Old People Social Perspectives Sociology
- 1. Disengagement theory
- 2. Activity theory
- 3. Continuity theory
- 4. Social building theory
- Summary and Conclusion
- Result Highlight of the Interview
- 1. Personal Information
- 3. What was simple school like for me
- 4. Which of my friends had the most influence on me while turning up and why?
- 5. When you were immature, what was your household ‘s most of import beginning of intelligence and information?
- 6. How hold your life changed since you were a kid?
- 7. How have society and the universe changed since you were a kid?
It is an established fact that the more aged the vino, the more hearty it is to imbibe. This is so due to the fact that the agitation procedure involved in vino devising is satisfactorily completed with age of the vino. While elderly vino is being sought and cherished, the penchant is the opposite in human existences. Aging procedure in human existences can be viewed in different positions. Biological ripening is a position that treats aging as a natural procedure wherein the organic structure cells and processes become bit by bit deteriorated with age ensuing to worsen in physical and mental wellness every bit good as energy of the person. It is a well-established cognition that social position dainties aging as a long boring procedure of geting and taking values to follow and raising which will steer the person on how to set to of all time altering social norms. The procedure of accommodation determines the success or failure of the single harmonizing to his ain perceptual experience and that of society as a whole. It is hypothesized that older people tend to disassociate themselves from the chief flow of society as they feel their developed values from childhood and nurtured to adulthood are no longer congruent to the present and tend to populate in their ain familiar universe. This paper aims to clarify the grounds for the behaviour of older people, 65 old ages and older in relation to his ain societal position which was developed from childhood and reinforced as the single mature. Different theories related to societal geriatrics will be used to cast visible radiation on the said intent of this paper.
A 65 twelvemonth old retired professional and an uncle of the interviewee was personally interviewed to uncover his personal and economic background. Questions were related to the nature of his abode since childhood, cognitive values formed and his perceptual experience of society during the early maturity and how it changed up to his present age. For intents of lucidity, the undermentioned inquiries were asked:
The effect of the reply to the inquiries was presented in the affiliated sheet to this paper. In the visible radiation of the different social position theories, the development of the person from childhood to old age will be discussed.
Concept of ego and perceptual values
The topic is a 65 twelvemonth old adult male, an agriculturalist by profession and grew up in a distant small town where we can state that the permeating value is conservative. A cogent evidence to this is the fact that although wireless is the primary beginning of information and intelligence, they seldom used it for the intent as they lack budget for batteries. Furthermore, the newspaper will merely be available 5 yearss after it was printed and so, we can state that the intelligence is already history when they came to read about them. The adult male hailed from a hapless household as evidenced by his claim that from class 1 to 6, he used to travel school barefooted and without money in his pocket for purchasing bites during recess clip. The most of import lesson learned from household is the virtuousness of being low, simplistic and be a kid with few words. Equal in importance is the virtuousness that they should assist each other ( 8 brothers and sisters in the household ) in times of dire demand so that they can lift up from poorness and ne’er be hapless again.Hutchison ( 2003, p. 167 ) said that the formation of morality during the early childhood yearss are based on self-concept and be given to be maintained throughout life. In the topic, the ego construct formation is non of course formed through his knowledge but handed to him and sort of forced on the child based from the necessities of the male parent who is a rigorous martinet. These values became the footing of his personality and the manner the capable interact with society during his adolescence, maturity and old age. A cogent evidence to this lies in the manner the topic take his most influential friend, similar to him as being a deep individual and a kid of few words. Hutchison ( 2003, p.225 ) reported that school play an influential function in kid ‘s development. The writer continues by stating that it is in school that equal groups are formed ensuing to peer group laterality. In our instance, the topic during his childhood connected with really few equals as they were victim of equal laterality characterized by strong-arming. The topic grew up in a kind of defensive stance as evidenced by the consequence from his friend who advised him to ever, conveying a knife for defence. Besides, the topic became interested in doing guns from his influential friend. Throughout the center childhood up to adolescent phase, this involvement in guns and self defence became the centre of personality development by our topic and his most influential friend. Their avocations absolutely matched, driving autos, stealing poulets and imbibing intoxicant were merely a few of them but were most dramatic in sociological point of position of value perceptual experience. The writer claimed that cultural values play a important function in societal development. The two friends shared the same cultural value of ego defence and limited their interactions with the remainder of the equals holding the same value. Therefore, we can reason that in footings of societal development through exposure to peer influence, our topic ‘s exposure was really limited therefore restricting in off his perceptual experience of sociality. This limited sociableness molded the topic in add-on, affected him throughout his life up to old age as exposed in the interview. Changes in life theories in relation to perceptual values during childhood Major alterations in life and personality occur in stripling to middle maturity ( Hutchison, 2003, p.341 ) . In the instance of our topic, the determination to take up agribusiness alternatively of medical specialty due to miss of fundss is a major alteration in life. While taking up agribusiness, contemplation of childhood poorness maintain returning into his head taking him to be extremist in rule and battle for the multitudes who are preponderantly hapless. Hutchison claim that it is in the in-between maturity that concern for others and coevalss to come identified with the cognitive values, normally appear ( p.341 ) . After graduation in college, the childhood value of being adult male with few words still is the footing of personality of our topic and this is the ground for taking research alternatively of gross revenues. In research, the topic reported that he was invariably in touched with husbandmans who were his social contacts.
