longitudinal study
– research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period

cross-sectional study
– research in which individuals of different ages are tested simultaneously
– allows for much variability

zygotic stage
– from conception to two weeks
– rapid development
– begins when ovum meets sperm
– 100 cells formed by end of first week
– three layers:
– skin, hair, nervous & sensory systems
– digestive and respiratory systems
– muscles, circulatory, excretory

embryonic stage
– weeks 2-8
– most major body parts formed
– heart and nervous systems function
– reacts reflexively to stimulation
– extra susceptible to teratogens

– any external chemical influence that can cause a birth defect

– premature sex organ
– told what to do by an androgen
– XY=boy, XX=girl

– hormone that tells gonad what to do
– most important for a male: testosterone
– female does not need an androgen to sexually develop

fetal stage
– seven months long
– begins at bone cell appearance and ends at birth
– 3 months: kicks
– 4: regular sleep and waking period; sensitive to light and sound; heartbeat discernable
– 7: critical month – baby can live if born at this point
– 8&9: gains a half pound per week

– stable change of thought, behavior, physical growth attributed to age process, not exprience

– the baby will put something in its mouth when given the opportunity
– baby reflex

Salapatek (1975)
– tracked eye patterns of infants
– 1 month: look for contrast – outside of face
– 2 months: fixate on parts of the face
– 3 months: prefer faces
– 4-5 months: can discern between very similar faces

Gibson and Walk (1960)
– visual cliff; 6 month olds would not cross it
– stereopsis (what allows depth perception) not fully developed yet
– child needs to get stereopsis at a certain point to have depth perception

critical period
– a person needs to reach a certain point of development to function normally in the future

sensitive period
– a period during which certain experiences have a greater effect on development than they would have if they had occurred at another time

Watson & Ramey (1972)
– 1st experiment, only one baby group got a mobile they controlled with their heads
– 2nd, all three got control but only the group who got control the first time used their powers.
– as if the babies learned they could not

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