In 1972, the Equal Employment Opportunity Act was passed to address workplace favoritism and ensure the protection of individual rights and advancement opportunities for all employees (Klingner & Nalbandian).
According to the book published in 1998 on page 158, this act should have eradicated gender bias and unfair pay.
Though the Civil Rights Act was enacted in 1964, its intended objectives of ensuring equal employment and publicity opportunities for everyone remain in question. As we approach the year 2000, it is evident that gender prejudice and wage unfairness are still prevalent in the contemporary work environment. This issue becomes even more noteworthy considering the significant number of women and minorities currently employed. In order to understand why such biases persist, I will explore some of the reasons behind their existence.
When researching the connection between organizational culture and gender prejudice and pa...
y inequalities, it is evident that the answer is affirmative. This issue often arises.
The organizational culture and climate perpetuate workplace inequalities, which are reinforced by group pressure (Hale, 1999, p. 13). Informal networks within the company contribute to maintaining these inequalities as women and minorities are typically assigned lower-level positions and excluded from these networks, thereby restricting their access to influential employees (McGuire).
2000. p. 1). These informal webs are typically personal, voluntary, and have their own boundaries. You don't join the web without a strong desire to be a part of it.
According to McGuire (2000, p. 1), one of the reasons you join is because you are allowed excessively.
Organizations have always been oriented towards white males and breaking away from these habits is challenging. In order to achieve the agency's objectives, all employees need to collaborate. Managers
should establish a connection with their employees, which can be easily done by engaging with individuals who come from a similar background and share similar qualities (Maume, 1999).
On page 4, it is noted that white workforces tend to work and network predominantly with other white workforces. Often, these organizations are unaware of the existing inequalities within their organization because they have never approached the issue in that way. People have a tendency to become complacent and continue operating on auto-pilot without recognizing their shortcomings. Changing organizational climates is challenging and requires dedicated effort from management to achieve.
The leadership often follows the notion of "if it's not broken, don't fix it," disregarding the potential advantages that come with diversifying the workforce and empowering all employees to reach their full potential. Studies indicate that gender bias arises from both institutional and attitudinal factors. White males simply resist women or minorities holding equal positions and receiving equal pay.
Not only do they not want it, but often they take steps to protect specific occupations from women (Maume, 1999, p.
9). The web of the "good old boy" is challenging to disrupt. All organizations declare themselves as an Equal Employment Opportunity company, but several agencies are simply promoting that image instead of adhering to it. So, they do hire minorities and females.
These individuals do not have the same advantages as men. Often, they are only hired for diversity purposes, leading to negative emotions within the entire organization. Instead of hiring the most qualified candidate, sometimes the company hires a minority individual solely to meet requirements.
When this occurs, the Equal Employment Opportunities policy can have a negative impact on other employees due
to unfair treatment, resulting in problems for the entire organization due to decreased morale (Hale, 1999, p.
13) Furthermore, if a person of black or female ethnicity fails or performs poorly, it can lead to the assumption that all individuals of the same ethnicity or gender will also fail. "In conclusion, this highlights the impact of societal roles and stereotypes on individuals."
The text discusses the factors involved in perpetuating unequal employment opportunities and outcomes, such as involvements, intergroup relationships, organizational culture norms, and values. These factors set the conditions that sustain the inequalities. (Hale, 1999)
According to Hale (1999, p. 14), the societal and personal influences on individuals extend from childhood into the workplace.
According to Heim (1995, p. 3), gender functions as its own societal structure, with established behavioral norms that are instinctively understood by adult members. The present-day leaders were raised in households where their mothers were primarily responsible for managing the household and caring for the children.
The traditional belief is that workforces should be the primary earners while adult females should prioritize household duties. This notion also implies that workforces are more powerful and should lead the family, which extends to their role in the workplace. These beliefs have been ingrained across generations and even find support in religious texts like the Bible, which discourages adult females from having authority over adult males.
The concept of "Internalization and Identity" involves individuals acquiring and socializing beliefs, perceptions, stereotypes, and misconceptions. This process ultimately leads to forming judgments about oneself based on others' perceived opinions (Hale).
In a study conducted in 1999 (p. 3), it was found that women perceive themselves as being invisible.
Within an organization,
individuals may perceive isolated and irrelevant while workforces perceive them as emotional (Hale, 1999, p. 4). Workforce members and adult females view situations differently.
