The Major Issues In Workplace Sociology Essay Example
The Major Issues In Workplace Sociology Essay Example

The Major Issues In Workplace Sociology Essay Example

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  • Published: August 21, 2017
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Gender has been one of the major issues in workplace. Since adult females had been actively affecting and take parting in the Public Relations industry in the last two decennary, gender position has been germinating and undergone some alterations.

However, adult females were treated unevenly since long clip ago as they were non given equal opportunity to be promoted to a higher place as work forces. Womans in Public Relation industry were ever retained at the technician function such as authorship. This is because adult females have ever been perceived as they merely possess feminist value such as sensitiveness, coaction which made them suited to manage technician map. While for direction map, work forces are perceived to be more suited in managing it as work forces has lesser load to concern approximately. Unlike adult females, they have to equili


brate up both household and calling, split their clip every bit to both their household and calling. Hence, they can non concentrate and concentrate wholly on their calling.

Besides, adult females have ever come across with other obstructions like sexual torment, sexual favoritism, glass ceiling, invasion and socialisation barrier. These obstructions have inhibited adult females from creeping up for a higher place. In order to get the better of these barriers, adult females have to work harder and lend more attempt to vie with the others and the work forces in order to acquire a opportunity to be promoted. Even worse, they have to suppress the other adult females for promotion.

Looking into jobs and obstructions that adult female had met in their Public Relation calling, this survey was carried out to discourse on the issues that had happened in

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the Public Relations industry. Besides, this survey was carried out to derive penetrations on the gender position and alterations that the Public Relations field has undergone as a consequence of ladies come ining it.


Gabe has one time said "Men decided a few centuries ago that any occupation they found repulsive was adult females 's work '' . It is so an unjust phenomenon to perceive adult females ever should keep a lower place in the work field.

For the last two decennaries, public dealingss were dominated by adult females in doing up 70 per centum of its work force ( Janus & A ; Dr. Maria Len-Rios, 2008 ) . However, the top leading functions such as managerial function were well taken by the male but non the adult females in the major bureaus.

Public dealingss refer to the art and societal scientific discipline of analysing tendencies, foretelling effects, reding administration leaders, and implementing planned plans of action which serve both the administration 's and public 's involvement ( Shetty, 2012 ) .Since adult females had started to traverse their legs into the workplace, gender has ever become the centre of attending in this century ( Shetty, 2012 ) . Gender merely refers to the outlook on qualities and behavior from male and female by the community ( Shetty, 2012 ) .

In the Public Relations work field, adult females were ever given drawn-out professional chances to work in a fast-paced concern, travel internationally and gain high wage ( Janus & A ; Dr. Maria Len-Rios, 2008 ) . However, when it comes to direction, they will ne'er be on the par with work forces. The fact is,

although there is an increase in the feminisation of the public dealingss field, adult females have still been categorized in undistinguished functions. Janus and Dr. Maria Len-Rios ( 2008 ) have besides highlighted that the perceptual experience on female public relation in a managerial function would merely take down the prestigiousness, position and repute of direction.

However, it seems that the patterns of public dealingss from the gender positions today had brought to some alterations to the field as a consequence of ladies come ining it. Are work forces the lone exclusive breadwinner in today 's century? Should adult females be recognized in the managerial function which is indistinguishable as the work forces in today 's universe?

Operational Definition

Glass ceiling

Harmonizing to Cotter ( 2001 ) , refers to a specific type of gender or racial inequality. This type of inequality can easy be differentiated from other types of inequality as it tends to be more typical compared to others. Glass ceiling is an unobserved yet unbreachable unreal obstructor that inhibits adult females or the minorities of being promoted to a higher place in their calling, irrespective of their makings or accomplishments ( Cotter, Hermsen, Ovadia & A ; Vanneman, 2001 ) . Besides, glass ceiling may use to the minorities excessively.

