Primary and secondary socialisation Essay Example
Primary and secondary socialisation Essay Example

Primary and secondary socialisation Essay Example

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  • Pages: 10 (2497 words)
  • Published: July 23, 2017
  • Type: Research Paper
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The objective of this paper is to examine the norms, values, and socialization essential for families, societies, and civilizations from a sociological perspective. These key attributes equip individuals with necessary skills, behaviors, and habits for active participation within their respective society. By adhering to established rules and boundaries known as "Norms and Values," individuals adapt and modify their behaviors throughout their lives. Ralph Linton stated that "The Culture of Society is the way of life of its members; the collection of ideas and habits which they learn and transmit from generation to generation." Norms serve as social and cultural guidelines that consciously or unconsciously govern our lives. They define our behaviors and can determine whether we are accepted or rejected by society. Through a combination of visual, oral, and sensory stimuli, we acquire knowledge on how to behave. As we de


velop mentally and gain awareness, our family dynamics, environment influences, and cultural background shape these norms.

These cardinal developmental elements combined influence and determine personal and societal synergistic abilities. They contribute to the development of societal accomplishments and the recognition of societal boundaries, acceptable behaviors, and responses. Therefore, our Norms play an intrinsic role in our personal behavior and societal credence. Key facets of our "Norms" include the expectation for individuals to follow established regulations that define appropriate behavior within the context of conventional societal acts and responses. A culturally specific example of an "Injunctive Norm" is the acceptance of polygamy as a norm based on cultural beliefs.

The term "Culturally Specific" pertains to practices not acknowledged or adhered to in Western Society. This encompasses certain sects of Mormons in America wh

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engage in polygamy. While the primary Mormon Church, The Latter-Day Saints, no longer endorses this practice, there are still Mormon Fundamentalist groups that adhere to Brigham Young's teachings. Similarly, within different Muslim cultures, it is legally permissible for a husband to have multiple wives.

This practice is not legally recognized in Western civilizations. Sociological values can be material or immaterial, internal or external. Values and beliefs are specific to a culture, and the assessment of their respective value is specific to the individual or group. For example, when an individual uses their core value system, they adhere to a cultural or belief system that is specific to the influences within their social "Norms and Value" source, group, or society.

Ultimately, Sociological surveys cover a broad scope of Social "Norms and Values". Examples of Cultural Values are defined as Sociological "Norms and Values" that, when under-emphasized due to alterations, can impact an individual, group, society, or cultural position. Change or divergence, when combined with poor or irrational opinions that go against the "Norms and Values" of a specific Culture or Belief System, can have significant impacts. Consequently, Norms and Values are capable of undergoing alterations.

Acceptable behavior varies between individuals and groups. Personal attitudes and value systems influence what individuals find acceptable. However, if these individual norms do not align with the group's social or belief values, they may be challenged. Something that holds no worth or value to an individual can be considered unacceptable. Additionally, abstract values may lack specific desirability. Overall, values are inherently abstract.

A civilization's values are related to its notions of goodness, righteousness, justice, and fairness. Sociologists have different perspectives on how values are shaped.

One theory focuses on the variations in values among groups within a civilization. According to the National Centre for Social Research's annual study for 2009, British values are experiencing changes. The complete study can be accessed at [insert link]. The 2009 study involved conducting over 4,000 interviews with a representative and random sample of individuals in Britain. The findings show that societal values generally change slowly and are influenced by the media and other external factors.

Talcott Parsons, a functional sociologist, observed that Americans have a shared value called the "American work ethic." However, it is important to note that this primarily represents a cultural and social observation that promotes hard work.

According to Herbert Spencer, an early British Sociologist, society exists for the benefit of its members rather than vice versa. While Western societies often prioritize materialism and wealth acquisition, they also place importance on trust in science and technology, as well as democratic principles and freedom. However, these foundational norms and values may change during times of stress or unforeseen circumstances. Cultural values can sometimes contradict each other, such as when financial success is prioritized over acts of charity or when social equality clashes with individual status. This inconsistency between people's words, thoughts, and actions can be attributed to a contradiction.

