Some Theorists Acknowledge Ict Education
- Executive Summary
- Literature Review
- ICT in Education
- Importance of ICT in schools
- Policies in Integrating Technology in Schools
- Gender Issues of Research on Teachers ‘ and Students ‘ Use of ICT
- Research Methodology
- Analysis and Interpretations
- Input and Coding
- Educators ‘ Questionnaire
- Figure 5
- Figure 6
- Students ‘ Questionnaire
- Figure 7
The survey analyses the degree of integrating of the information and communicating engineering in the secondary schools in Mauritius. Hence, to put to death this undertaking, studies were conducted with the pedagogues and pupils from the secondary schools of Mauritius through questionnaire. Nevertheless, the perceptual experiences of the administrative forces were neglected as due to a preliminary survey, no proper feedbacks were obtained from them refering the subject of survey.
The findings indicated that the pedagogues and pupils do do heavy usage of ICT in their day-to-day instruction and acquisition procedure, which is a necessity in this fast changing universe whereby ICT is taking over all Fieldss. Therefore, incorporating ICT in the instruction field, particularly in the secondary schools will be really advantageous for the new coevals of pupils.
There has been a cardinal displacement in the manner in which work is completed and the nature of interactions in schools due to the increasing usage of ICT. ICT is defined as any engineering or device that has the capacity to get, shop, procedure, or transmit information and can include personal computing machines, the Internet, nomadic communicating devices, and electronic mail.
However, comprehensive researches look intoing the degree of integrating of ICT in the secondary schools have been carried out. The purpose of this research is to measure the degree of integrating of ICT in the secondary schools in Mauritius. Furthermore, this survey besides aims at placing the factors that are responsible to find the degree of integrating of ICT in the secondary schools.
Consequences based on the analysis of informations associating to 200 pedagogues and 400 pupils show that computing machines are available in about every house in Mauritius which reflects the vision of the authorities. Besides, the new coevals of pupils are computing machine literate due to the heavy usage of ICT around them and are more likely to follow a calling in the ICT field. And eventually, ICT is seen as a really utile tool to heighten the instruction and larning procedure in schools.
Harmonizing to Pelgrum and Law ( 2003 ) in the early 1980s, the term ‘computers ‘ was replaced by ‘IT ‘ ( Information Technology ) which mean a displacement from calculating engineering to the capacity to hive away and recover information. Hence, the term ‘ICT ‘ ( information and communicating engineering ) was brought frontward around 1992 ( Pelgrum, W.J. , Law, N. , 2003 ) .
Another definition says that ICTs include the webs and services which affect the local and planetary accretion and flows of public and private cognition ( Adeya, N.C. , 2002 ) . In add-on, Adeya ( 2002 ) came frontward with a simplified definition depicting ICTs as an ‘electronic agencies of capturing, processing, hive awaying and circulating information ‘ .
The term ICTs involves multimedia, the Internet or the Web, as a medium to heighten direction or as a replacing for other media ( Pelgrum, W.J. Law, N. , 2003 ) .
ICT in Education
The widespread usage of Information and Communication Technologies ( ICT ) has till now influenced all Fieldss in life, among which lies instruction. Many states see ICT as a possible tool for alteration and invention in the instruction field ( Erdogan, 2009, adapted from Eurydice, 2001 ; Papanastasiou & A ; Angeli, 2008 ) and therefore, they make big investings in the integrating of ICT in schools. For illustration, Europe and Central Asia apportion 22 % of their budget to ICT ( Erdogan, 2009, adapted from World Bank, 2007 ) .
Harmonizing to Pelgrum and Law ( 2003 ) ICT in instruction became popular in educational policy-making in the early 1980s, when consumer market began the sale of inexpensive personal computers. These intellectuals besides noted that by the early debut of personal computers in instruction in 1980s, instruction was expected to be more effectual and motivation.
Hepp, Hinostroza, Laval and Rehbein ( 2004 ) advocated in their paper “ Technology in Schools: Education, ICT and the Knowledge Society ” that of all time since the origin of ICTs in instruction, they have been used but non to its upper limit.
