlled as though they were physical objects ( Lederach 2000 ) . Furthermore Conflict transmutation as put by Lederach does non propose that we merely extinguish or command struggles but instead work with its dialectic nature, this takes into awareness the fact that struggle is societal and of course created by worlds who are involved in relationships, it changes ( transforms ) these events, people, relationships that created the initial struggle. The cause and consequence relationships therefore goes both ways from the people and
relationships to the struggle and so back to the people and the relationships ( Vayrnen 1991 ) , therefore in this sense struggle transmutation describes a natural happening.
Conflict Transformation besides involves transforming the manner struggles are expressed, it may be expressed competitively, sharply or violently or it may be expressed through nonviolent protagonism, alliance or attempted cooperation ( Lederach 1998 ) .The Centre for Conflict Dynamics ( CCD 2009 ) positions conflict transmutation as a procedure by which struggles such as cultural struggles are transformed into peaceable results, it is hence a procedure of prosecuting with and transforming the relationship, involvements, discourses and if necessary the very fundamental law of society that support the continuance of violent struggle. In support of this position by CCD ( 2009 ) , The Search for Common Ground ( SFCG 2010 ) sees conflict transmutation as enterprises that are frequently characterised by long clip skylines and intercessions at multiple degrees, aimed at altering perceptual experiences and bettering relationships and turn toing the roots of the struggle including inequality and societal justness.
Conflict transmutation theory recognises the demand to transform the struggle at a figure of degrees. Vayrnen ( 1991 ) identifies five transmutations that need to happen in order to hold a positive displacement in the struggle. These are context transmutation, structural transmutation, histrion transmutation, issue transmutation and single / group transmutation. This attack to conflict transmutation acknowledges the multi-dimensional nature of struggle.
2.2.1 Principles of struggle transmutation
Burton 1996 identifies several rules to which he argues organize the anchor of a struggle transmutation procedure.
Conflict should non be regarded as an stray event that can be resolved or managed but as an
built-in portion of society 's ongoing development and development.
Conflicts should non be understood sorely as inherently negative and destructive happening but instead as a potentially positive and productive force of alteration if harnessed constructively.
Conflict transmutation goes beyond simply seeking to incorporate and pull off struggle, alternatively seeking to transform root causes of a peculiar struggle.
Conflict transmutation is a long term gradual and complex procedure necessitating sustained battle and interaction.
Conflict transmutation is non merely an attack and set of techniques but a manner of believing about and understanding struggle itself.
Conflict transmutation is peculiarly intended for intractable struggles, with deep rooted issues.
2.3 Background to Traditional Leadership in Zimbabwe
Ranger ( 1996 ) poses that the establishment of traditional leading has been around in Africa from clip immemorial, traditional leaders are harmonizing to ranger the politicians of the pre-colonial age. At independency in 1980, Chieftainship was retained as a symbol of traditional values but the chiefs themselves were stripped of all their administrative and judicial maps. The heads and headman even lost their revenue enhancement roll uping maps every bit good as some administrative customary maps. District Councils assumed the administrative maps antecedently performed by traditional swayers whilst community tribunals took over the judicial maps.
Ncube ( 2011 ) posts that the failure by the new authorities to integrate and co-opt traditional establishments into formal province establishments in the first decennaries of independency prevarications at the bosom of the confusion environing local disposal in the communal countries after independency, this confusion was characterised by deficiency of lucidity on the functions and maps between the Traditional establishments of Chiefs, Headman and Village Heads and the elective leading of Village Development Committees
( VIDCOs ) and Ward Development Committees WADCOs in land affairs. This precipitated a crisis of communal leading in the communal countries of Zimbabwe whereby the legitimacy of the traditional establishments began to be questioned.Ncube ( 2011 ) further provinces that the powers of the traditional leaders were going defunct in many countries of the state, some heads, headsman and small town caputs required some of their defunct authorization over land proceeded to clandestinely allocate land, this land allotment has become the common beginning of struggles in Zimbabwe 's rural countries, therefore the crisis of communal leading sufficed itself in many land struggles which occurred throughout the state
The Zimbabwe administration system like in most African states is characterised by co-existence of familial chieftaincy and a democratically elected leading. Traditional leading is active at all degrees of administration in Zimbabwe from the national degree to the small town degree. At the highest degree of the establishment is the Chief, at the center of the hierarchy is the office of the Headman and at the lowest grade which is village degree is the Village Head, These establishments are established by the Traditional Leaders Act which recognises the function of each office in community development and peace edifice. The establishment of traditional leading is besides recognised by the fundamental law, unlike local authorities that is created by legislative acts of Parliament. There are nevertheless conflicting claims to legitimacy and uneasy co-existence between traditional and elective leading. Traditional leading and local authorities functionaries on occasion trade accusals of maltreatment of power, non-compliance with Torahs ; imposts and traditions, particularly sing allotment and direction of resources such as land which
forms the prevailing beginning of most struggles in communal countries
The Headman has maps similar to those of the Chief on a delegated footing but he is besides the chair of Ward Assembly meetings. Since the Village Head chairs both the VIDCO and Village Assembly, the VIDCOs survive on the difficult work of the Village Head and in a figure of instances the VIDCOs no longer runing with all VIDCO maps being performed by the Village Head whilst in some instances VIDCOs are merely seen to be runing when land differences and resource struggles emanate ( Moyo, 2006 )
2.3.2 The rural Governance karyon
The above diagram gives an account on the relationship in rural administration. The people form the nucleus of administration and everything that is done at local degree. The Africa Community Publishing and Development Trust ( ACPDT 2010 ) explains that the authorization in the rural countries rise with rank from the ordinary citizen or occupant of a local country until it reaches the degree of the rural territory council. Which form the overall leading in footings of development policies in Zimbabwean rural countries? the powers of the small town caputs are less than that of the headsman as given in the traditional leaders Act cap 29.17 ( 111 ) subdivision 11, whilst those of the Headman are more than those of the Village caputs but less than those of the head in footings of the same Act ( subdivision 6 and 8 ; Traditional Leaders Act ) .
