The perspective of the social exchange theory Essay Example
The perspective of the social exchange theory Essay Example

The perspective of the social exchange theory Essay Example

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  • Pages: 7 (1919 words)
  • Published: September 1, 2017
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Social Exchange Theory is a theory that explains social change and stability as a process of negotiated exchanges between people, which is a position in the field of sociological and psychological sciences. According to this theory, human interaction can be described as a unique transaction that seeks to increase rewards while reducing costs. It advocates that all human relationships are formed using a cost-benefit analysis and comparison with alternatives. This theory has its roots in economics, psychology, and sociology and is linked to rational choice theory and structural linguistics. It arose as a reaction to functionalism and describes the social world as a system of exchanges of tangible and intangible goods between individuals and social groups. Social exchange theorists view every interaction as a transaction, or something for something, similar to the theory of individual op


portunism.Social exchange theory is a concept in social science that suggests individuals take action with the hope of benefiting themselves. These benefits can often be intangible, such as respect from others, satisfaction, and obedience. The theory explains that in social relationships, there are elements of without subject, sacrifice, and benefits that affect each other. Human ego is based upon the balance between what is given to the relationship and what is excluded. While there is no unified theory of exchange in sociology, it's possible to identify three main theoretical points of theories. For instance, in the case of the common exchange between brides and grooms, it could be seen as a civil contract between two separate actors or a reciprocally donated sacrament in Christianity. Alternatively, it may be viewed as an institutional position or mollification, which forms a driver t

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organize.According to sociological theoreticians, individuals always act in relation to exchange, whether as individuals or pairs, and there are always sociological "social faces" present, such as positive ones like praises or goods, or negative ones like abuses or threats. While exchange theory usually focuses on positive or ambivalent faces, it also encompasses negative faces and more general approaches. When conflicting interests arise in the distribution of conflict, actors face each other with both advantages and drawbacks. The minimax rule applies to economics and positive faces like goods for money in markets. Negative faces like acts of violence in war are taken into account in counter relations, where the goal is to minimize losses and maximize opposition. Some critics have dismissed exchange theory as a deviation from behaviorism that is based on Homans and Blau's work.At a cost, a rational model was created which excluded extra-economic motives, norms, institutions, and their history, in comparison to classical and other sociological approaches. Durkheim and Mauss aimed for societal collectives, such as community and systemic position, to act in exchange for each other's consent. The actors received mostly positive feedback for their consideration towards the group, and participants had a common interest in the welfare of the collective. Every exchange involved compromise in favor of the collective, even for a loyal member of a community, and is reflected in valid rites and norms that express stability. As such, exchange behavior is referred to as "amphibole" exchange. Clausen considers it one of the forms of exchange that involves a person's actions along with human nature.The parties engage in an exchange with the aim of promoting the survival of the human

species and other species, making it both a sociological and anthropological institution. This pertains specifically to reproduction, child-rearing, and fighting ability. The most common example involves the interaction between a baby and a caregiver, usually but not exclusively the mother, where both parties are biologically supported, and the happier they are, the better it is for others. Homans' Exchange Theory states that social behavior involves an exchange of tangible material goods as well as intangible symbols of approval and status. Homans utilized key concepts from behavioral psychologists and neoclassical economists to explain social behavior. The operant conditioning behavioral model is rooted in the premise that individuals seek to maximize pleasure while minimizing pain. It is assumed that individuals will respond as expected to reward and punishment. Interactions provide an opportunity to share resources where each party attempts to gain resources of higher value than they give or refuse.All societal organizations were established through web exchanges. The organization requires other bodies within the organization to achieve unity. Homans formulated five general commissariats concerning social behavior and resource sharing. Three of them replicate the model of behavioral psychologists. The first commissariat directly follows the principles of operant conditioning, stating that a person will perform an action more frequently if they are rewarded for it. The second commissariat relates to the recognition of past experiences, stating that if a person is rewarded for a particular action in the past, they are more likely to perform the same or similar actions in the present if the stimuli are similar. However, the third commissariat argues that if a person does not receive expected rewards or receives unexpected punishment for their

actions, they may become aggressive. Among Homans' allegations are claims of success, assertions of want, and an impregnation of aggression within society.According to Peter Blau's Exchange Theory, there are seven statements. The first statement asserts the importance of reason in choosing between two alternate courses of action that will achieve the greatest benefits. The fundamental proposition behind this theory is that success is more likely with increased action reward. Additionally, if a specific stimulation or combination of stimuli has resulted in past rewards for an individual, they are more likely to take a similar action again in the future. The value of an action also affects its likelihood of being demonstrated by an individual, with more personal value leading to more frequent demonstration. However, if an individual receives a particular award frequently in the recent past, it becomes less valuable for each additional award received. Finally, if an unexpected punishment or reward is given, the individual may respond with anger and aggressive behavior.Peter Blau introduced the idea of exchange analysis, which involves the concept of "marginal utility" where an action becomes less valuable if the expected rewards received from that action increase. Another concept introduced by Blau is the idea of "standards for fair exchange," which determines the appropriate ratio of rewards to costs in an exchange relationship. If these standards are violated, it can lead to aggressive behavior. Blau differs from Homans’ conflict situations by emphasizing balance and homeostasis in one relationship, while another may be affected. Blau also introduced the concept of "social attraction," which is the perception of opportunities for rewards as a necessary factor for the existence of an exchange ratio.