Although in the early 1980s computing machines were non been to the full integrated in the acquisition of traditional topics, the normally recognized perceptual experience that the system of instruction would hold to fix the pupils for a knowing society increased the involvement in ICTs ( Pelgrum, W.J. , Law, N. , 2003 ) .
Furthermore, Kozma and Anderson ( 2002 ) write in their paper “ ICT and Educational Reform in Developed and Developing States ” that for an economic system to be knowing instruction should be its primary necessity. Simultaneously, the instruction schemes in schools are flexing towards ICT. This alteration towards ICT has been really dramatic. Similarly, Kozma and Wagner ( 2003 ) agreed on that thought that the ICT will heighten the basic instruction and is a really ambitious field of development work today, in both hapless and affluent states ( Wagner, D. , Kozma, R. , 2003 ) .
Additionally, still in the field of ICT in instruction, Ezer ( 2005 ) points out that ‘the ICT for development literature frequently treats instruction ‘in passing ” .
Importance of ICT in schools
ICT can be used in three ways at schools: for instructors to show, buttocks and proctor cognition ; to heighten administrative work ; as “ larning content in relationship to pupils ‘ information literacy ” ( Myungnghee Kang et al. , 2011 ) .
Over the past few old ages, several large-scale international surveies have documented the successful integrating of ICT in schools ( Lim & A ; Hang, 2003, adapted from Mann, Shakeshaft, Becker & A ; Kottkamp, 1999 ; Sivin-Kachala, 1998 ; Wenglinsky, 1998 ) . These research surveies have shown that ICT facilitates the acquisition of higher order believing accomplishments by supplying cognitive stagings for pupils as they make sense of the information gathered ; leting experts, instructors and pupils to pass on their ideas and involvements in capable affairs and imitating real-life state of affairss and jobs for pupils as they explore the connexions between constructs and thoughts.
twenty-first century kids choose to look for replies to their inquiries on the cyberspace ( Myungnghee Kang et al. , 2011 ) . Besides, pupils who had followed ICT classs had more possibilities of being employed as most of the occupations today require a good cognition of ICT.
Research surveies have brought frontward the fact that the usage of ICT every bit good as other learning schemes have enabled pupils to travel to higher-order thought ( Jonassen & A ; Carr, 2000 ; Kearney & A ; Treagust, 2001 ; Oliver & A ; Hannafin, 2000 ) . Therefore, pupils develop constructive thought accomplishments. As a consequence the pupils are larning in order to fix themselves for the hereafter information age. ( Salomon, 1993 ) . Harmonizing Kozma ( 2005 ) ICT can be used to heighten pupil understanding therefore increasing the quality of Education.
In add-on, Papert ( 1997 ) noted the advantages of ICT for pupils and they may be as such: the pupils are more motivated and as such they become more originative when they are faced with new larning environments. Besides, they are prone to absorb in a disciplined manner working collaboratively with their equals. As a consequence, they are able to bring forth cognition. They will hold the capacity to manage rapid alteration in any type of environment.
Some theoreticians acknowledge that ICT can assist pupils to go knowing, cut down the extent to which direct instructions are given to them, and give pedagogues a opportunity to assist those pupils with particular educational demands demands ( Iding, Crosby, & A ; Speitel, 2002 ; Shamatha, Peressini, & A ; Meymaris 2004 ; Romeo, 2006 ) .
The integrating of engineering in schools has brought about alterations to instructors ‘ functions in the schoolroom. The schoolrooms where engineering is being used have their instructors frequently compared to that of a facilitator or manager instead than a lector ( Gahala, 2001, adapted from Henriquez & A ; Riconscente, 1998 ) .
As pedagogues use ICT in schoolroom, their instructions are proved to be really fruitful. Hence, in order to be at such degree preparation is a must for all pedagogues so that they get sufficient expertness for effectual instruction. As a pedagogical tool ICT can supply a new model so as to better instruction. Hence, acquisition will be done in a collaborative, project-based every bit good as self-paced manner.