This clip, another major determination was made by the topic and that is to suppress his fright in talking to others in add-on, aerating his sentiment as this is the necessity of the occupation. Despite being a adult male of few words, our capable stereotyped to a good talker and presenter. However, still in private life, our capable reportedly switch back to being soundless and speak merely few words. This is and indicant that cognitive values are enduring and be given to remain with the person throughout life.
The major alterations in life that usually occur in in-between maturity is being governed by two theories. The first is the Erickson theory of generatively ( p.351 ) . Harmonizing to this theory, the single transcend from himself to a being, interested in the public assistance of others. The person at this phase usually go an advisor and leader and happen ways to better the public assistance of the following coevals. Persons who failed to happen ways to assist the following coevals usually take to life of stagnancy. Our topic is a good illustration of an single related to Erickson theory of generatively in the sense that he became a extremist in add-on, stereotyped himself from a adult male of few words to an first-class talker and presenter. The 2nd theory is the Ajung ‘s and Levinson ‘s Theory of Finding a Balance ( p.352 ) . This theory suggest that the in-between maturity to late maturity is the clip for an person to happen a balance in his psychosocial relation. The single usually find ways to repossess portion of his individuality, which were repressed in the first half of his life. Normally, the challenges of raising a household and accommodate his failures and repressions with society occur at this phase. In the instance of our topic, he gave fiscal and material comfortss to his boy to suppress his letdown of being hapless in his childhood. Furthermore, the topic enrolled his boy to a karate school and became a green belter, defend himself to halt the intimidation in school, which our topic and his boy experienced in their schools. Furthermore, our capable supported his lone girl to go a physician of medical specialty, a great letdown during his childhood. It can be concluded that it is in the in-between to late maturity that the fruits of forfeits of an single become a world. It is besides at this phase where the extremum of societal activity characterized by pigeonholing as a get bying mechanism to set to social norms occur which usually result to life alterations determinations. Late maturity or old age societal positions Within a span of 30 to 40 old ages from early maturity, our capable reaped the fruits of his pigeonholing to get by up with alterations in society in footings of successes in life until society made him experience, realized that it is clip to rest, and retires, enjoy the fruits of his attempts and release his power to the following coevals. In the instance of our topic, he was advised to retire by the company he used to work for 27 old ages for ground of redundancy and was offered a 2.5 months salary for every twelvemonth of service as separation wages. The separation fund at first was deposited in the bank and the remainder was used to pay the staying amortisation of their dream house. After a twosome of months of idle life, our topic decided to open a concern related to gross revenues and distribution of pesticides. The determination was fuelled by an offer from a successful retired co-employee who ventured to the same concern to loan him pesticide merchandises with 60 yearss term of payment. Inspired by the success of his friend and former co-employee and feeling he was armed and backed with 27 old ages experience in pesticides, our topic used his separation fund for the concern. His married woman, a druggist with a apothecary’s shop concern, decided to halt and alternatively venture to money loaning to shut friends and associates utilizing portion of the separation money. For about a twelvemonth, the concern runs profitable until a figure of clients all of a sudden changed their paying wonts with grounds of pesticides no longer effectual ensuing to harvest failure and defaulted payment. The money loaning concern suffered the same destiny as friends and associates claim, their concern are losing greatly and hence can non pay the money they loaned. Our topic in order to pay the maturating pesticide loan plus the fundss for the girl taking up medical specialty decided to loan from the bank and used the house and batch as collateral. Many of the clients went into concealment and refused to pay despite tribunal judicial proceeding consequence telling them to pay. Up to this twenty-four hours, the bank loan was non yet paid as our topic has no manner of gaining money, as he has to halt the concern operation for deficiency of capital. Our capable tried selling the Mangifera indica grove he developed for his retirement locale nevertheless, prospective purchasers refused to purchase due to presence of household homesteaders who refused to resign the topographic point and threatened our topic to be liquidated by the Communist forces that he used to back up during his college yearss. Subjecting the actions of our topic after retirement from work to shut analysis, it appear that alternatively of loosen uping and bask his retirement fund, he engaged into gross revenues, a venture that practically, he is still immature at it in footings of existent life experience. There are a figure of theories related to his action and society that can explicate the wisdom of doingso ( p.403 )
1. Disengagement theory
This theory suggest that as an aged grows old, he disengage from society and go self pre-occupied. The theory besides consider that society itself disengages with aged people. This is true with our topic as he was forced to retire at age 54 for grounds that the senior place is no longer needed, merely to be discovered after sometime, that the place was replaced with a younger one. In add-on to this, the application for U.N. station and other international and local place all consider persons 45 old ages and below merely. Harmonizing to our topic, these international bureaus seemingly did non see the fact that he is mature but non overripe with tonss of experiences for the place compared to younger persons. In decision, based from this theory, our topic was non the 1 who disengaged but it is society itself. The ground for this is possibly they have a different impression about older people, a impression slightly related to being less productive and sallow. This is strongly denied by our topic.