In short, glass ceiling is an inequality of gender and race in progressing the adult females from being promoted to higher places merely because they are adult females ( Feminist Majority Foundation, 2012 ) .


Encroachment merely refers to the assignment of non-public dealingss professional to manage Public Relations maps such as direction ( Heath, 2005 ) . It is seen as a serious affair particularly for practicians,

academicians or adult female if their top direction appoints single with small or no preparation or experience in Public Relation and Corporate Communication to a top Public Relation place. Invasion might likely ensue in occupation insecurity.

Heath ( 2005 ) has highlighted the three classs of invasion which are authorization, functional and structural. Authority encroachment refers naming the incorrect forces to be in charge in the public dealingss section or unit whereas for functional invasion, it means the enlargement of others section into the undertaking which are parts of Public Relations maps ab initio. While for structural invasion, it refers to the subordination of Public Relations map to the other units in the organisation hierarchy ( Heath, 2005 ) .


Work-life effectivity explains typical kernel on organisational policies and plans so that the employees are able to lend their full attempts in accomplishing their prosperity of the internal and external workplace ( Worldatwork, 2011 ) . In a simpler significance, work life effectivity refers to do 1 's life work more efficaciously '' .

In order to work out the jobs on both the place and work forepart that has beleaguered the employees, a strategic program which here refers to the work life portfolio is designated ( Worldatwork, 2011 ) . The work-life portfolio is composed by the cardinal elements of the organisation 's entire wages ( Worldatwork, 2011 ) . The work-life portfolio consists of seven classs as follows:

  • Caring for Dependants
  • Health and Wellness
  • Workplace Flexibility
  • Fiscal Support for Economic Security
  • Paid and Unpaid Time Off
  • Arousing Management Buy-In and Transforming Organizational Culture
  • Community Involvement

Worldatwork ( 2011 ) stated that this attempt is done to excite

the employees ' involvement, encourage and retain the employees in working in a more effectual manner in both internal and external work topographic point so to ease their life.


Practices of Public Relations from gender position and alterations that the Public Relation field has undergone as a consequence of ladies come ining it

Harmonizing to Bates ( 2006 ) , Public Relations bloom its fruits of modernisation in the twentieth century as professional enterprise particularly in the United States. Equally far as the society is going more civilised today, Public Relations has been developed from the philosophical and matter-of-fact maps to the agencies of carrying, informing or even serve as a propaganda tools or others more ( Bates, 2006 ) . In today 's epoch, argument and treatment have besides serve as of import maps in Public Relations field in order to develop consensus of the society. Furthermore, the innovation of authorship has merely moulded the Public Relations map in going a more formal manner.

Looking back in the 1930s,1940s and twelvemonth 1948 where the Public Relations Society of America was formed, Bates ( 2006 ) highlighted that Public Relations was blossoming bit by bit and eventually had matured into a completely professional endeavor. Issue on equality among the sexes has become the talk in the town in the 1980s and 1990s. The profession transformed from being a mostly all-male to an ethnically diverse, gender-integrated operation. Womans have been prioritized like work forces in whom they are both going more likewise in their instruction, cognition and accomplishments as a group ( Bates, 2006 ) .

Glancing back to the Public Relations development, most of the Public Relations innovators are

male such as Ivy Ledbetter Lee and Edward L. Bernays. This has unconsciously formed a perceptual experience in a sense that male are more capable to manage high place in Public Relations field like direction maps alternatively of technician maps.

Indeed, the favoritism of adult females in the Public Relations field is put offing. An interview has been conducted with a lector of Boston University and Pace College, Charlotte Klein on her personal experience in being a female Public Relation. During the interview, she highlighted that adult females normally are placed at a low deal place which most of the corporations perceive that adult male has a household doing them in demanding for more money to feed their household ( Martinelli & A ; Toth, 2006 ) .