As pupils become more independent, instructors who are non familiar to move as facilitators or managers may non understand how engineering can be used as portion of activities that are non teacher-directed. This is a state of affairs where the instructor gets an first-class chance to larn from the pupils every bit good as to pattern being an information searcher, womb-to-tomb scholar and hazard taker.
As portion of their occupation demands, instructors are expected to utilize engineering tools in many instances. As engineering continue to impact on instruction and acquisition, outlooks on instructors to work technological advantages will lift, taking instructors to see the force per unit areas of holding to toggle between teaching method and engineering in a seamless manner ( Teo, 2011, adapted from Pelgrum, 2001 ) . The extent to which this is well-executed depends on instructors ‘ willingness to use engineering in learning and larning. When instructors do non utilize engineering the manner it was designed to function, the affordances of engineering can non be maximised for effectual instruction and acquisition to take topographic point. For this ground, many surveies on engineering credence have been conducted over the old ages and it appeared that these surveies had focused on the designation of factors that influenced engineering credence among instructors and pupils. These included personal factors such as attitudes towards computing machines ( Teo 2011, adapted from Teo, 2008 ; Teo & A ; Noyes, 2011 ) , computing machine self-efficacy ( Teo 2011, adapted from Tsai, Tsai & A ; Hwang, 2010 ) , proficient factors such as technological complexness ( Teo, 2011, adapted from Thong, Hong & A ; Tam, 2002 ) and environmental factors such as easing conditions ( Teo, 2011, adapted from Ngai, Poon & A ; Chan, 2007 ) .
In fact, academic establishments typically lag concerns by approximately a decennary in the acceptance of new engineerings ( Leidner & A ; Jarvenpaa, 1995, adapted from U.S. Congress, 1988 ) . This is surely true in footings of the application of ICT into the learning procedure: the chalkboard and chalk remain the primary instruction engineerings in many schools even while the virtues of ICT to better communicating, efficiency, and determination devising in organisations are recognized and inculcated by research workers.
ICT is of import because of the expansive usage of machine-controlled systems in all activities. ICT has become of import in research, library, certification, etc. Technologies have opened a new door for human activities.
Harmonizing to Hepp, Hinostroza, Laval and Rehbein ( 2004 ) in position of increasing productiveness, ICT should be seen as a really of import tool in instruction from schoolroom to the top direction squad. ICT play the function of decreasing the load of the disposal of the school, hence there will be the prevalence of a more effectual every bit good as integrated flow of information among instructors, pupils and non-teaching staff.
Policies in Integrating Technology in Schools
Hepp, Hinostroza, Laval and Rehbein ( 2004 ) pointed out that for an ICT policy to be effectual, it should non be brought frontward entirely but instead, there ought to be a comprehensive attempt so as to better the equity and quality of the construction of instruction.
In the same moving ridge of thought, Levine ( 1998 ) put accent on the importance of conveying frontward a program which is based on existent school demands. Therefore, it would be more realistic, accomplishable, and effectual. The program should be implemented merely for the interest of conveying engineering in the schoolroom. ( Levine, J. , 1998 ) .
Hepp, Hinostroza, Laval and Rehbein ( 2004 ) have been really explicitly explained that there is no cosmopolitan truth for using ICTs in instruction. It all depends on each state ‘s world, precedences and long-run budgetary chances and committedness.
In Mauritius, The Master Plan on instruction was prepared in 1991 and identified ICT instruction as an of import pre-requisite for the economic development of the state.
Harmonizing to the Master program, of 1991
I.T. will play an progressively of import function in making the efficient, effectual, and modern information services which will represent the back-bone of a modern industrial economic system. The future economic sectors in Mauritius will demand a extremely skilled labor force that understand the strategic importance of information and will be able to work the benefits of engineering to better the competitory border of Mauritius enterpriseaˆ¦The instruction system of Mauritius needs to take awareness of these issues ( p. 75 ) .
