Disengagement Policies And Practices In Development Sociology Essay Example
Disengagement Policies And Practices In Development Sociology Essay Example

Disengagement Policies And Practices In Development Sociology Essay Example

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  • Pages: 16 (4154 words)
  • Published: August 17, 2017
  • Type: Research Paper
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NGOs are essential for enhancing the quality of life in Ghana.

The number of NGOs has significantly increased in order to bridge the gap between rural and urban development in various areas. Their activities include providing clean drinking water, establishing healthcare centers, undertaking reforestation projects, offering credit facilities, building schools, providing extension services, addressing women's issues, promoting health and more. In disadvantaged rural areas in Ghana, well-known NGOs such as the 31st December Women's Movement, World Vision, Action Aid, Catholic Relief Services (CRS), Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA), USAID and others are actively involved. The efforts of both local and foreign NGOs in Ghana have transformed communities and brought benefits to many rural residents. Consequently, certain NGOs have turned moments of long-lasting misery into moments of joy for destitute and marginalized rural groups.



presence of a health station in a small town has been instrumental in saving the lives of many women during childbirth. Additionally, the existence of multiple boreholes in rural areas has helped alleviate the suffering caused by preventable diseases among rural residents. Furthermore, certain NGOs have played a crucial role in raising awareness about rights within many communities. Overall, the benefits resulting from the actions of these NGOs are too extensive to be fully addressed in this paper (Bob-Milliar, 2005).

Problem Statement

The issue under consideration is the significant funding that NGOs receive, primarily for projects targeting disadvantaged communities.

The misuse of allocated funds for projects is evident as the recipients fail to sustain the work done for them. The sustainability of these initiatives is a significant concern for NGOs, who wish to avoid involvement in endeavors that won't be utilized by the people. Moreover

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since these initiatives are funded by donors, NGOs are keen on ensuring that their contributions are effectively preserved and enjoyed by future generations within these communities. Regrettably, there are cases where necessary projects get abandoned. This concern prompts us to concentrate on examining the feasibility of educational projects in disadvantaged communities.

The area of detachment is crucial for sustainability because failure to properly plan for NGOs to detach themselves from completed projects can result in property abuse. It is important to establish measures that ensure project sustainability without disadvantaging those involved. The purpose of this research is to address these issues.

Research Questions

This survey aims to answer the following questions:

  • What is the reason behind World Vision and International Needs Network operating in local communities in Ghana?
  • What types of activities or projects do WVI and INN engage in?
  • What structures or mechanisms exist for local people to participate in project execution and maintenance?
  • What challenges do their educational projects face in Ghana?
  • What measures are taken for detachment in their educational projects?


Study Area

This study will be a case study on World Vision International (WVI) and International Needs Network (INN).

The Dodowa and Amrahia communities will be surveyed due to their proximity and familiarity with the activities conducted there, particularly in the field of education.

Sampling of Respondents

Purposive sampling will be used to select key individuals who hold executive positions within the organizations being interviewed. This method will also be used to select community

leaders, opinion leaders, and leaders of other local organizations that may have been involved in the establishment of the schools. These key individuals may include Directors or any executive member of the organizations, Chiefs of the selected communities, District assembly directors or any executive, Headteachers of the schools, and any member of the school's management committee.

Instruments for Gathering Data

Two main sources of data collection will be utilized. The first source is secondary information obtained from articles, books, journals, records, and booklets from the two NGOs.

The second step in the research process involves conducting a semi-structured interview to gather primary information. During this process, it is important to request permission to record the provided information as the researcher may miss some details when writing them down due to the interviewee speaking quickly.

Analysis of Study

The focus of the study will primarily be on qualitative research. The collected data will be systematically compared with organizations and incidents discussed in existing literature using the systematic comparison technique.

Ethical considerations

All collected information will remain confidential, and permission will be sought if there is a need to disclose sensitive information. This research is solely for academic purposes, and respondents will be informed about the expected types of information they are required to provide.