Matibenga ( 2010 ) Asserts that in struggle declaration, if a small town caput fails to work out a community struggle issue, they refer it to the
headsman and if a headsman fails once more that same issue is referred to the Chief, the Chief is the highest traditional authorization in rural countries. Ncube ( 2011 ) nevertheless argues on the same line but saying otherwise that these hierarchies in the rural countries are the primary causes of struggles in rural Zimbabwe, this is because there are struggles between these traditional leaders themselves in footings of duties as one can easy see that the Chief has no bounds over his legal power in the discharge of traditional authorization, The head has the power harmonizing to the Traditional Leaders Act and the Customary Law and Local Courts Act to cover with issues even those that can be adjudicated by the lower authorization of traditional leading as such this causes dissatisfaction amongst the headsman and small town caputs, as a consequence if the lower authorization attempt to judge the same type of struggles in future, their authorization is easy undermined and as such this reduces their relevancy in covering with traditional affairs. This duplicate of responsibilities has been traveling on good for rather some clip and has therefore undermined the co-existence of these traditional leaders and as such reduced the impact of the grassroots attacks to conflict transmutation by the traditional governments.
2.4 Purposes of grassroots conflict declaration
2.4.1 Empowering the community
Kubasu ( 2008 ) observes that grassroots attacks to conflict declaration by traditional leaders seek to re-empower communities to do critical determinations and turn to the demands of their people every bit good as create an environment more contributing to enduring peace. This is because authorising the traditional leader is authorising the community as the
community Bankss on its leading for advancement, sentiment and development.
2.4.2 Restoration of Order and Relationships
From a traditional point of position, struggle is perceived as an unwelcome perturbation of the relationships within the community. Hence traditional struggle transmutation aims at the Restoration of order and harmoniousness of the community. Cooperation between struggle parties in the hereafter has to be guaranteed. Traditional struggle direction is therefore geared towards the hereafter ( Mare. 2004 ) . Consequently, the issue is non punishment of culprits for workss done in the past, but damages as a footing for rapprochement. Reconciliation is necessary for the Restoration of societal harmoniousness of the community in general and of societal relationships between struggle parties in peculiar. The purpose as put by Kubasu ( 2008 ) is `` non to penalize, an action which would be viewed as harming the group a 2nd clip. The ultimate purpose of struggle transmutation therefore is the Restoration of relationships
Another immediate aim of such conflict declaration is to repair the broken or damaged relationship, and rectify wrongs, and reconstruct justness ( Moyo 2009 ) . This is to guarantee the full integrating of parties into their societies once more ( Bob-Manuel: 2006 ) , and to follow the temper of co-operation for progressive development.
2.4.3 Transforming societies
Other long term purposes are based on edifice harmoniousness in the community. It has been realised that tolerance is non maintained automatically, and should purposefully be aimed at and worked for. The Kpelle people of Liberia of West Africa are known for their ad hoc local meetings called `` moots '' or `` community blandishments '' , where the conflicting parties arrive at mediated
colonies through the usage of experient traditional leader ( Bob-Manuel 2006 ) . Bob-Manuel ( 2006 ) further Tells that among the Ndendeuli of Tanzania, grasroot histrions play active functions in struggle resolution by proposing an understanding and acquire every bit far as supercharging the parties into accepting it. Supercharging can be done through speaking or vocalizing: shaming and ridiculing. This particular method can be used in contexts where it is acceptable and in cases where the cause of the difference is self- evident.
2.5 The importance of Grassroots histrions
Grassroots histrions are good positioned to turn to affairs of community edifice, and individuality formation. This is so due to a figure of grounds as noted by Wilson ( 2001 ) . First, grassroots histrions are positioned within the communities that they are working. These topographic points them in close propinquity to each person which builds trust, regard and assurance between those straight involved in the struggle. Wilson ( 2001 ) points out that the Volunteer struggle transmutation undertaking in the rural states of Rwanda was widely accepted because grassroots histrions were integrated into the local planning procedures which catered for developmental demands of the community.
Traditional attacks focus on the psycho-social and religious dimension of violent struggles and their transmutation. This dimension tends to be underestimated by histrions who are brought up and believe in the context of western enlightenment ( Dore 1995 ) . Conflict transmutation and peace-building is non merely about dialogues, political solutions and material Reconstruction, but besides about rapprochement and mental and religious healing. Traditional attacks have a batch to offer in this respect. They do non merely cover with stuff issues, ground
and talk, but besides with the religious universe, feelings and non-verbal communicating. Therefore Dore ( 1995 ) further high spots that rapprochement as the footing for the Restoration of communal harmoniousness and relationships is at the bosom of customary struggle declaration.