Besides, the ground adult females are placed at a low deal place is because of the corporations think that one time adult females have had their kid, they will likely draw out from their calling. In add-on to this, the survey of Toth ( 2006 ) on the interview of Charlotte Klein stated that one of the female laminitiss of her groups even advises her to acquire a male spouse in order to go successful. The same cautiousness comes back to her when she was in a big Nipponese history subsequently. This has clearly shown that successful merely can achieved with the aid of work forces in the perceptual experience of the society.

However, Public Relations has transformed from male-dominated business to female-dominated get downing from the last two decennaries ( Grunig, Toth & A ; Hon, 2001 ) . Public Relation today is germinating into more feminism in puting

adult females in an equal place with the work forces.

Organizations and Their Views of Women

Structural determiners theory explains behaviour of male professionals and adult females with power. Surveies had shown that adult females tend to be more caring for others and have an disposition for first-class interpersonal accomplishments ( Wrigley & A ; Brenda, 2009 ) . It is non an unconditioned behavior for the female directors to be hostile towards the other female colleagues. Their behavior is likely learnt through the observation in an organisational civilization.

The sexist civilization of Public Relations remains unchanged by the adult females. In fact, adult females were the 1 who tends to be influenced by the sexist civilization of Public Relation. In Public Relations industry, the accent on male value has made the adult females devaluation to be happened ( Wrigley & A ; Brenda, 2009 ) . In term of female directors, masculine valley are emphasized which consequences in these adult females are following male individuality to go like a adult male today. Sadly, it has become a must for these adult females to deny their feminity in order to accomplish their prosperity.

If tradition feminine stereotype is absent, it would be easier for adult females to be promoted to a higher place. Research workers have claimed that the differences in leading behavior are best explained by psychological gender which merely means the building of sex-role individualities by environmental forces ( Wrigley & A ; Brenda, 2009 ) . Research has found that adult females prefer commanding behaviour alternatively of relationship-oriented behavior as they tend to believe that this masculine feature had been associated often with successful managerial and

leading behavior ( Wrigley & A ; Brenda, 2009 ) . Hence, a successful director largely refers to those who possess masculine features.

In add-on, adult female who behaves in a manner that make her to be alike the dominant sex to turn out that she does non merit a female 's position is given a rubric named Third Gender '' ( Wrigley & A ; Brenda, 2009 ) . For adult females who adopt to the feature of maleness, they have to turn their dorsum on other adult females out of a necessity to retain their authorization or power. Womans in direction fundamentally are confronting function struggle or known as double-bind '' ( Wrigley & A ; Brenda, 2009 ) . Women in direction fundamentally are holding quandary between whether to move harmonizing to the male-defined function or act harmonizing to culturally defined traits of a adult female. If they were approximately to move femininely, they are likely being rejected as an acceptable director and yet if they act manfully, they will be condemned as being unfeminine.

To vie, adult females must be aggressive and confident, but one time they assert themselves, they will be diverged from social and organisational outlook. Then, the Queen Bee Syndrome evolves as a mean of endurance.

Womans in Power: Queen Bee Syndrome

Queen Bee is besides known as "antifeminine '' ( Dr Frank Czarny, 2009 ) . Queen Bee is a sort of leading which involves power, influence and control. It is by and large used to depict the stereotype of adult females who discriminate their female co-workers to acquire promoted to a higher place or keep their place. Harmonizing to Dr

Frank Czarny ( 2009 ) , Queen Bee syndrome is viewed as woman-on-woman sex favoritism in the work topographic point. As a effect, queen may ensue in organisational disagreement.

Womans in power who have Queen Bee Syndrome tend to utilize soiled fast ones such as prevarication, intriguing and undermining for their calling promotion, power care and power laterality ( Dr Frank Czarny, 2009 ) . For illustration, Queen Bee syndrome occurs in adult females directors that refuse to engage pregnant adult females or allow them return to work.

In Pubic Relation industry, the being of Queen Bee syndrome has so become an obstruction for adult females. Womans tend to come across with their higher-up who has Queen Bee syndrome. This type of superior happen to be more self-fish in a sense that they refuse to move as a wise man for their junior female practician.