Importance of Survey

The purpose of this survey is to gain knowledge about the significance of detachment and the challenges faced by NGOs when handing over projects to their recipients. The researcher aims to draw a solid conclusion through a comparative study of both organizations' detachment policies and practices. The survey also aims to address how detachment should be managed in educational projects. Furthermore, this study

seeks to provide evidence for the importance of implementing detachment policies and practices in development projects.

Literature Review

Development has often been overlooked as a means of transformation, rather than just providing amenities and infrastructure for a community to lead a good life.

Non-governmental organizations typically fail to implement the policies or strategies they propose to successfully complete their projects. Instead, policy is viewed as an interactive process that changes over time and varies between different communities. This means that what works in one context may not be applicable elsewhere (Hill, 2001).

On page 26, there is a need to focus on addressing the institutional capacity of societies to create and implement effective social policies within the sustainability model. This is due to specific factors highlighted by Morales-Gomez (2002). However, many developing countries lack suitable institutional policy models for designing, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating social policies and programs that can promote sustainable development. They also lack the human, methodological, and informational resources for identifying and assessing needs, setting priorities, and measuring program effectiveness. Enhancing policy planning and management capacities at various government levels is a priority for successful inclusive policies and decision-making. In this context, designing and evaluating training programs and methods that are tailored to national and local conditions is a significant concern. Additionally, transparent monitoring and evaluation of aid flows to reduce poverty are important considerations.

Non-governmental organisations often focus on a specific timeframe for their activities, which results in less education about the project and its sustainability policies. However, sustainability encompasses various aspects including the environment, economy, and society. The impact of projects on these elements is addressed through disengagement policies. Since

all three elements are crucial to the sustainability agenda of an organization, the lack of public understanding about sustainability is likely to hinder the progress of NGOs. Additionally, a lack of public engagement further hampers the efforts of NGOs to promote their sustainability agenda. This is partially due to the perception that NGOs have not taken serious and practical steps to support their agenda.

This research focuses on studying detachment policies and patterns and their effect on developers. The objective of this study is to inform non-governmental organizations and individuals about the significance of incorporating disengagement policies and patterns in development projects. The absence of these policies, along with misconceptions surrounding them, leads to financial waste when people opt not to utilize an organization's facility or project. Although it may not be the only reason for projects going unused, it is a noteworthy factor that can be attributed to the lack of disengagement policies and patterns in development-oriented projects.

Survey Organization

The survey is divided into different chapters.

Chapter 1: Proposal

This chapter presents background information about the subject or job. It discusses the statement of the problem, including the importance of the research and research inquiries. It also includes the methodological analysis, significance of the survey, analysis of the survey, organization of the survey, and other components of the proposal.

Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature

In this chapter, information from secondary sources is explored. It includes a brief review from previous introductions and a review of studies related to the subjects and aims. The following topics are covered:

  1. Why NGOs in the third world
  2. Engagement of local people in project development
  • Sustainability and its importance to projects
  • Challenges facing educational projects
  • Chapter 3: Data Presentation and Analysis

    This chapter presents and analyzes transcribed data collected during the study.

    Chapter 4: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

    This chapter provides a summary for entire study including details about problem ,subjects upon which literature review was developed , methodology used,and findings obtained .The text consists of two main parts: The "Mentions" section, which lists all plants mentioned in the survey in alphabetical order using APA referencing style, and a conclusion that includes recommendations for individuals in positions of power to consider.


    This section contains all the tools used for data collection, such as images and tables, in the study (if applicable).

    Chapter 2: Introduction

    The operations of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have become a concern for many individuals. There is a widespread perception regarding their functioning, leading to an increased interest in establishing such organizations. However, NGOs heavily depend on financial support and are often seen as serving the strategic objectives of their founders or sponsors. Mudingu (2006) refers to these sponsors as the "invisible hand" behind NGOs, emphasizing that sponsored funding primarily drives their activities.

    Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the fund work to promote sustainability in projects. There are three categories of NGOs based on their functions. The first category includes organizations that provide immediate relief to war victims, natural disaster survivors, accident victims, etc. Another category focuses on long-term social and economic development. The last category primarily focuses on social actions (Mudingu, 2006). Examples of organizations in these categories include National Aid for Disaster Management Organization (NADMO), World Vision, International Needs Network, Catholic Relief Services, Women in Law and

    Development in Africa (WILDAF), and Engender Health.