`` When covering with struggles based in a Third World or non-Western society, action or intervention from external factors, such as International Non-Government Organisations, is frequently regarded as culturally insensitive or an act of Western imperialism '' ( Solomon and Mangqibisa 2000 ) . This perceptual experience of outside intervention affects the chances of struggle transmutation as external histrions step ining in the struggle frequently have established methods of interaction that frequently disregard traditions of struggle declaration that are apparent in conflict-ridden societies ( Solomon and Mngqibisa 2000 ) . Grassroots histrions are nevertheless, frequently familiar with particularistic traditions of community-building. As these are more likely to be positively received by the people, traditional methods are more contributing to peace publicity and digesting stableness and cooperation within the society.
Traditional attacks are holistic, consisting besides societal, economic, cultural and religious-spiritual dimensions. This is in conformity with the entireness of traditional life styles and universe positions in which the different domains of social life are barely separated. ( Kubasu 2008 ) The struggle parties can straight prosecute in dialogues on struggle expiration and in the hunt for a solution, or a 3rd party can be invited to intercede ; in any instance the procedure is public, and the engagement in the procedure and the blessing of consequences is voluntary. It is carried out by societal groups in the involvement of societal groups ( drawn-out households, kins, small
town communities, folks, brotherhoods, etc. ) ; persons are perceived as members of a group, they are accountable to that group, and the group is accountable for ( the workss of ) each of its members.
Kubasu ( 2008 ) advances that grassroot action provides an priceless part to the procedure and substance of struggle transmutation. Through their place in the socio-political hierarchy, Traditional leaders are good placed to turn to issues of individuality and may frequently originate alteration in an environment by and large un-conducive to larger scale efforts at struggle declaration. Whilst the activities engaged by grassroots histrions is mostly context particular, struggle transmutation theoreticians and practicians can look to the success of different grassroots enterprises to construct upon the current literature.
2.5.1 Comparison between grassroots conflict transmutation and Morden struggle declaration
Table 1 ( Adopted from Kubasu 2008 )
Traditional struggle declaration values
Opinion handed down by the traditional leader whose throne is familial and his assessors selected on their virtues
Opinion handed down by Judgess whose
office is conferred on them through formal
Peaceful declaration and resort to justness
Frequent resort to retaliation and force,
without waiting for justness
Concern to accommodate the parties in
Opinions are categorical. There is no
concern to convey together the parties to the
struggle, nor for any ulterior result
The traditional leaders act out of a spirit
of honestness, nonpartisanship and equity
They offer their services voluntarily
Bureaucratic and ( at times ) corrupt outlook
Justice by the people affecting everyone
( everyone can come to listen and give
an sentiment ) at the darings or small town circles
Justice is the state of a peculiar group
of people ( those with formal makings )
Drawn-out judicial procedure
Disputes settled rapidly or over a period of clip ( transformative
Moral and societal countenances
Physical penalty and stuff mulcts
Anguish and imprisonment ( does non make societal harmoniousness )
Depriving persons of their maps
Bing discredited in others ' eyes
Once the punishment has been paid, no farther
mention made to offenses committed
2.5.2 Conflict Mapping and Analysis
Procedures of struggle declaration in Africa are characterised by three dimensions which include the nature of struggles, struggle declaration mechanisms and the result of such mechanisms. In understanding the nature of struggles, foremost there is need to place types of struggles ( Maruta and Mpofu: 2004 ) . There have been different ways of placing types of struggles. One manner is in footings of complexness. It has been observed that in Zimbabwe there are simple and complex types of struggles ( Alexander 1995 ) . Most of the struggles have been and go on to be complex. The 2nd manner is in footings of continuance. In this context there are short lived and drawn-out struggles. Protracted struggles are the most common in rural Zimbabwe these include struggles of resources particularly land and good as cultural or tribal issues.In the Midlands and Matabeleland were protracted struggles and civil wars that came after independency.
The 3rd manner is in footings of force. There are struggles which are violent and those which are non-violent. Some people have characterised the non-violent struggles as latent or structured struggles ( Fisher 2007 ) . However, most struggles which have been studied and which have drawn greater attending are violent struggles which have involved bloodshed. Although most conflict declaration steps have been taken on violent struggles, there have besides been state of affairss when struggle declaration steps have been made on
latent struggles. For illustration the latent struggle between traditional leaders and elected council members in the Zibabgwe territory of Kwekwe gave rise to a procedure of peace dialogues under the protections of the Centre for Conflict Management and Transformation ( Mpangala, 2000 ) . The 4th manner of placing types of struggles is in footings of the graduated table of the struggle. In this context conflicts in rural countries have been categorised as either resource or political struggles, with a few tribal and family struggles
2.5.3 The consequence of political engagement
Sometimes the function of traditional leaders as title-holders of struggle transmutation and good administration is compromised by their engagement in political relations, this motivates the people to dispute their legitimacy and the cogency of their opinions, and as such this affects their leading capablenesss. The Newsday ( 2012 ) reported that the establishment of the traditional leading has come under limelight following the authorities 's purpose to confer greater powers on the traditional leaders, the statement here is that the age old construct of traditional leaders staying mere keepers of cultural values and mediating with the ascendants has been turned caput on as a regnant authorities seeks to heighten their political expedience though influencing traditional leaders, Kubatana ( 2012 ) supports this by citing President Mugabe 's address when he said heads should no longer stay depositories of unwritten history
`` You should be defenders of our national sovereignty and guard against those who delight in tie ining with our disparagers and those who work in cahoots with the powers that seek to misdirect our people '' ( Kubatana:2012 )
Mararike ( 2011 ) observes that although there
is demand to better the function and operations of heads, greater cautiousness should be taken to forestall maltreatment of any authorization guaranteed, traditional leaders are unable to run efficaciously because of the dualism of utilizing the Roman Dutch Law as the footing of our legal system and the traditional system hence there could be serious jobs unless the traditional system of authorities is clearly separated from the political party system whereby traditional leaders are separated in a non-partisan manner
Few traditional leaders have legal staying to contemn Morden signifiers of justness their opinion and authorization can be easy contested and overlooked, the Chief Negomo vs. the Prime curate Tsvangirai issue is one such illustration of a state of affairs where traditional leaders are limbo to turn to community issues but travel on to contend the politicians, nevertheless they end up with their determinations overlooked and their legitimacy questioned, Mararike ( 2011 ) further argues that the current harvest of traditional leaders have no capacity, he argues that immature, educated and professional work forces should be appointed as heads otherwise the current harvest would necessitate support staff to distribute justness without prejudices among rural communities.