Literature suggests that workforces are reluctant to relinquish power and feel uncomfortable working with adult females (Hale, 1999, p. 1). Women in the workforce feel excluded from positions of power and face social isolation.
The occupation segregation is another strong indication of gender prejudice. Frequently, women and minorities find themselves segregated or assigned to specific departments solely based on their gender or minority status. This is pertaining to the social stereotypes that determine which occupations are deemed suitable for males and which occupations are deemed suitable for females (Maume, 1999).
p. 3) Many studies show that men and women are sorted and separated into positions based on their gender, which in turn has an impact on their wages and opportunities for promotion (Maume).
According to Maume (1999, p. 2), approximately 50% of the gender gap in rewards can be attributed to segregation histories.
p. 9) "A National Study of Gender-Based Occupational Segregation in Municipal Bureaucracies shows that women can achieve greater success in bureaus focused on redistribution (Miller et al., 1999).
p. 2 ) . Entities like public assistance, societal justness, and wellness are inclined to support affirmative action.
Society has ingrained the belief that adult females possess caring and nurturing qualities which make them suitable for roles in redistributive bureaus. Consequently, numerous women hold administrative and professional positions within these bureaus, thereby creating a semblance of gender balance in fields like public assistance and sanatoriums.
and hospitals (Miller et al., 1999, p.
According to a survey conducted in Los Angeles, the African American community has been negatively impacted by
economic restructuring. The unemployment rate among black males has seen a more than double increase compared to white males (James, 2000).
Contrary to appearances, black females have not actually achieved greater success than white females. Many of them tend to work in the public sector or pink-collar industries, where gender segregation is prevalent. The main factor leading black females into these sectors is their higher education levels (James).
2000. p. 6). However, there are not many places that provide directions.
However, they work as school instructors, educational counselors, and social workers. Although these professions all require a bachelor's degree, they are still relatively low-paying occupations (James, 2000).
Once again, minorities and females are being segregated into specific occupations, despite the requirement for government agencies to adhere to Equal Employment Opportunity regulations and affirmative action laws. The primary reason for this inequality is that the key decision-makers in government positions are predominantly male, which leads to their bias towards hiring and promoting male employees.
Typically, policy formulation, implementation, and management of the infrastructure is mainly controlled by men, who give instructions to other men. However, in social agencies, there seems to be a smaller presence of men.
The text suggests that the reason for this is because most concerns are focused on politicians and not citizens. Politicians prioritize concerns because of the economic importance of tax revenues. As a
result, powerful positions tend to favor men. This demonstrates a clear connection between agency-client relationships and gender-based employment patterns (Miller et al.).
Once more (1999, p. 7).
According to the municipal survey, there is a gender imbalance in high-paying and influential positions within the metropolis authorities (Miller et al., 1999, p. 7). The ranking of jobs varies between employers and employees.
Employers evaluate individuals based on their skills and dedication, while employees evaluate them based on desirability and compensation (Maume, 1999, p. 3).
Despite the appearance of fairness, organizations have different criteria for evaluating men and women. In numerous instances, women face higher standards than men when seeking job positions (Hale, 1999, p. 8).
Are employment opportunities and promotional opportunities equal for both men and women? No. According to Reskin and Roos (1999, p.), women can enter traditionally "male" occupations due to market conditions compelling employers to hire them or because men reassess and vacate those jobs, creating openings for women.
According to Maume (1999, p. 3), women are traditionally confined to certain occupations which leads to competition among workforces for higher-paid jobs in their world.
According to McGuire (2000, p. 2), men traditionally hold higher position contacts compared to adult females, which further aids in maintaining their positions. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as glass ceilings.
According to Miller et al. (1999), the glass wall metaphor refers to the occupational segregation that limits adult females from certain types of occupations or traps them within specific occupations. This occurs when organizational cultures hinder change or when skills required for a particular job are not highly valued elsewhere.
The term "glass ceiling" is used to describe the obstacles that women encounter in their careers,
specifically in terms of progressing within an organization. Despite being able to secure jobs in office settings, women frequently come across an unseen barrier that hinders their upward mobility (Baxter & Wright, 2000, p. 1). In 1992, women occupied fifty percent of all federal government positions and comprised eighty-six percent of the clerical staff.