    The policy presentation highlights the interactive nature of policy rather than a linear progression from preparation to execution and evaluation. This means that policies can change over time and in different situations. Therefore, what works well for one community may not be suitable for another. It is important to focus on societies' ability to create and implement sustainable social policies within their institutions. This includes having the right institutional policy models and resources to design, implement, monitor, and evaluate social policies and programs that promote sustainable development. Improving the capacities for policy planning and management at various government levels is crucial for successful policymaking and decision-making.

    NGOs often have limited time to focus on their activities, resulting in less consideration given to understanding and implementing sustainable policies. Sustainable practices encompass environmental, economic, and social factors. Disengagement policies aim to address the impact of projects on these three aspects. A lack of public understanding about sustainability is likely to hinder an NGO's progress since all three elements are crucial to organizational sustainability. NGOs also face challenges in promoting their sustainability agenda due to a lack of public engagement, possibly caused by a perception that these organizations lack serious, practical action (Royal Academy of Engineering, 2003).

    Regrettably, the present circumstances do not correspond with the desired result. This is because recipients lack comprehension regarding the significance of policies concerning these three elements in advancing sustainability. Consequently, the actions undertaken do not align with the intended practices currently being executed or scheduled for future implementation. Each non-governmental organization (NGO) adopts its own strategy when it comes to accomplishing projects or programs.

    The withdrawal of an

    organization depends on its aim or purpose. This paper aims to understand the sustainability policies established by organizations.

    Disengagement Policies and Practices

    It is important not to overlook disengagement policies and practices in development projects. Terminating the contract after completion allows recipients to take ownership and avoid dependency on the funding organization. Intergovernmental organizations face challenges in establishing guidelines for engagement, transition, and disengagement from programs or activities.

    Political environment, exigencies, new precedences, scarceness of resources, and the invariably increasing demand for different forms of aid have prompted governing bodies of international organizations as well as major donors to seek the establishment of a transparent set of guidelines for engagement, transition, and disengagement from a given program or activity (UNESCO, 2006). Some organizations may refer to disengagement as a transition strategy that involves a sequence of steps leading to the gradual untangling from an activity, project, program, and/or geographic region. Detachment can include the suspension of support, for example.

    Fundss, resources, and proficient aid are all essential elements in the process of transitioning a program from one entity to another. There are two primary approaches to this transition: "phase over," which involves transferring responsibilities to another organization or community, and "phase out," which entails removing inputs without taking explicit actions to ensure continuity by another entity. Both of these approaches are preceded by the initial phase of "phase down," which involves gradually reducing program inputs. It is most effective to have a clear and well-planned detachment policy from the beginning, which includes the design, implementation, and conclusion of a program in a manner that aligns with the goal of achieving sustainable outcomes from the engagement (UNESCO, 2006).

    Additionally, the importance

    of project management is closely related to sustainability and emphasizes the need for user engagement in decision-making. An area of concern is the evaluation of project proposals from the perspective of the recipients. "Project proposals for funding are not reviewed and judged based on the end users and whether the project outputs would actually be used" (Spencer, 2008). This situation leads to a lack of involvement from users at the beginning of a project proposal and could hinder the project's development. The project plan should include clear guidelines on disengagement policies and practices, especially during the closing stage of the program. Effective closure is achieved when recipients are actively involved in the defined plans of the project from the outset.

    The induction stage involves various factors that lead to the abandonment of undertakings. These factors include ineffective mobilisation of rural undertakings, a negative attitude towards undertakings, skepticism about undertaking, and a lack of scientific instruments and adequate number of undertakings provided (Adusie-Poku, 1996). Given these factors, it is questionable whether disengagement policies and effective practices can address them. While some organizations may have well-formulated policies and practices, they still face challenges that impact the mechanisms implemented. The issue seems to revolve more around the viability of these mechanisms after the organization has exited.

    Why NGOs in the Third World?

    The role of NGOs in developing countries has significantly progressed over the years.