2.6 The Traditional Conflict Transformation attacks
During the old ages of traditional leading in Africa assorted struggles caused by different issues attracted assorted attacks to their declaration. Most struggles and their declaration methods at that clip were preponderantly local. Conflicts were between persons, small towns, communities or folks who lived in the same or bordering countries. Those who intervened were frequently local seniors and /or tribal leaders. When lands developed about the 17th and eighteenth century in southern Africa, stronger and wider authorization came
into power, but the traditional methods of instigating and deciding struggles had gone through really little alterations and are now bit by bit get downing their procedure of diminution.
Mediation is defined as an effort to settle a difference through an active engagement of a 3rd party ( Mediator ) who works to happen points of understanding and do those in conflict agree on a just consequence. The Harvard diary of Conflict Studies ( Nov 2008 ) defines mediation as an act of rapprochement that is seeking to unify and make an understanding between conflicting parties.
The heads and headsman are respected as trusty go-betweens all over Africa, because of their accrued experience and wisdom as they are normally of an aged age. Their function as go-betweens would depend on traditions, fortunes and personalities, consequently of their society. These functions include: pressurising or pull stringsing conflicting parties to make an understanding, doing recommendations, giving appraisal, conveying suggestions on behalf of a party. Behaviour used is facilitation, through clear uping information, advancing clear communicating, construing point of views, summarizing treatments, underscoring relevant norms or regulations, imagining the state of affairs if understanding is non reached, or repetition of the understanding already attained. The go-betweens can besides stay inactive, as they are at that place to stand for of import shared values. There is no preset theoretical account, so they are entitled to alter their functions from clip to clip as they perceive demands at assorted times. Jacobs etal ( 2009 ) nevertheless asserts that the challenge of grassroot mediation is the deficiency of capacity by the traditional leader in footings of neutrality and struggle analysis.
2.6.2 Sustained duologue
term is used to mention to a method of struggle declaration that is used in most traditional society, the term was coined by Harold Saunders ( 1998 ) who viewed the duologue procedure as a systematic and unfastened ended procedure meant for transforming conflictual relationships within communities over a period of clip based on the premise that misinterpretations are portion of a society 's well-being. The procedure of sustained duologue brings together groups of concerned citizens and community leaders to research implicit in relationships behind the struggle and develop schemes to better them but seeks to accomplish this by prosecuting those affected by the struggle and those who are believed to be intensifying the struggle, the chief focal point is on the Restoration of the broken relationships that are damaged by misgiving, perceptual experiences and hurtful experiences that result in struggles and force.
The sustained duologue system used in Tongogara territory is the small town circle system of unfastened duologue ( CCJPZ 2007 ) here traditional leaders hear of certain struggles in their countries and gather with the people to seek and happen a manner of covering with those struggles. The people will prosecute in duologue on the issue as a community and happen a manner forward that will be sustainable and agreeable by the community. Consequently CCMT ( 2009 ) reported on the success of sustained duologue as a traditional signifier of struggle declaration in the Midlands Province after it was used by leaders in the Mfiri Ward in Tongogara District to work out a struggle between a certain school and parents who were declining to pay school fees after the traditional leaders were trained
on the duologue procedure by the administration ( CCMT 2009 ) . A traditional leader who will be moving as the facilitator suggests determinations based on land regulations that are set up by the community. They look frontward to the hereafter, for improved dealingss - non merely between the conflicting parties but besides in the whole community that is involved.
Sustained Dialogue focal point is chiefly on relationships that may be dysfunctional because of the manner they evolved over clip, relationships that appear composure at the surface but are under girded by destructive interactions for a assortment of grounds. Sustained Dialogue hence works with a double docket, that of turn toing concrete community jobs in this instance the violent struggles, that is, concentrating on practical jobs and issues of concern to all participants at the same time and explicitly sustained duologue besides explicitly focuses on transforming the implicit in relationships that create and block declaration of those jobs.