There are four categories of rewards: money, social acceptance, respect, and submission. The most valuable reward is submission, followed by respect and acceptance, with money being the least appropriate reward in social exchange.Submission is a valuable award because it is ingrained in power relationships and allows for withholding rewards from those who do not comply with standards. Power arises when services given exceed those received. When people have limited options for rewards, submission can be enforced. This is made easier when coercion and resistance are not options. Limited access to data rewards also increases the ability to force compliance. In social psychology, human relationships are based on the principle of reciprocity, where future favors, gifts, invitations, and goods depend on past exchanges.Social psychologists claim that regulating human interaction is a fundamental rule embraced by all societies. This regulation is meant to encourage people to engage in mutually beneficial exchanges without fear of losing out. One version of this regulation is mutual granting, whereby one person reciprocates the favor of another. Social exchange theory further captures this phenomenon in the framework of social relations rather than public ones. This theory addresses the behavioral influence between individuals and their interdependent relationships, including subject, sacrifice, and gain. Sacrifice is rewarded through the benefits that result, but the reward is reduced if the sacrifice could have been avoided. Therefore, at least between two people, social exchange behavior is based on cost-benefit calculations in various contexts such as the workplace, romance, marriage, and friendship.At some point, one may experience a situation where a friend is always seeking something from them. In such instances, it is common to give what the

friend needs, but the opposite happens when one needs something from their friend. Each individual aims to befriend others and help them whenever necessary while providing mutual support. However, maintaining friendly relationships comes at a cost - lost time, energy and other activities. Although these expenses are not typically seen as exorbitant or burdensome when viewed from the perspective of friendship rewards, they should be considered when objectively analyzing such transactions. Failure to match the costs with the compensation may result in an individual feeling uneasy because they received insufficient benefits compared to the cost or sacrifice made.The exchange theory examines societal relationships based on cost and wages. It studies micro-level analysis, specifically at the interpersonal level. Homans emphasized utilizing individual psychology principles to explain social behavior rather than describing it. Blau, however, aimed to move from interpersonal exchanges at the micro level to the macro level of social structure. He demonstrated how larger social structures emerged from basic exchange processes. Unlike the subjective analysis of symbolic interaction theory, exchange theory focuses on actual behavior and not purely subjective processes. Homans and Blau also prioritize observable and measurable empirical observation over subjective consciousness or mutual relationships between dynamic interaction levels.Classical sociologists have expressed the process of societal exchange, as seen in the economic theory of the 18th and 19th centuries. Adam Smith and other economists analyzed economic markets as a result of various individual economic transactions. They believed transactions only occur if both parties benefit, and private negotiations for self-interests can ultimately benefit the community as a whole. Bolshevism highlights the conflict between individualistic and collectivist exchanges, resulting from the contradiction between the two. Homans

emphasizes individualistic approaches in social theory development, unlike Levi-Strauss, who focuses on marriage and kinship systems in primitive societies. Levi-Strauss' analysis includes the general pattern of a man marrying his mother's daughter, but people rarely marry their father's brother's daughter.Bronislaw Malinowski analyzed the latter form of exchange, which involves the exchange of immaterial goods. Levi-Strauss distinguishes two systems of exchange: restricted and generalized. Restricted exchange involves members of a couple group exchanging personal goods, while generalized exchange involves accepting something useful from a group of three or more. The impact of these exchanges is on group integration and solidarity. The purpose is not to meet the needs of individualization. Sir James Frazer's explanation of exchange in primitive society has been criticized for his analysis of marriage and kinship behavior. Exchange theory does not represent a single philosophy but rather several theories that share the belief that human interaction is an exchange process. Each theory has its own perspective on human nature, society, and social science, although they all agree on this common ground.Many have criticized exchange theories for lacking novelty and being based on insufficient grounds, while neglecting the existence of coerced situations. These criticisms often argue that this perspective overly emphasizes physical assets and narrows social relationships between individuals. However, sociological and anthropological analyses demonstrate that social forms of exchange are perceived and communicated differently. Additionally, the question of fairness and equality in exchanges is often evaluated through dominant values or by representatives with contrasting viewpoints.

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