Harmonizing to the Master Plan of 1991, it was decided to utilize three long-run schemes, that of
widening Computer Literary to Form I and Form II pupils every bit good,
incorporating ICT across the course of study, and
offering Computer Studies or Information Technology as a specializer topic to those who wished to develop broader engineering capableness.
Merely the first scheme has been implemented successfully to day of the month whereas ICT has non yet been integrated in learning and acquisition and Computer Studies remains a topic designed, monitored and assessed by University of Cambridge International Examinations.
The figure of PCs has increased from a few 100s in 122 schools to around 4,800 in 189 schools.
But computing machine surveies as a topic still attracts lesser campaigners than many other topics in the secondary school course of study, around 26 % at School Certificate degree and 10 % at Higher School Certificate degree ( Digest of Educational Statistics 2006, 2008 ) .
The 2004 study of the Task Force on E-Education and E-Training proposed the proviso of limitless free Internet entree to all schools.
To day of the month, largely secondary schools have been provided with Internet entree
Sidelining of ICT in primary schools
More accent on the publicity of ICT among working population and the populace at big much more frequently than in primary schools
In the National Strategic Plan ( 2006-2010 ) ,
hardly a few lines are dedicated to ICT in schools.
While it is stated that there is turning demand to develop connectivity among primary schools there is no reference of the scheme that the authorities will follow to better ICT substructure in schools.
In National ICT Policy 2007-2011,
the demand to utilize ICT in instruction is stipulated without adequate accent of how this policy will be implemented and how advancement achieved will be measured.
Draft Education and Human Resources Plan ( 2008-2020 ) – Pre-Primary Schools
Embed engineering in the system
To expose immature scholars to modern engineering for familiarisation intents
Schools equipped with IT installations by terminal 2009
Train instructors in ICT
A Encourage pre-schools to utilize ICT as a tool in the teaching/learning procedure
Draft Education and Human Resources Plan ( 2008-2020 ) – Secondary schools
Introduce support engineering in the system
ICT introduced in all schools for usage by all instructors
ICT Plan developed for secondary schools by 2010
ICT used across the system by 2015
To supply ICT installations to guarantee that all instructors use ICT installations on a regular footing for learning and larning
Make proviso for wider usage of on-line stuffs and Knowledge Channel
All pupils go forthing secondary are equipped with ICT accomplishments to accommodate to the demands of future demands of independent acquisition
Even with a coherent and elaborate policy and careful planning, ICT integrating in instruction is a complex procedure. Assorted surveies pointed out four chief phases of ICT acceptance and their usage in instruction.
i? At the first phase which is the emerging phase in ICT development, the instructors and scholars are detecting ICT tools and their general maps and utilizations, and the accent is normally on ICT literacy and basic accomplishments.
i? The 2nd phase involves larning how to utilize ICT tools, and get downing to do usage of them in different subjects. This involves the usage of general every bit good as peculiar applications of ICT, and it is linked with the using phase in the ICT development theoretical account.
i? At the 3rd phase, there is understanding of how and when to utilize ICT tools to accomplish a peculiar intent, such as in finishing a given undertaking. This phase implies the ability to acknowledge state of affairss where ICT will be helpful, taking the most appropriate tools for a peculiar undertaking, and utilizing these tools in combination to work out existent jobs. This is linked with the infusing phase in the ICT development theoretical account.
i? The 4th phase is when the acquisition state of affairs is transformed through the usage of ICT. This is a new manner of nearing instruction and learning state of affairss with specialised ICT tools, and it is linked with the transforming phase in the ICT development theoretical account.
Progression through the phases takes clip. And the transmutation of pedagogical pattern requires more than ICT accomplishments developing for instructors. Too frequently the attack taken to teacher preparation in ICT integrating is the one-off clang class on computing machine literacy. This attack does non enable instructors to incorporate ICT in their daily activities and maestro the usage of ICT as an effectual tool for learning and acquisition.