2.6.3 Consensus seeking
Bob-Manuel speaks of consensus seeking as a traditional attack to conflict transmutation when he describes the procedure as an act of prosecuting the community on how they feel of a peculiar issue and the traditional leader giving the platform for people to aerate their positions and find their solution, this harmonizing to Hart ( 2007 ) is meant to beef up any determination that would be passed as a struggle colony therefore when the traditional leader passes a determination it is expected that the whole small town, ward or community would accept to it. Consensus seeking is chiefly seen in VIDCO meetings with the small town Heads, Ward Meeting with the Headman or Chief where community and
development issues are discussed. It besides creates assurance that such a jointly developed determination will turn out to be effectual and long lasting. When an understanding is finally reached, the good intelligence is shared with the groups and communities concerned. ( Mudangwe. 2007 ) The understanding is so affirmed as a societal contract in a ritual manner, which differs from society to society.
The advantages of the consensus seeking position in the struggle transmutation harmonizing to Lederach ( 1998 ) are that it leads to a more profound and shared apprehension of the struggle. It besides encourages the credence of the purpose of a hearty relational life after the struggle is resolved. It makes the transmutation procedure participatory in a full sense as it involves more than merely the inclusion of the parties and the go-betweens. It farther promotes a sense of belonging, which in bend, may lend to the Restoration, care and re-building of relationships.
2.6.4 The traditional tribunal system
Mberi ( 2009 ) points out that the traditional tribunal system ( daring ) , which is still in usage in rural Zimbabwe shows a alone attack to law and legality. Gelfand ( 1981 ) farther supports this by stating that the chief aim of the traditional tribunal system is to guarantee societal order and harmoniousness within the community, in add-on the traditional tribunal system in Zimbabwe is a procedure non an event because it takes attention of persons even after the tribunal test ( mbiti:1970 ) . The rural public show some rich rules that are linked to the logical thinking processes associating to offense, jurisprudence and opinion and these are linked to logic and moralss
traditional system believes in leading through consensus, leting everyone in their localized kins to hold a voice while the traditional caput of each kin regulations by consent. Kubasu, ( 2008 ) postulates that a major map of the traditional leading system is to move as arbiters and conciliators when differences occur in order to reconstruct peace and maintain harmonious dealingss between households and kins. The procedure involves admiting duty, atoning, inquiring for forgiveness, paying compensation being reconciled with the victim 's household through the traditional leaders interceding with the household in grudge.
Gombe ( 1998 ) , identifies three types of tribunals in Zimbabwe 's traditional system
184.108.40.206 The Family Court
This harmonizing to him is a private tribunal session between members of a individual household, this tribunal is normally presided over by a small town caput of household caput for the intent of covering with issues without affecting members of the populace, Ramose ( 1990 ) further provinces that the African jurisprudence of the Ubuntu Law is applied here, the intent is to convey togetherness and harmoniousness which are clear traits of the household atmosphere.
220.127.116.11 The Local Court
This presides over instances affecting two or more different households and is normally presided by a headsman, this tribunal handles instances like land struggles, development and resource struggles, ingestion of harvests by farm animal 's. The purpose of the local tribunal harmonizing to Gombe ( 1998 ) is to instil societal hegemony among the disputing parties and to promote the plaintiff to understand that incorrect making is portion and package of human nature to ease forgiveness of the accused and publicity of societal harmoniousness. The procedure of struggle declaration at
the local tribunal is chiefly mediation as the seniors normally try to happen a long permanent solution that is reciprocally good to both parties in the struggle ; the seniors used their long gathered traditional cognition to assist the struggle parties achieve a good solution
26.4.3 The heads Court
This harmonizing to Mare ( 2004 ) is the highest traditional tribunal which is presided by a head, together with the aid of advisers appointed in footings of subdivision 26, and 31a of the traditional leaders Act, the advisers are chosen on the footing of intelligence, cognition, experience and age, normally this tribunal besides presides over bounders that the other lower tribunals would hold failed to cover with and Is given power to cover with all community issues in footings of the customary jurisprudence and local tribunals act, the traditional leaders act and the rural territory councils act, harmonizing to the Zimbabwean fundamental law the chiefs tribunal have legal footing to enforce mulcts and certain punishments, it adjudicates land issues, tribal issues, resource issues among other struggles that possibly found in the local community. The procedure of struggle declaration at the heads council is chiefly arbitration with small mediation as a head has powers to enforce mulcts and the opinion if powerful unless contested at the magistrates tribunals
The tradition tribunal system demonstrates concluding, the first phase of the struggle declaration procedure is describing of the struggle to the traditional leader, to originate the procedure of justness on the portion of the offended, the day of the months are given, the extent of the harm and the award the plaintiff expects, the rule of truth relation is strongly upheld.
Common struggles and causes in Zimbabwe
2.7.1Classification of Conflicts
Based on the above apprehension of the construct and attacks to conflict transmutation, different theoretical constructs are normally utilised to distinguish struggles based on social degree at which a peculiar struggle occurs. Differentiation is made based on what is assumed to be the issues or beginnings of struggle. In the literature difference is made between `` subjective '' and `` nonsubjective '' issues ( Beach 1984 ) . As the former is concerned, societal struggles are chiefly about things that are touchable such as resources, power, prestigiousness, district or land, etc. On the other manus, statements on `` subjective '' issue claim that conflicts occur due to the distorted relationships, perceptual experiences and deficiency of acknowledgment for individualities. Kerman ( 1965 ) contends that struggle is a effect of hapless communicating, misperception, misreckoning, socialisation, and other unconscious procedures.
Based on the above description the undermentioned types of struggle could be identified for the intent of this research. However, it should be noted that such differentiation has a mere conceptual intent instead than a clear word picture in world.