2. Activity theory
This theory treats old people as holding a higher degree of satisfaction ensuing to higher degree of activity. Our capable ventured to make concern with his separation fund due to the fact that he feels he is mature with experiences and this will assist him win more than any phase of his life. His grounds for pigeonholing is to prove himself in add-on, his capacity to set with society and utilize the valuable experience in his ulterior life. The end in life of our topic, which was developed during the in-between maturity, is to put up his ain company related to importing, local preparation and distribution of pesticides. The determination was made as he found the concern profitable from his employment and work with the two transnational pesticide companies. So that it will non conflict with his work with the company, our capable planned to put up the concern after retirement utilizing the separation pays from the company as get downing capital. He will develop his boy on the occupation and reassign to him the concern when he is old and can non efficaciously work. Establishing from this, our topic has developed already the doctrine of continuity theory as he based his full satisfaction on the constitution and success of the concern in add-on, reassigning it to his boy. He will make this so that his boy will non seek employment any longer with other companies and see the adversity and forfeits in employment that he underwent to back up them. Most of import to this is the fact that his boy will happen more clip for his household and supervise the activities of his kids as they grow up ; a state of affairs that our topic was non able to make ( per his perceptual experience ) which resulted to the happy go lucky manner of upbringing and hence non decently disciplined that his boy experienced.
3. Continuity theory
Under this theory, the single adapt to alterations in society by utilizing stereotypes that he usually use during the first half of his life to get by up. The active life style is therefore being continued to presume stereotypes non yet used during his young person. Our capable went into selling profession from being a research adult male during his center adulthood.His merely error is that he did non see that society changed a batch since his in-between maturity while he is basking the fruits of his attempts.
4. Social building theory
This theory aims to understand the definition of society, the consequence of societal interaction and societal construction. This is where our topic failed and therefore everything went with it. Our topic was non able to follow the alterations in society and tend to see society as the 1 that was existing during his childhood to middle maturity. Our topic failed to see that society became mercenary already and everything involves money compared to when he is still immature. During his young person, kindness is being returned with kindness and good workss. Much to his discouragement, society has changed a batch. They see a sort old individual as a possible victim and really easy to be cheated. A sort individual will be afraid if there will be a menace to his life and hence will halt his attempt to roll up payment of debt or his attempt to drive one from illegal knee bend. Justice can be bought presents and you can acquire justness if you have the gold. Furthermore, the behaviour of his sisters and brothers in the US with whom he tried to borrow money in exchange for the disbursals he incurred in directing them to college was turned down with an alibi that they got no money. Traveling abroad during vacations runs contrary to claim of no money. For this ground, our capable constructed his ain societal theory, which was in line with societal building theory. We have a mercenary and barbarous society now. This is his position of society now that he is old.
Summary and Conclusion
The topic of this paper is rather edifying in the sense that we have a glance of the hereafter in footings of ways of associating to of all time altering social norms and values that everyone of us will weave in our lives. Explaining the high spots of the interview in the visible radiation of different societal gerentological theories, it was proven that cognitive values developed during childhood continues with the person to maturity and old age. It can be concluded based on our degree of cognition now with this paper that an person in psychosocial point of position does non alter from his construct of self-developed since childhood as he interacts with society. The personality stereotypes formed from social contact and the attach toing societal position is based on the cognitive value developed from childhood and this value, supply waies to such alterations in position in old age.