A Harmonizing to the study by Katie ( 2011 ) , one of the respondents in her research shared her experience about how she steps on the others and know apart the other female practician in order to acquire the managerial function. She farther explains that this phenomenon occur in both adult male and adult female. However, it happens more frequent in adult females as adult females have lesser chance to be promoted as work forces. Therefore, they might believe that it is necessary to use this "Queen Bee '' fast one to know apart others and advance themselves.

Gender Discrimination and Gender Segregation

Harmonizing to Prof. Dr. Romy Froehlich, Public Relation until today is still a male profession. In order to win in calling, adult females are encouraged to follow male features. Since old

ages ago, CEOs and high ranking direction are ever perceived as heroic and corporate maleness which these features are ever respected and perpetuated ( International Labour Office-GENEVA, 2004 ) .

Unfortunately, fostering label on adult females has yet to extinguish. Thus, adult females have to work highly difficult in order to `` go '' like a adult male to develop credibleness, regard and power in their calling.

Work forces are placed among directors, top executives and higher degrees of professional whilst adult females are still concentrated in the lower classs of managerial places. This "male '' norm has so made adult females to go unseeable to the male and female co-workers and clients. Consequently, adult females have to work much harder than work forces to turn out themselves and accommodate to male working manners and attitudes more than necessary.

Furthermore, adult females are likely to be ostracized from the informal webs dominated by work forces at the work topographic point which are important for calling development. As mentioned, adult females are chiefly categorized in the feminized professions like nursing and instruction ( International Labour Office-GENEVA, 2004 ) . Womans who possess feminist value such as sensitiveness, lovingness, honestness, equity and morality are frequently perceived as deficiency of assertiveness and leading accomplishments ( Prof. Dr. Romy Froehlich, 2004 ) .

Therefore, gender segregation or favoritism happens largely on adult females in Public Relation industry as adult females are misperceived in making better in feminine occupation such as nurse or instructor which made them hard to be promoted to a higher profession which requires much masculine characters.

Salary Discrepancy

In Public Relations industry, adult females are largely placed in the technician functions whereas

work forces are mostly placed in the direction function. most of the male will inscribe themselves into managerial function alternatively of technician function, even if they 're first in technician, sooner or later they will acquire into managerial function. As for male practician, when they enroll themselves in director function, they get occupation satisfaction as they can take part in the determination devising ( Dozier & A ; Broom,1995 ) . In short, male practicians rarely enroll themselves into tech as the occupation satisfaction that they will acquire is low as compared to those who enroll in managerial function. As for adult females, they tend to first inscribe themselves into technician functions as it provides more flexibleness of clip. The ground they need more clip flexibleness because they need to take attention of their household excessively.

Managerial function tend to be paid with a higher income due to its professionalism and its high occupation satisfaction. While for technician function, it tend to be paid with a lower income as there is no hazard in a sense that no engagement in organisation 's determination devising. Although the income for technician function tends to be lower, there is a higher flexibleness of clip which consequences in a higher occupation satisfaction for adult females.

In every individual dollar earned by work forces, adult females merely earned 62 cents out of it. This phenomenon happens in the twelvemonth 1979. The sum has increased to 81 cents in the twelvemonth of 2005 and 2006.

CNN has one time reported on the White House 's study which shows that adult females merely earn 75 % every bit much as their male comrade ( Jansen,

2011 ) . Although the gaining spread between work forces and adult females has reduced, there is still a important salary disagreement between female and male. It has become a failure in come oning on the issue of gender income unfairness by increasing the income spread between work forces and adult females in the last half decennary. Public Relations have ever realized the being of this larger social job.

In turn outing the bulk of people working in Public Relations are adult females, PR Daily 's sister site has reported that 73 per centum of the 21000 members of Public Relations Society of America ( PRSA ) is female ( Sebastian, 2011 ) . Although the sum of adult females has been increased bit by bit and go higher compared to work forces, and yet, on mean adult females still earn less than work forces. Doubtless, the income disparity still remains as a job for the Public Relations profession.