    NGOs have evolved from mere money aggregators to become large transnational establishments advocating for human rights globally. They have also improved their methods of engagement and work strategies to ensure effective actions. However, the role of NGOs in developing countries is now being questioned. Are NGOs simply

    filling in the gaps left by inactive governments? Does the increasing reliance on NGOs infringe upon the freedom of governments? Non-governmental organisations are predominantly found in third world countries for various reasons, primarily due to the perception of these countries as deprived.

    During the Cold War, Western social scientists used the term "Third World" to distinguish between the Soviet Union and the United Nations. However, the level of attention given to these Third World countries was not consistent. It was believed that assistance should be provided to help these countries develop, similar to the support given to First World countries. In the 1980s, advocates for development and members of the Third World suggested dividing the world into a North and South division instead of the traditional First, Second, and Third Worlds.

    The level of poverty experienced in third world regions like Africa, Asia, and Latin America has led non-governmental organizations to provide charitable services in these countries and their communities as a way to alleviate poverty. Despite the rich resources available in third world countries, there is a lack of knowledge and expertise in utilizing these resources effectively. Consequently, individuals from first world countries find it appropriate to intervene and assist these populations in overcoming poverty and becoming aware of their human rights.

    Poverty is associated with individuals in Third World countries whose way of life and understanding of things, when compared to those in developed countries, is significantly different. In the last few decades of the 20th century, many underdeveloped countries experienced significant changes due to the spread of democracy and economic liberalization, which greatly influenced their cultures and societies. There has been extensive discussion and writing

    about NGOs based in developed countries, including their agendas, organization, transparency, impact, and engagement with business. In contrast, there has been less attention given to NGOs in developing countries. However, it is equally important for companies to comprehend the emerging trends and challenges faced by southern NGOs, particularly those operating in developing nations.

    There are significant distinctions between NGOs in developed and developing countries, affecting both their operations and communication. These differences encompass trust, support, professionalism, and concern (SustainAbility, 2010). In developing nations, NGOs typically experience lower levels of trust compared to those in developed countries. The reputation of these NGOs may be further compromised by corrupt politicians or businesses establishing them for financial exploitation and tax evasion. To address this issue, legitimate NGOs have started implementing standardized systems to combat these unscrupulous actions in developing countries. Moreover, funding for most NGOs in developing countries comes from large organizations, usually multilateral agencies, bilateral donors, international foundations, and corporate philanthropy rather than individual donors.

    Sometimes the independence of NGOs is affected by their funders' agendas. Moreover, developing countries tend to have less prominent NGOs and more grassroots organizations, which often face challenges in attracting qualified staff. This can result in management difficulties for the NGO and hinder their ability to collaborate effectively with businesses. Lastly, the dynamics of business-NGO relationships vary greatly across countries.

    In some civilizations, open conflict is rejected while in others, relationships are highly hostile and collaborating may be difficult. Strategic partnerships may also be difficult in cultures where traditionally conflict is focused on philanthropic contributions by business or on the NGO providing a specific service (usually related to community development). However, this does

    not mean that NGOs in developing countries are not progressing on corporate sustainability or that they do not make valuable partners (ibid). Despite all these factors, the most common factor that attracts NGOs to developing countries is the fact that requesting funds for development work is easier to obtain than in developed countries. This is because, as stated earlier, developing countries are considered to be poor and therefore need aid more than developed countries.

    Engagement of Local People in Project Development

    The participation of recipients is a critical aspect ingredient in project development.

    This is highly recommended by national authorities, the World Bank, UN agencies, and non-governmental organizations (Desai; A; Potter, 2006, pg. 115). The problem of addressing abandonment in many countries and communities may be attributed to the lack of involvement from local residents. The concept of involvement acknowledges that each individual has their own thoughts and desires.

    When creating something for someone else, it is important to consider their feelings and involve them in the process, as this makes it easier for them to take ownership of the outcome. Desai (1995) supports this idea, stating that individuals have a right to participate in decision-making that directly affects their lives. He also suggests that promoting autonomy can contribute to social development. Since people know their own needs, desires, and what is most suitable for them, successful projects require close collaboration between implementers and the community. This approach allows communities to feel a sense of ownership and maintains participation. According to a United Nations report in 1979 (pg. 225), involvement refers to people sharing in the benefits of development, actively participating in the development process, and engaging in decision-making

    at all levels of society.