2.7.2 Social struggles
In the literature it is used as across-the-board phrase to intend struggles that take topographic point among societal histrions, persons, groups such as households, kins, small towns, political parties, authoritiess, societies, etc. about nonsubjective and subjective issues ( Fisher et al 2001 ) . In the day-to-day use, the phrase frequently means struggles among persons and groups on specific societal and cultural issues. The same apprehension is employed in this research to embrace domestic struggles within a household and `` extended '' household about matrimonial and generational issues and within
a community about cultural and spiritual values and readings. Ncube ( 2001 ) postulates struggles between African traditional belief systems and patterns and the Western influenced value systems and patterns to which massive spiritual beliefs ( such as Christianity and Moslem ) belongs ; the struggles between the assorted massive spiritual groupings themselves ; struggle between coevalss ; struggles between urban and rural life manners ; struggles between twosomes ; and struggles between households on non-fulfilment of customary duties ( such as Lobola and compensations for wrong-doings ) these are struggles that could be characterized as societal struggles in its narrow sense.
2.7.3 Political Conflicts
By political struggles it is meant struggles around political issues, specifically political power as enabling factor to act upon entree to resources, establishments, and privileges, ( Maruta and Mpofu 2004 ) . In the modern province, this is strongly associated with control of province establishments and governments every bit good as with the inability of the province to run into the demands and outlooks of the people. The ideological differences that are frequently highlighted in such political struggles are merely footing of statements brought frontward by conflicting parties to warrant their purposes and actions. In Zimbabwe as in most other states, political struggles are strongly associated with the control of province establishments. Political struggles include besides conflicts between the province establishments or people who control it and ordinary citizens around bringing of services and allotment of values. The struggles around the issue of land, allotment of houses and alleviation assistance and giver services, entree to societal services ( wellness and nutrient and instruction ) , entree to justness among others. are but
some that are frequently at the bosom of political struggles ( Murithi etal 2009 ) .
2.7.4 Livestock struggles
Livestock are the chief beginning of income. They can be sold in exchange for other trade goods. A cow is like a modern history in the bank. A cow is collectible as dowery in matrimony dialogues or used in exchange for grain during hungriness state of affairss. Cattles are used as a beginning of milk, beef and cow droppings assorted with clay is used for mud-slinging the walls of the huts for shelter in these rural communities. Cattles are a extremely regarded plus and each community believes that all the cowss of the universe belong to them by Godhead right ( Maruta and Mpofu 2004 ) . Therefore stealing 1s cowss is like destructing their hereafter and the accusal frequently leads to a deep sitting struggle that can take toll over coevalss, even the accusal entirely can do a serious struggle that might take the signifier of force or hatred. Furthermore since farm animal tended to be herded for rather a long period during the agricultural season, this is chiefly done by immature kids who may bury the responsibility whilst playing around doing the farm animal to come in into other peoples Fieldss and destruct their harvests doing much struggles that need the attending of the traditional leader and at other times the council members of the District Administrator
2.7.5 Domestic and family struggles
Domestic and family struggles are those struggles that can be restrained to the households and non the community or society as a whole, these include instance of divorce, matrimony differences sing to customary jurisprudence, the issues
of heredity. Mtetwa ( 1999 ) puts this group in the same with societal struggles but nevertheless argues that this makes the societal struggles group more wide and therefore hard to specify, as such the standalone of the class becomes relevant, Domestic Conflicts harmonizing to Maruta and Mpofu ( 2004 ) organize the background of most struggles as he argues that most struggles start within the household and so escalates to the society, in Zimbabwe these struggles have become much more prevailing to the extent that different statute law is being developed to cut down the struggles, one such illustration is the Domestic Violence Act and the Witchcraft Act which seeks to cut down the rate of adult females and child maltreatment in the society and cut down struggles through accusal of certain supernatural occurrences ( NAC 2010 )
2.7.6 Land struggles
Harmonizing to Anderson ( 2007 ) , conflicts over land signifier a major subject in Zimbabwe 's rural countries and are regarded as the most serious, this is because of deficit of land, the land usage forms and the battle for control of land in the rural communities, force per unit area on land is considerable because of the population growing and the segregation policies that were one time employed by the colonial government which led to unequal land distribution. However harmonizing to Anderson land sovereignty in the communal lands does non ever intend that struggles over land are economically motivated, the statement is that the agricultural potency of the land is now limited in Zimbabwe 's communal lands, land usage and value can be better understood as socially induced. Land struggles are normally dominated
by small town caputs as the local province establishments responsible for land issues have a limited apprehension of and exert small control over land issues
This chapter explored the cardinal constructs of struggle transmutation every bit good as the assorted functions and parts of traditional leaders to conflict management.. The constructs of struggle transmutation are hard to contextualise and use though nevertheless they exist in rural societies of Zimbabwe, the function of traditional leaders in struggle transmutation should be enhance in different ways that were explored by different writers and bookmans discussed and referred to in this chapter. The different struggles that are experienced in Zimbabwean rural societies with peculiar mention to Tongogara territories require different methods of intercessions by different stakeholders. Given the decomposition of traditional social constructions in many parts of Zimbabwe, the potency of traditional attacks for struggle transmutation and peace edifice is limited. Traditional attacks merely are applicable in specific fortunes and in confined niches.Nevertheless ; it would be a error to disregard that potency and non to do usage of it wherever possible. Traditional attacks might give us wider penetrations for struggle transmutation processes more by and large. Thus Traditional struggle declaration certainly is non a Panacea for all community jobs, but it is an attack that so far has been underestimated by histrions who in the struggle transmutation field.