Gender Issues of Research on Teachers ‘ and Students ‘ Use of ICT
As stated above that gender differences is among the factors that have been said to act upon the degree of integrating of ICT at schools, it has been noted that male instructors are more active in the usage of ICT than the female instructors. They feel more confident and less nervous towards the usage of computing machines in their teaching-learning procedure every bit good as their proficient ICT capablenesss instead than the female instructors ( Guoyuan et al. , 2009 ) .
Similarly, male pupils have significantly higher positive perceptual experiences than the female pupils sing the e-learning, which is an advanced usage of ICT in the instruction field. For illustration, males had more positive attitudes than females towards the usage of a digital library ( Terzis & A ; Economides, 2011, adapted from Koohang, 2004 ) and towards the usage of web based direction at an unfastened university ( Terzis & A ; Economides, 2011, adapted from Enoch & A ; Soker, 2006 ) .
The current survey purposes at measuring the degree of integrating of ICT in the secondary schools in Mauritius. We shall be measuring the use of ICT in the daily life at schools via the pupils, instructors and the people from the disposal. In add-on to this, this coursework besides aims to prove certain hypotheses like the gender issues of research on instructors ‘ and pupils ‘ usage of ICT that were found to be relevant based on the factors that have been said to act upon the degree of integrating of ICT at schools. This survey attempts to find whether these hypotheses hold good or non, in the Mauritanian context.
The purpose of this research is to measure the degree of integrating of ICT in secondary schools in Mauritius. The survey is besides to find the policies that influence in incorporating ICT in schools. Both qualitative and quantitative methods have been used. Qualitative methodological analysis has been utilized in the beginning of the research.
Questionnaires were based on a qualitative pilot survey and a literature reappraisal as was described above. It comprises of inquiries examining user perceptual experiences of ICT usage in schools, the features of the users and their usage wonts and experience with ICT and the basic background information. A pre-testing of the questionnaires was done and so the questionnaires were distributed among pupils and pedagogues of four secondary schools in Mauritius. At first, informations were collected through personal interviews with people from the disposal but unluckily, no proper responses were received and therefore, the perceptual experiences of the administrative forces had to be neglected.
In this survey, convenience trying method was used. The fieldwork was carried out during the month of October 2011. Using the Raosoft web site,
( I ) with a 5 per centum border mistake, 50 per centum response distribution, 90 per centum assurance degree and population size 2000, we get sample size around 200 for pedagogues.
( two ) with a 5 per centum border mistake, 50 per centum response distribution, 95 per centum assurance degree and population size 20000, we get sample size around 400 for pupils.
Out of the 200 questionnaires for pedagogues, 184 proved to be really co-operative and showed existent enthusiasm. 16 questionnaires were rejected due to losing information and incompatibilities by respondents. Besides, out of the 400 questionnaires for pupils, 388 proved to be good feedback obtained while the remainder of 12 questionnaires were rejected due to losing information.
The information gathered has been scientifically analyzed, with the usage of statistical package called Statistical Package for Social Sciences ( SPSS ) 14.0 for Windows.
This survey suffers from several restrictions. One restriction is that of sample size. Out of 200 questionnaires for pedagogues, merely 92 per centum responded, out of which 16 questionnaires had to be disregarded and the same for the questionnaires of the pupils whereby 97 per centum has been accepted and the remainder rejected. Because of the limited response, consequences may non be representative of the population in inquiry. Besides, some pedagogues even refused to take part because they were either in a haste or loath to give information.
Finally, had clip and budget restraints non existed, the sample size employed could hold been larger.
Analysis and Interpretations
Input and Coding
SPSS ( Version 14.0 ) was used to input the information from the questionnaires. The variables were defined in the Variable View and the informations were entered as Numberss in the Data View.
Educators ‘ Questionnaire
1. From the Figure 1 below, it is noted that 94.6 % of the respondents do hold a computing machine at place. This reflects the Mauritanian authorities mission of doing every house in Mauritius own a computing machine. Further to our study, it has been noted that the pedagogues are rather fluid in utilizing a computing machine and its applications ( mention to frequency tabular arraies in the Appendix Section ) .
2. From Figure 2, it is seen that the respondents who answered positively to the handiness of the technological support at their schools, do happen the quality of the service as being good ( besides refer to the crosstabulation in the Appendix subdivision ) .