    Stiefel (1981, pg 1) defines engagement as the organized attempts of excluded groups and movements to increase control over resources and regulatory establishments in specific societal circumstances. It is important to examine whether these numerous non-governmental organizations in African communities are actually fulfilling their stated objectives. It is perplexing that despite their presence, the quality of life for Africans has not significantly improved over many years. This can be attributed to the ongoing struggle with limited resources and the inequitable distribution of these resources, leading to insufficient economic growth and worsening conditions for the poor. Nowadays, gaining meaningful engagement requires the acquisition of power and influence over decisions that impact one's livelihood (Oakley and Marsden, 1985, pg. 88).

    In addition, the rich amongst the poor are the ones considered to be involved in decision making. Socio-economic stratification hierarchies have limited participation to bourgeois, tradesmen, and property owners, giving them a greater advantage over those in the lower portion of the hierarchy. Unfortunately, the majority of people in these communities fall into the latter category, and when they do participate, things can be turned upside down. Engagement is supposed to empower all deprived individuals, not just a select group, and help them escape poverty (Cornwall and Brock, 2005; Mohan and Hickey, 2000).

    The key error in the consecutive attack lies in the fact that the rural poor are rarely consulted in development planning and usually have no active role in development activities. This is because most of the poor lack an organizational structure to represent their interests. This is due to factors such as isolation, lack of education, and dependence on rural elites. Additionally,

    they lack the means to gain greater access to resources and markets and prevent the implementation of impractical programs or technologies. The lesson is clear: unless the rural poor are empowered to fully participate in development, they will continue to be excluded from its benefits. This realization is sparking new interest in an alternative rural development strategy, which involves people's participation through organizations controlled and financed by the poor ( N.A.).

    Engagement and sustainability are interconnected as engagement is necessary for successful sustainability to occur (1997). Participatory development results in increased independence among the poor and the establishment of self-sufficient rural organizations. This brings significant advantages: the improved efficiency of development services promotes economic growth in rural areas and expands domestic markets, thus promoting balanced national development. Politically, participatory approaches provide opportunities for the poor to contribute constructively to development (ibid). To effectively address the issue of sustainability, organizations should recognize the importance of engagement not only in development projects but also in all areas related to the needs of people.

    Development in the lives of the rural poor cannot rely solely on NGOs for change. It is important to implement measures that support sustainable policies and take practical actions to demonstrate commitment to sustainability and involve the public in sustainable behavior (Royal Academy, 2003). Various studies have shown a correlation between participation and sustainability. Finsterbusch and Van Wincklin (1989) found that USAID projects with participatory elements improved overall project success, particularly in building capacity for collective action. However, this correlation is stronger among more educated and well-connected members of the community.

    According to a study conducted by Gugerty and Kremer (2000), providing external support can

    lead to a transformation in the work of recipient groups. In the case of the development and training of small town focus groups, this support resulted in wealthier and more educated individuals being brought into leadership positions within the group. Additionally, Khwaja's (2001) research suggests that projects managed by communities are more sustainable compared to those managed by local authorities due to increased maintenance. These findings highlight the significance of engagement and its impact on sustainability.

    Sustainability and its Importance to Projects

    The nature of non-governmental organizations necessitates their serious consideration of projects that can be maintained for an extended period.

    Non-profit organizations often receive large amounts of funding from donors to help meet the needs of disadvantaged communities. However, if this funding is taken advantage of or mishandled, it can discourage and disrespect the efforts made by these organizations. Redclift (1987) describes the concept of sustainability, as defined by the Brundtland Commission in 1987, as "development that meets current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" (pg. 279). Achieving sustainability has always been a challenging task.

    The difficulty in continuing the work of organizations is often caused by the high cost or scarcity of the materials used. Therefore, replacing them can be burdensome for the people. Prolonging should not require a significant expenditure, as this would only be seen as a way to take money from the local people who are already poor. To prevent this, NGOs try their best to identify available materials within the community and its surroundings before looking elsewhere.

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