The Chapter will sketch informations garnering techniques and the justification of the methods in the research design that will be used to transport out the research on the grasroot approaches to conflict transmutation by traditional leaders in Tongogara territory. The research worker will look at the research design, mark population,
sample size to be used every bit good as, trying methods that will be utilizing in transporting out this survey.
3.1 Research Methodology
Somekh and Lewin ( 2011 ) defines methodological analysis in its narrowest sense as the aggregation of methods or regulations by which a peculiar piece of research is undertaken and judged to be valid, nevertheless it can be used in a broader sense to intend the whole system of rules, theories and values that underpin a peculiar attack to research, Lewis, and Thornhill ( 2003 ) besides defined methodological analysis as the divinity of how research should be taken. Punch ( 1998 ) defines methodological analysis as the schemes, action planning or design that informs the pick of specific processs and techniques for informations aggregation and analysis.
Saunders ( 2000 ) defined research methodological analysis as, `` a theory of how a research should be undertaken '' . The research methodological analysis applies to a systematic survey of methods that are, can be, or have been applied within a specific subject. In this survey, this research worker will utilize a assorted methods attack affecting both the quantitative and qualitative methods. The advantage of utilizing the assorted methods attack is that both attacks complement each other. In this survey, the quantitative attack will be used as a background ( background ) for understanding the qualitative responses from the participants. Somekh and Lewin ( 2011 ) term this triangulation which they define as a method by which information from at least three different positions are collected on the same issue, event so that they can be cross validated
3.1.1 Qualitative Research
Qualitative research involves an interpretative and realistic attack
to the universe. Denzin and Lincoln ( 2005 ) chronicles that qualitative research is a survey of things in their scenes, trying to do sense of, or construe, and phenomena in footings of the significances people give to them. Qualitative research is empirical research where the informations are non Numberss. The strength of utilizing the qualitative attack to research is that it helps the research worker to garner a deep penetration into the beliefs, motivations, attitudes and behaviour of the mark group. Roll uping qualitative informations for research besides reveals grounds why persons exhibit certain behaviours within the natural scenes of their plants or populating conditions ( Punch, 2009 ) . Qualitative research begins with premises so the aggregation of informations for consequences ( Creswell, 2007 ) . For this survey, it will be of import to roll up qualitative informations because such informations will assist depict the procedure of struggle declaration used in Tongogara. Since the research worker intends to happen consequences that may be used by all traditional leaders to better on their community processes, a descriptive subdivision will be suited for accomplishing that intent.
3.1.2 Quantitative research
Unlike the qualitative research, the quantitative research is empirical research where the information Numberss are used to depict the ascertained state of affairs ( Punch, 2009 ) . Quantitative research involves controlled usage of closed research inquiries and state of affairss, seeks objectiveness and facilitates proof of statements by quantifying the responses ( Rudestam and Newton 2007 ) . In the same vena, Leedy ( 1989 ) states that quantitative research involves Numberss and statistical use and analysis.
3.2 Research Design
Hussey and Hussey ( 1997 ) noted that
research design refers to the scientific discipline or art of planning processs for carry oning surveies to obtain the most valid findings. In order to accomplish this, there must be an orderly, nonsubjective and systematic manner of roll uping informations. Sekaran ( 2000:53 ) described research design as that which `` involves the planning of the existent survey, covering with such facets as the location of the survey, how to choose the sample and roll up informations and how to analyze the informations.O ' Leary ( 2004 ) defines research design as a method upon which an probe is based and how the research survey will be carried out.
Consequently Kothari, ( 1985 ) augments that the quality of any research undertaking will be enhanced by a good apprehension of the research design. This will inform the thought and lay the foundation for the design of the undertaking. This research is traveling to utilize a instance survey method in order to infer the existent scenario in Tongogara territory in the field of struggle transmutation and place the jobs and suggest solutions for the intent of uniting and turn toing identified challenges.
In add-on in this design both qualitative and quantitative research are traveling to be employed with more prejudices on qualitative as it relies more to a great extent on linguistic communication for the readings of its significance, so data aggregation methods tend to affect close human engagement and a originative procedure of theory development instead than proving. Both secondary and primary informations beginnings are traveling to be used to roll up informations. Primary techniques to be employed include questionnaires and interviews and secondary include human resources
articles, cyberspace articles and library beginnings
The research worker will trust more on questionnaires interviews with a carefully selected sample of participants. The principle behind the usage of the qualitative attack is to concentrate on how the struggles are resolved and the attacks that are used. The method enables the research worker to derive new penetration into peculiar issues and how they can be addressed. The attack will let the research worker to prove the cogency of certain premises, claims, theories within the context in which the research is conducted.
3.2.1 Descriptive Research Design
Newton ( 2007:20 ) provinces that, `` the descriptive research design is description that is meant to show a elaborate and accurate image of the nature of what is being researched on. '' In relation to the research inquiry identified for this survey, a descriptive research design will be a powerful tool to formalize consequences because the research worker will be able to depict what is on the land. Punch ( 2009:21 ) further clarifies the advantages of utilizing descriptive research design when the he points out that, `` to depict is to somehow pull a ( word ) image of what happened or of how things are continuing, or what a state of affairs or individual or event is like. '' Therefore, the major ground for taking this design is that it will give elaborate descriptions of the responses to the inquiries of this survey, and it will enable the research worker to construe what is there that is how participants experience and position the state of affairs.