According to Baxter, A, and Wright (2000, p. 2), the proportion of supervisors was just 25% while senior executives comprised only 10%.
Various studies indicate that women in government positions still encounter glass walls and glass ceilings (Miller et al., 1999, p. 2).
Moreover, women still face challenges when it comes to securing jobs in male-dominated industries (Miller et al., 1999, p. 1-2).
This further confirms the segregation of adult females within specific occupations. The results from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics indicate that there is a phenomenon known as the glass escalator for white workforces, while adult females and minorities still face a glass ceiling. White workforces are more likely to advance to managerial positions, often with little to no resistance, especially in workplaces that lack diversity (Maume, 1999).
According to Maume (1999), it may be initially assumed that women would have an advantage in a predominantly female workplace, but this is not the reality. Women are consistently denied supervisory positions and usually receive lower salaries, even within these organizations.
p. 1-2) Promotions, job devaluation, and pay inequities segregate different sexes into unequal occupations, thereby creating different opportunity structures for women and men and affecting their chances of promotion (Cassirer; A; Reskin).
Most female occupations have a shorter publicity ladder (Cassirer; A; Reskin, 2000, p. 3).
According to a municipal survey conducted by Miller et al.
(2000, p. 3), females are not well-represented in the highest-paid or most influential positions in city government.
. 1999. p. 2 ) . Traditional administrative and professional businesses that convey position.
Authorization and its usual impact on policy shapers have been discussed by Miller et al. (1999, p.
2) The survey found that specialists were more likely to be promoted to these positions instead of generalists. The capable specialists are usually from professions that are mostly dominated by men, for example.
According to Miller et al. (1999, p. 4), the municipal survey identified two different forms within city government: applied scientists and life scientists.
The study by Miller et al. (1999) found two key findings. Firstly, women decision-makers and professionals were predominantly hired in lower-paying bureaus. Secondly, bureaus that offered higher wages were more likely to have a higher level of gender instability.
p. 10). Once again, adult females were more concentrated in wellness, public assistance, and hospitals.
Both men and women worked in mills, factories, and sanatoriums. However, it seems that men had better-paying jobs within these workforces. Literature indicates that men are promoted more often than adult females. As a result, men place more significance on recognition and publicity compared to adult females. Additionally, they value these aspects more.
The presence of publicities is more likely in places where workforces are located. The organizational culture promotes male publicities (Cassirer; A; Reskin, 2000, p.).
The lack of promotion opportunities for women in this society leads them to not place value on advertisements. This is because they are aware that they will not receive a promotion, either due to the company's lack of encouragement towards females or the deliberate blocking of their promotion
(Cassirer, Reskin, 2000, p. ).
2) Another unexpected finding in female-dominated organizations is that males still hold the advantage in leadership positions. It would be assumed that in a predominantly female organization, females would have the advantage. However, studies indicate that this is not the case.
According to Maume (1999, p. 5), it appears that men have a tendency to quickly advance in their careers. This often happens as a result of a strong relationship between a male employee and a male director, who will then provide mentorship and set him up for promotion.
According to Maume (1999, p. 5), the male is often promoted in the female bureau in order to boost morale and reduce tension.
The tension arises because females believe that males are incapable of doing the job because they do not fit the stereotype of being nurturing and caring (Maume, 1999, p. 11).
Kanter argues that the consequences of sex-differentiated work behavior are a result of sex-differentiated chance structures rather than gender. According to Kanter, it is the workers' positions, not their gender, that have an impact on their work attitudes and behaviors (Cassirer; Reskin, 2000, p. 2).
"Another intriguing aspect of gender prejudice is that when women enter fields that are primarily dominated by male workforces, those occupations become devalued. The freedom, prestige, and high salary associated with them are taken away" (James, 2000, p.).
According to Maume (1999, p. 9), as more women enter bureaus, they tend to be seen as a place to dump women, resulting in lower wages and less job training for them.
Reskin and Roos (2000) conducted a survey on labor and occupation waiting times in order to inform readers about the
changing ethnic and gender composition of businesses and its impact on the occupational profile of African American women. They discovered that as businesses began to include more women, the status and wages of these occupations decreased.
According to the position composing position, organizations devalue organizations with a high number of female employees. They consider the jobs held by women to be unimportant and less skilled compared to male jobs. Job ratings show that women receive lower points than men, resulting in lower wages for them (Maume).