3. However, the study besides revealed that most pedagogues seldom make usage of engineering in their categories although they do hold the necessary cognition in ICT ( refer to Figure 3 below ) .
4. Although that, mentioning to the gender differences as being among the factors that have been said to act upon the degree of integrating of ICT at schools, it is shown from the figure below that male pedagogues are more interested in utilizing ICT in their schoolrooms than the female pedagogues. The male pedagogues feel more confident and less nervous towards the usage of computing machines in their teaching-learning procedure every bit good as their proficient ICT capablenesss ( Guoyuan et al. , 2009 ) .
5. Finally, the study has been tested through Hypothesis Testing to find whether ICT has been integrated harmonizing to the pedagogues ‘ position by the inquiry depicting their degree of engineering expertness in their schoolrooms. A assurance interval of 95 % and a two-tailed testing ( taking to z-value 1.96 ) have been used.
Rejection part Rejection Region
H0 = ICT has been integrated in secondary schools
H1= ICT has non been integrated in secondary schools
H0: I? = 0.0598
H1: I? a‰ 0.0598
Limits for credence,
A± 1.96 I?
0.0598 A± [ 1.96 * ( 0.057/ ) ]
0.0598 A± 0.008
0.0518 & lt ; Aµ & lt ; 0.0678
The sample average 0.0598 prevarications within the credence part and therefore we accept H0 and reject H1, that is ICT has been integrated in secondary schools.
Students ‘ Questionnaire
1. Harmonizing to the study conducted with pupils, it is noted that the chief map of a computing machine at the school if to look for resources on the cyberspace and some of them do hold talks utilizing the Powerpoint package ( refer to Figure 7 ) . This shows the new instruction and acquisition manner utilizing the installations that engineering provides.
2. Added to that, we have noted that all schools are equipped with computing machine labs and therefore, provide computing machine as a topic of survey. And besides, the bulk of these computing machine labs cater to supply each and every pupil of the school with the usage of computing machines ( refer to Figure 8 ) .
3. The study has besides pointed out that the pedagogues encourage the heavy usage of ICT in the instruction and acquisition procedure and nowadays pupils do do heavy usage of ICT in their acquisition as they get most of the resources from the cyberspace ( refer to Figure 9 ) .
4. Figure 10 below shows that most of the pupils do have a computing machine at place and therefore, they are quite fluent in utilizing the different tools of a computing machine both at place and at school. We conclude that nowadays pupils are all computing machine literate.
5. Similar to the construct of gender differences in the study for pedagogues, it is besides shown for the pupils as good that the male pupils are more likely to utilize computing machines for their acquisition intents than the female pupils ( mention to Figure 11 ) .
The effectual integrating of ICT in a acquisition environment depends on the manner ICT is situated within that larger societal cultural surroundings. As ICT enters the sociocultural scene of the school, it ”weaves itself into the acquisition in many more ways than its original boosters could perchance hold anticipated ” ( Lim & A ; Hang, 2003, adapted from Papert, 1993 ) . There is a context for the ICT experiences that encompasses activities peripheral to the peculiar times and formats of the ICT interaction itself.
Our survey has provided insight into the nature of pupils ‘ and pedagogues ‘ thought procedures on the possible degree of ICT integrating in the Mauritanian context. The findings suggest that successful ICT integrating is clearly related to the procedures within the schoolroom such as instructor beliefs, teacher efficaciousnesss and teacher attitudes every bit good as pupil engagement and pupil involvement towards ICT.
Besides, ICT is an of import tool in the educational process. This survey investigates how gender airss as a factor that influences the integrating of ICT in secondary schools.
Mentioning to our purpose of the survey which is measuring the degree of integrating of ICT in the secondary schools in Mauritius, it can be concluded that ICT has efficaciously and expeditiously been integrated in the secondary schools of Mauritius but however, there are betterments to be brought about to the proper operation of the engineering tools in the instruction sector to heighten the instruction and acquisition procedure.