The social pressure individuals face can significantly impact their decision-making process as it influences their norms and values system. Socialization is a lifelong process that starts from birth. For children, primary socialization begins immediately after birth, where they learn about cultural concepts of identity, societal roles, and behavioral norms through social interactions. The young child is completely reliant on their parents or caregivers during this


The baby will initially respond to the external stimulation provided by parents or carers. The primary senses used by the child at first will be responsive, such as when they are hungry, in discomfort, or desire human contact/ touch. They will respond to sound and vision - this is an important time for child/parent/carer socialization - this signifies a very emotional moment, and the close bonds of love and loyalty, which theoretically will endure a lifetime, are established. As the child undergoes chronological development, by the age of two, a child will be exhibiting a fundamental set of primary skills and behaviors. The child will be able to imitate its parents and siblings, and will be acquiring a broader range of social skills - these will be both culturally specific and socially generic. The socialization of the child within its own society and culture will be established during an intense period of self-development and awareness; children gain a sense of their "self".

This is a crucial developmental milestone that occurs between 18/24 months. As children grow, they will acquire a set of norms, values, and culturally specific behaviors that will enable them to function in groups and society. The family plays a vital and defining role in the initial socialization of a child. The family serves as the primary socialization agent in the early years of life. However, family socialization varies significantly and can depend on social, cultural, ideological, and ethnic differences.

The structure of households in Britain has changed over the past two decades, resulting in an increase of lone parent households without immediate family support for child care. This change has led to child care

providers having a greater influence on childhood socialization. While the primary purpose of the family is to have and raise children, it also serves other functions such as being seen by children as their core and primary source of socialization. Additionally, families are responsible for equipping children with necessary skills and knowledge to integrate into society. Parents or caregivers view the family as playing a central role in providing care, education, development, and cultural instructions to socialize children while instilling cultural values. However, societies and cultures vary in terms of labor division and marriage dynamics which impact the relationship between families and economics. An example illustrating this can be found in certain parts of Asia and Africa where illegal child labor is prevalent.

Struggling economies in many countries often force communities and households to rely on child labor for survival, which can be a matter of life or death. In addition, certain cultures prioritize male children over female children due to financial and social reasons. During times of hardship, cultures like the Eskimos may resort to infanticide if they lack sufficient food or provisions because they believe that males contribute more through hunting and supporting the community, while a female's contribution is seen as less valuable. Education also plays a crucial role in socialization, with schools serving as formal agents. The primary goal of education is to provide children with essential skills and knowledge that will prepare them for further growth and maturity.

The formal education system in England begins with Playschool, which is for ages 2-4 and serves as a socially acceptable way for early socialization. From there, the child progresses to Reception Class, which is

a more formal but still freeform approach to learning. Reception Class is typically connected to a primary school, where the child then continues their education, ensuring they remain connected to their social group. Primary education provides a structured approach to learning, where children learn new societal rules and boundaries that build upon the values instilled by their parents or caregivers. Family influence remains strong during these age groups, as children heavily depend on their families. In addition to classroom activities, play, and social interactions within their peer group, children continue their primary socialization through school.

The importance of the equal group lies in a child's ability to interact, make friends, and socialize. As children grow older, they face increasing pressure to conform and be accepted. Various factors contribute to this pressure, such as social status (e.g., family wealth), possessions, ethnicity, and outgoing or introverted behaviors. The order of favorability within the equal group also plays a role. Being excluded from a peer group can cause significant stress and may result from behavioral or attendance issues at school. In such cases, it is crucial for the school, child, and parent to address these problems and seek remedial understanding and action. If a family faces challenges due to societal or financial reasons, involving other support agencies like educational psychologists and social workers specializing in family welfare becomes necessary.