According to James (2000, p.3), there is a positive correlation between inequality in the distribution of net incomes and income with inequality in education and training.
p. 9 ) . I disagree with this statement because I believe that both men and women can be equally qualified.
According to literature, even when women hold Masters degrees, they still earn lower wages compared to their male counterparts (Maume, 1999).
p. 2). Despite the progress made by adult females in obtaining leadership positions, gender bias remains deeply ingrained. Interestingly.
According to Baxter, A, and Wright (2000, p. 9), gender prejudice is more prevalent at lower levels of management compared to the highest levels within an organization. This finding was consistent in all of the research that I conducted.
The prevailing topic in all articles is the lack of equal wages and opportunities for promotion. The full realization of equal employment and equity is dependent on opening traditionally male-dominated positions to women. This is the only way to break down the existing glass walls and ceilings (Miller et al.).
. 1999. p. 10 ) . Those who are concerned about equalities for everyone should advocate for the preservation and
enhancement of plans made by local authorities that aim to improve female representation and create more equitable gender distributions in higher-paying occupations and positions of power within the authorities (Miller et al.
. 1999. p. 10) . This support needs to be provided by white males and not just females and minorities.
Additionally, both private and public spheres must undergo changes in organizational cultures. This process will be time-consuming and will inevitably face opposition from white males. Change is challenging, and often people attempt to impede it.
For employees to embrace changes, they need to comprehend the changes and their rationale. When employees are unsupportive, it leads to increased tension and decreased morale (Miller).
Directors at all levels will need to fully embrace workforce diversification for the value that it will bring to the organizations (1963. pp. 236-237).
According to literature, educational institutions should prioritize learning equality as they shape future leaders. Research suggests that public administration graduate programs need to actively work towards strengthening equal opportunity learning environments. This involves exposing students to the impact of gender on their work lives and better equipping them to address and overcome gender-based inequalities in organizations (Hale, 1999, p.16).
"The ultimate goal of educators should be to constantly improve society. However, often schools have neglected this purpose" (Miller, 1965, p.).
7). Recognizing that all individuals perceive the world through their own lens is essential for valuing diversity in employees, as it fosters synergy (Covey, 1989, p. 277). Consequently, achieving equality and pay equity becomes a challenging task.
Men have a belief that working with other men is easier and more effective, leading them to believe that men deserve higher pay. Their pride and egos make
them believe that women are incapable of performing as well as they can. These personal beliefs need to be changed. By pairing men and women together on teams, the male mindset can be expanded, hopefully leading them to realize that women and minorities are equally qualified. Recognizing the strengths of all employees can strengthen the entire organization. It is necessary to provide thorough staff development to teach men and women how to effectively communicate with each other.
Workforces and females both need to acquire knowledge about each other. Society mandates their collaboration and this is a permanent condition. However, the approach to collaboration must change. Effective communication is crucial. Failure to communicate properly can have significant repercussions.
According to Heim (1995, p. 3), both genders will neglect the best purposes. Additionally, when examining my bureau.
It is evident that gender prejudice and pay disparities are present within our organization. We have a higher proportion of white females compared to white males, with only a small number of minority individuals. Although we have a established pay scale, it is not consistently adhered to. There is evidence indicating that men receive higher wages than women with the same qualifications. Additionally, men with lower qualifications have received higher salaries based on their connections rather than their education or experience.
In the past, when there were opportunities for publicity, they were typically given to white males without any consideration for gender bias. However, the new President of the college acknowledged this discrimination and implemented a policy stating that all job openings must be publicly advertised and open to all applicants. As a result of this change, we now have one female administrator since
he was appointed.
Now there are three. Bibliography
- Baxter. Janeen and Erik Olin Wright. 2000. “The Glass Ceiling Hypothesis”. Gender and Society. Vol. 14. Issue 2. p. 275.
Naomi and Barbara Reskin wrote a paper in 2000 titled "High Hopes" which was published in the Journal of Work and Occupations.
Vol. 27. Issue 4. p. 438.
The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. New York: Hearth of Simon & A. Schuster. Hale, Mary.
1999. “He Says. She Says: Gender and Worklife. ” Public Administration Review. Vol. 59. Issue 5. p. 410.
Miller, Will; Kerr, Brinck;
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