Hutchison, E.D. ( Edition 2, Illustrated ) ( 2003 ) Dimensions of Human Behavior: The Changing Life Course. California: Sage Publications.
Result Highlight of the Interview
1. Personal Information
Male, 65 old ages old, B.S. Agriculture alumnus from the taking university in the state. Not precisely the class that was desired but due to miss of fundss, non able to prosecute Medicine.
2. Most of import thing learned from the household while turning up at place Maintain a low profile and non tout the accomplishment, allow the accomplishment speak for itself. Talk out your ideas merely when asked as it is being ill-mannered to state it if uncalled for. Deep H2O runs mutely. In everything you do, make your best and God will make the remainder. The most of import instruction is we brother and sisters should assist each other in times of dire demand because there is cipher else in the universe who should assist and advance each others ‘ public assistance but we ourselves.
3. What was simple school like for me
The simple school brought exhilaration to me, as it is where I learned to read, compose and calculate. That was the phase in my life that I realized that I belong to an economically deprived household. I went to school barefooted ( no places and sandal ) , no bags and no money in my pocket to purchase bites. I use to boost 12 kilometres daily to school and back to place. I use to tweak banana or yam foliages along the route to school to function as an umbrella to shelter me from rain. My apparels were rug- like but the holes were sewn closed by acerate leafs and yarn by my female parent and ever smelling clean. I am happy so because I got twosome of friends who were besides hapless like me, we portion nutrient, dramas and gags. I ever get the 3rd to 5th awards from Grade 1 to 6 but ne’er foremost award. I ne’er experienced purchasing the needed book, as we got no money for it. I merely borrow books from schoolmates for an hr or two. I know this is the ground why I did non acquire the highest awards. Elementary school is selflessness for me in exchange for the acquisition.
4. Which of my friends had the most influence on me while turning up and why?
In my turning up yearss, age 7 to 18, I was scraggy and sallow and my instructors commented that I was malnourished. I was invariably being bullied in school and frequently went place weeping. My female parent used to comfort me and physically fight the parents of the intimidation childs and the childs themselves. At approximately age 13 to 14, I met a schoolmate who turned sympathetic to me throughout my high school yearss. My friend is of the soundless personality ( like me ) but most frequently engage in bash and fist battles with the intimidation childs including those who were strong-arming me. My friend ever advised me to be brave and ever convey a knife for self-defence. That was the beginning of a permanent friendly relationship. After school, I used to hang in their house until dark and clip to travel place. I besides learned to take intoxicant and was able to cognize how to do pistols out of ball pen and fountain pen. There was a phase in our lives that we about spend our lives in our several abodes. I grew up without much counsel from my male parent because he is ever out of our house in his work in the metropolis and travel place merely on weekends. My male parent is a disciplinarian and ever see to it that we grew harmonizing to his desire. My friends do non desire to remain longer in our house because they are afraid of my male parent when he is around. I besides learned the virtuousness of being brave in self-defence ( non offense ) . I noticed now that I learned the trait of being temperamental from my male parent and friend. I besides learned to hit and steal poulets of our neighbours and we cooked them for nutrient during intoxicant imbibing Sessionss. We used the Winchester cal.22 rifle that my male parent gave me as birthday nowadays when I was 16. I besides learned driving motor vehicle with usage of their rider landrover while we transfer riders to our town from a resort metropolis 15 kilometer. off. When we finished high school, we parted ways as I continued my schooling to college. I learned from my other friends 4 old ages after, that my close friend died due to heavy intoxicant imbibing. Up to now, I can non bury my best friend, as he was the 1 who taught me to be courageous and fight the toughs, usage pieces and drive motor vehicles.
5. When you were immature, what was your household ‘s most of import beginning of intelligence and information?
The wireless served as the most of import beginning of intelligence and information from age 7 to 18. The newspaper was besides an of import beginning but we can read the intelligence 7 yearss after it happened as my male parent usage to convey it place from work when he went place one time a hebdomad during Saturdays. We rarely use the wireless because we have no money to purchase batteries.