In a study conducted by Public Relations Society of America 's 2010 Work, Life and Gender Survey, it has indicated that work forces earn an mean sum of $ 98,188.82 yearly which is 30k and more higher than adult females 's wage which was averagely $ 67,853.08 ( Sha, 2011 ) . The same goes to the Public Relations industry in UK. In UK, the mean wage for a adult male was ?62,932 whereas the mean wage for a adult female was ?39,987. This has shown a important disagreement between female and male Public Relations ( Bussey, 2011 ) .

However, the salary disagreement that happened in Public Relations industry could be argued as more work forces are busying

senior functions compared to adult females. Yet, the salary spread between adult females and work forces are still important. For illustrations, male imperativeness officers earn ?32,843 on norm compared with their female opposite numbers ' ?27,351 ( Bussey, 2011 ) .

The manager of communications at charity Plan UK, Leigh Daynes has one time reported that adult females who work full-time, yet are paid on mean 15.5 per centum less an hr than work forces. Therefore, it has clearly shown that salary disagreement occurs in the Public Relations industry which is so an unjust phenomenon particularly to the adult females whom excessively contribute their difficult work to the industry.

Sexual Harassment

Sexual torment is a misdemeanor towards worlds ' rights. Harmonizing to Supreme Court, sexual torment refers to an unsought sexually determined behavior. It besides refers to a demand or petition for sexual favors, demoing erotica and any other unsought physical, verbal or non-verbal behavior of sexual nature ( Chaudhuri, 2006 ) . Harmonizing to Chaudhuri ( 2006 ) , sexual torment can be categorized into several groups such as verbal torment, psychological torment, sexual gestures and exposure, unwanted touch or even serious, colza, attempted colza or forced sex.

Verbal torment refers to the use of sexual overtones when speaking or mortifying with a personal comments at a sexual nature. For psychological torment, it is a sort of behavior that causes adult females in deep mental anxiousness. Examples can be seen through insisting on attach toing the respondents, stalking or following a adult female, gazing at her chest or directing obscene text messages that seem to be violative. While for sexual gestures and exposure, it is a sort of

torment where one exposes his phallus to her, stands bare or masturbates. Unwanted touch refers to unwanted touching of chests or other parts of her organic structure or even unwanted embracings ( Chaudhuri, 2006 ) . Rape is besides a sort of sexual torment where the culprit wants to hold sexual intercourse with her through physical force which is improper.

Womans, whom bulk of them were in technician function in the Public Relation industry, wish that one twenty-four hours they can be promoted to a higher place. Therefore, some of them choose to maintain quiet when they come across with sexual torment in their work topographic point as they are fear of dismissal, loss of income and blackball of publicities. Aside from that, adult females are afraid if they report on the sexual torment, they will lose their repute as repute is of import in Public Relations field. Furthermore, adult females are diffident which consequence in maintaining quiet even if they are harassed by their superior because they are fear that their superior may give them a bad study.

Indeed, culprits are normally people in authorization whilst victims are commonly adult females or those who are comparatively in a low-level place. Sexual torment has appeared as a serious issue in the workplace today as an issue of power kineticss. Unfortunately, it is those who wield least power who are most vulnerable to all signifiers of torment.

Theory Applied-Feminist Theory

Feminism emphasizes on equality of sexes. The application of feminist theory can be easy found in the Public Relation field today. Feminist theory merely refers to the tendency in which adult females are given equal rights and credits in determination

devising and voicing up their head ( Julie, Stacey & A ; Hustb, 2005 ) .. There are several models that have developed in the women's rightist theory such as broad feminism, socialist feminism, extremist feminism, postmodern feminism and multicultural or planetary feminism.