3.3 A Case Study
The instance survey attack was adopted as the research scheme so as to
bring forth elaborate information on grasroot attacks to conflict transmutation by traditional leaders. A instance survey dressed ores on what is alone. It represents a comprehensive description and account of many constituents of a given state of affairs. Somekh and Lewin ( 2011 ) , defines a instance survey as an attack to research which seeks to prosecute with and describe on the complexness of societal and educational activity in order to stand for the significances that individual societal histrions bring to those scenes and fabricate them. Consequently Cooper et Al ( 1998 ) , notes that instance surveies tend to bring forth elaborate descriptions, develop possible accounts and besides measure the impact of any given factor. The instance survey was seen to being cardinal to the research worker 's scientific probe as it allows the research to be at the site where fact-finding interactions occur every bit good as observe histrions in the context of procedures at drama and the events taking topographic point. This will therefore enable the research worker to come up with a comprehensive elaborate research.
A population in this survey refers to all the people that are found within the bounded country ( Tongogara ) and are involved in the country under survey. Harmonizing to Torrington ( 1994 ) , Population in research denotes to the entire aggregation of elements about which the research worker wishes to do some enquiries. In the same vena, Kothari, ( 1985 ) specify population as all possible elements that could be included in a research that have one or more features which are of involvement to the research worker. However, with the clip and
resources available to this research worker, analyzing the whole population will be an impossible undertaking. The research worker will utilize representative samples of participants in roll uping informations.
3.4.1 Target population
Bless and Smith ( 1995 ) defines a mark population as a group of people a research worker wants to analyze. Generally, Tongogara has a entire population of around 16 000 harmonizing to the 2002 Statistical Census ; the country has 3 Chieftainships, 15 Headman and 126 Village Heads. It will non be possible for the research worker to aim the entire population therefore a certain population will be targeted. This mark population will be chosen on the footing of stand foring the whole society.
A sample harmonizing to Patton ( 2002 ) refers to the persons who are included in informations aggregation, selected from the whole population, Harmonizing to White ( 2005 ) , a sample may be viewed as a representative part of the elements in a population ; hence the choice of the sample may find the quality of the consequences in the survey. From a targeted population of 166 people, the research worker will take a sample of 134 people. The samples will be drawn from their homogenous groups and simple random sampling will be used. This serves to state that all Chiefs will be sampled, half of the headsman. Graded random sampling will be employed in the sampling of the small town caputs and the occupants because of their heterogenous and big populations and to give a just opportunity of choice to village caputs in the relocation countries every bit good as those in the communal countries. Tongogara territory has
one District Administrator and his helper who will be used as such. The research worker chose to utilize simple random sampling because it serves clip and informations aggregation is more manageable as fewer people are involved.
Dawson, ( 2002 ) assert that sampling is a systematic choice of a smaller subset of instances from a larger pool of instances for inclusion in a research undertaking. Wenger ( 1999 ) positions trying as a procedure of choosing a representative subset from the population to find the population parametric quantities of the random variable under survey. Therefore by this one can state that a sample is meant to stand for a big population. The research worker will pull out from the sampling frame a sample that would stand for all the involvements of the survey without seeking to prejudice a individual research facet.
3.5.1 Sampling techniques
Harmonizing to Fowler ( 2008 ) , trying is the procedures of choosing units from a population of involvement so that by analyzing the sample we may reasonably generalise our consequences back to the population from which they were chosen. Kumar, ( 2005 ) , define sampling as the procedures of choosing units from a population of involvement so that by analyzing the sample we may reasonably generalise our consequences back to the population from which they were chosen. It is selected to be representative of that population.
18.104.22.168 Types of trying techniques
The trying techniques to be used will include graded sampling and simple random sampling.
22.214.171.124.1 Simple random trying
Connolly ( 2007 ) , positions random trying as `` any kind of trying were each member of the population has a calculable and non zero opportunity
of choice. '' It is a procedure of choosing and obtaining a sample in such a manner that every member of the population has an equal opportunity of being selected. The research worker used this technique because it is scientific and removes prejudices in the choice of the sample. The research worker will used this type of trying in taking the occupants to interview ; it besides provides precise mathematical statements of chances being correct.
126.96.36.199.2 Purposeful or judgmental sampling
A purposeful sampling attack to choice of participants suggest that purposefully selected participants are rich with information sing the phenomenon being studied ( Creswell 2007 ) . Purposive sampling is based wholly on the opinion of the research worker 's cognition of the population ; a opinion is made about which topics should be selected to supply the best information to turn to the intent of the research ( White. 2005 ) . From the entire population of TRDC traditional leaders, the research worker selected all the heads and headsman that are able to understand the construct of struggle transmutation and those that are able to read and compose. The District Administrator plays a supervisory function over TRDC therefore it makes him applicable.
188.8.131.52.3 Graded random trying
Harmonizing to Kumar ( 2005 ) , stratified sampling is most appropriate where the mark population is heterogenous. The mark population will be divided into a figure of strata and so the participants will be indiscriminately selected from each stratum. It besides entails spliting the mark population into sub-populations in this instance wards so eventually pulling a random sample for each
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