6. How hold your life changed since you were a kid?
There were many alterations. In college, I am extremist in thought and joined the pupil organisation seeking ejector of the President and his dictatorial government. I learned to be loyal and love my state and its people really much. After graduation, my program is to assist the husbandmans and bury my traveling abroad to US to seek greener grazing lands. My rule is assisting your countrymen foremost before other states. I was able to complete college and landed to a dream occupation with three transnational companies affecting tonss of travel to different topographic points advancing pesticides and run intoing husbandmans. My occupation made usage of my accomplishment in driving I learned from my childhood friend and my expertness in pesticide research I learned from college. I was ne’er been with pesticide gross revenues as I am afraid to talk with aliens, which look more influential than me. I am at easiness with research, which does non imply public speech production. At the ulterior phase of my life, at about 35 old ages old, I transferred occupation with a German transnational pesticide company that entailed research and public speech production. The occupation taught me to suppress my phase fright and became an outstanding presenter that earned me tonss of acknowledgment but I was ne’er involved in active merchandising ; merely selling thoughts but non merchandises. I returned usually to being soundless and timid after the presentations and meetings. My occupation besides gave me the chance to run into my married woman, a druggist by profession, she is beautiful, white skinned with nice high olfactory organ span that I long to possess because my olfactory organ is level. I merely told myself that our childs should be beautiful as she is but it turned out that my holding level olfactory organ is dominant in my cistrons. The characteristic was ne’er transferred to my 2 childs, a male child and a miss but my being genetically intelligent was inherited by my childs. My eldest child is a male child and grew spoiled as me and my married woman is busy everyday in our occupations and got no clip to train him ; my male child grew up with values non congruous to my wants. He used to travel to high school utilizing my service auto whenever I am non utilizing it and oftentimes steal the auto at dark to travel out with his friends who are besides spoiled and boies of influential households of the town of my married woman where we decided to settle ; non in our town. My male child now 30 old ages old was besides capable to strong-arming in schools like me when I was a child. I decided to inscribe him to a karate school at age 8 and became a xanthous belter, one grade lower than black belter. He was ne’er bullied once more in school after he roundhouse kicked a intimidation schoolmate ensuing to interrupt dentitions and bloody oral cavity. He became a college bead out but really intelligent, adept in life, and married at age 19 because he made pregnant his miss friend. Right now, he got 3 girls out of 3 girlfriends but appeared settled now with his 3rd married woman, besides a druggist likes my married woman. My lone girl was a disciplined one, besides intelligent but looks like me ( non so good looking ) , a druggist and a physician of medical specialty now and a really responsible kid. I was able to purchase my two-service vehicle from the company I last work with and became our service vehicle now. I was able to construct our ain house, which can be considered above the in-between category type of house in the vicinity. After retirement, out of my separation fund I got from employment, me and my married woman ventured to money loaning concern and pesticide distribution. Our venture last for two old ages merely as bulk of the money Lent was non paid by unscrupulous borrowers. The pesticide concern suffered the same destiny as most of the merchandises were sold on recognition to destitute husbandmans and bourgeoiss who ne’er pay their duty despite tribunal determination. To pay portion of the losingss, we loaned from the bank utilizing our house as collateral. Seven old ages has elapsed and we are still paying the loan with no hope of paying it in whole as I am now unemployed. We tried to sell our one hectare farmlot ( we bought out our nest eggs ) now a Mangifera indica grove that I developed to pay our loan. Prospective purchasers refuse to purchase due to presence of five chunky households who I failed to chuck out due to feeling of commiseration towards them as they are hapless like me when I was immature. I tried to chuck out them through diplomatic negotiations but they refused and worse, threatened to kill me alternatively. I know, the homesteader households harvest portion of my Mangifera indica green goods for sale but I can non make anything to halt them as I am non populating near my grove to guard them. Besides, deep within my unconscious ego is their menace of neutralizing me. I am non afraid to decease but I pity my household who be left behind if I die still with tonss of fiscal job. The lone hope now is hitting the kitty in the lotto games although the opportunity is highly little. I hope my girl who is a physician now can assist us bail out of this state of affairs if she will be lucky plenty to be a specializer and pattern medical specialty in Australia in readying to being a US immigrant where my two sisters and one brother were now shacking as immigrants. My hope that my sisters and brothers in the US can assist me is really distant because they told me that they are populating on twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours footing and got no nest eggs to impart me, but they can travel to other states for holiday. It seems that the value within them developed within the household to assist one another is forgotten already.
7. How have society and the universe changed since you were a kid?
Society and the universe have changed a batch. The intelligence and information now can be received with a somersault of the finger. Computers and cell phones coupled with information engineering made this possible. Sense of values, imposts and traditions have changed a batch besides due to this information engineering. Today ‘s coevals of people seem to populate on different manner. They seems to be interested in their ain benefit ignoring the benefit of their actions and determinations to others. There are few people staying in a universe who tried to keep the aureate regulation of “Do unto others what you like others will make unto you” . Majority have lost the sense of gratitude for the good things you have done to them. In my clip, people use to convey back the favour, but now, really few people do this anymore. Peoples seems to be selfish presents. Society is now barbarous and mercenary.