When a child begins school, they bring with them pre-existing societal behaviors, household values, and cultural values. However, if the child is unable to conform to the norms of the school environment, which reflects society as a whole, their socialization may be hindered. For instance, an undiagnosed four-year-old boy with ADHD

(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) may find it challenging to concentrate or settle down in class. They may display disruptive and impulsive behavior, restlessness, and increased hyperactivity. As a result, the child becomes isolated from the main class and is unable to form friendships or participate in extracurricular activities. During this crucial stage, they only receive individual instruction, which slows down their socialization process. If ADHD is not addressed, it often manifests as inattentiveness and obstructs both learning and social interaction for the child. In this particular scenario, the child was expelled from school at age five.
after receiving an ADHD diagnosis,
a specialized team comprising of social workers and education professionals collaborated with both parents and the school to provide support.

After being prescribed Ritalin, a widely used medication for ADHD, the child's behavior improved immediately. As a result, the local educational authority issued an educational statement and launched a program focused on socialization and integration. This program offered the child essential support and extra assistance to ensure they received education and successfully reintegrated into society. The utilization of media played a crucial role in facilitating the child's socialization and reintegration process, as it has become an indispensable aspect of modern life in different settings such as home, school, and leisure environments.

Media plays a vital role in society, serving as the main tool for socialization. It starts at a young age when children are exposed to diverse forms of media like music DVDs, TV shows, and computer games. These various media types work together to educate and entertain people. Multimedia is extensively used in households as an essential part of socialization and personal growth. Moreover, multimedia is commonly

integrated into formal education programs in schools. However, media has also been linked to negative aspects such as the depiction of violence in games, music, TV shows, and movies.

Secondary socialization refers to the broader process of acquiring knowledge about expected behaviors and what is considered acceptable within a smaller group that is part of a larger society and culture. This phase usually occurs during adolescence and adulthood. It differs from primary socialization, as it involves experiencing societal changes such as starting a new level of education, moving to a different environment, or undergoing a change in social status or society. For instance, some students may transition from a rural community to an urban setting, while others may be international students adapting to British customs. Additionally, there are mature students who have not previously had higher educational experience.

Furthermore, any societal construction can act as a socialization agent, such as the work environment socializing employees to adhere to their way of doing business and their culture. In most organizations, employees have clear responsibilities to respect authority, follow corporate policies, and work hard in exchange for financial compensation in the form of income and status promotions. Additionally, various public places we commonly visit, such as shopping centers, libraries, hospitals, and football matches, serve as social interactions that help us learn about new limits and boundaries, influencing our behavior. This includes observing the norms of airplane passengers, patrons at a Michelin Star restaurant, or fans at rugby or tennis games - we all conform and adjust without conscious thought. This conditioning enables us to navigate a complex structure of culture and society.

The process of secondary socialization is crucial, especially

during times of stress and change. The transition from infancy to childhood, and then to adolescence and adulthood, all involve a socialization process that is socially and culturally designed to equip individuals with the necessary skills for growth and coexistence. If the secondary socialization process fails, whether due to internal or external factors, individuals may lack the required social and cultural skills to cope logically and rationally. In such cases, their values and social circles may undergo a transformation. As adults, we undergo the socialization process through changes in careers, family structures, personal relationships, and interests, such as politics.

As we age and reach retirement, our priorities shift and we view changes in our household and career in a different light. Our health and well-being take precedence over everything else. The extended family of older generations reflects the changing cultural values in the process of socialization. Through the introduction of media, older generations are now learning and experiencing new forms of information and communication, which serve as a new method of socialization for them. This new form of socialization is a powerful teacher and influencer, second only to family, and plays a significant role in shaping the attitudes and behaviors of our children and teenagers. While parents exert the most influence on their children, the mass media can be considered secondary agents of socialization.


  1. Brigham Young
  2. Emile Durkheim
  3. Examples - Cultural Values
  4. Socialization - Types
  5. Emancipation of women - Subtypes of feminism
  6. Feminism and postcolonialism
  7. Pizan
  8. Communication Encyclopedia
  9. Eleanor of Aquitaine
  10. Freud
  11. Resocialization
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