Feminist theory suggests that adult females are going more seeable in Public Relations field in add-on to accomplish more esteemed places and higher wages. Besides, it claims that adult females will see similar successes and demands as have work forces who advance in Public Relations. Feminist theory is aimed to heighten the importance of adult females and stress on the gender equity ( Julie, Stacey & A ; Hustb, 2005 ) . Harmonizing to Smith ( 2006 ) , feminist theory besides explains the place of adult females in the community and reveals historically adult females have been low-level to work forces.

For public relation position, adult females are of import in the field as they possess feminist values such as honestness, justness and sensitiveness that can profit the field. With these feminist values, symmetrical communicating and bipartisan symmetrical communicating form of Public Relation can be embellished as these theoretical accounts requires feminist values to decide the struggle happens and construct relationships that occur in the theoretical accounts. Feminist theory on Public Relations one time stated that the profession is inherently feminine in nature due to its intents, public presentation and features ( Julie, Stacey & A ; Hustb, 2005 ) . Although work forces are more capable in negociating accomplishments, adult females are more capable in acquiring things to be done better.

In 2001, Public Relations was feminized which means the figure of female

practicians is more than male practicians. Apparently, there is a steady increase of adult females come ining the Public Relations field in the early 1980s which now they are endeavoring so hard to derive a greater professional acknowledgment in the industry. The increase of adult females working in Public Relations industry was first marked in the mid- 1980s and resulted in the benchmark study, The Velvet Ghetto ( Smith, 2006 ) .

Harmonizing to Jacqueline ( 2008 ) , this study identified public dealingss as an progressively feminized field that pigeonholed adult females in low-level functions. It besides examined how the public perceived a female-dominated field and stated that because of this the profession would ne'er accomplish professional position and even might lose prestigiousness ( Jacqueline, 2008 ) . Larissa Grunig suggested that Public Relations was really non female-dominated but female-intensive in a manner that adult females dominate the industry numerically but they do non rule it in the sense they control it ( Smith, 2006 ) .

With the attending of adult females into the Public Relations industry, features such as coaction, sensitiveness towards audiences and better two way-communications were raised which turn the Public Relations industry to be more expertness and professional. On the other manus, adult females tend to traverse their legs into the Public Relation industry which made this industry to be feminized due to the desire to compose and attractive force to the originative facets of Public Relation ( Smith, 2006 ) .

Other Obstacles and Issues faced by female gender when presuming public relation functions

Harmonizing to Berger ( 2005 ) , Public Relations practicians enhance their power through rational statement, corporation with

their comrades or co-workers, past experience. Besides, they have to keep good relationship with the top direction or stakeholders who possess the power in determination devising. Grunig ( 1992 ) has one time highlighted that Public Relations practicians wield their power by organizing themselves in a group instead than single.

Socialization Barriers

Socialization barrier merely refers to barrier or obstructor that one comes across during their societal activity. Socialization is of import in heightening the relationship between people in add-on taking to a harmoniousness society in footings of supplying a better apprehension among the people ( Crossman, 2012 ) .

Bing a human, we have really larn how to socialise and interact with each other since the twenty-four hours we were born. Even earlier, this communicating form has occurred even before we were born into this universe. This can be seen when a female parent is pregnant. A pregnant female parent tends to be influenced by the environment and civilization around her on the determination or picks made on her babe male child or babe miss. For illustration, if the female parent is holding a babe male child, she will likely look for babe points which are bluish in coloring material as this coloring material is perceived as masculine coloring material by the society ( Crossman, 2012 ) ..

The same goes to the socialisation position. For illustrations, female was taught to act in a quiet and polite mode. Besides, it is a must for them to speak in a softer manner and seek for aid whenever they need. As for male, they are taught to be more active, gentlemen and independent. These phenomenons normally happen in Eastern civilization


Socialization experience can be defined as one of the roots of socialisation barrier for adult females ( Etzkowitz, 1994 ) . In school, misss are encouraged to be a good pupil and finish their undertaking given good and wholly. However, work forces are expect to be more autonomous and competitory.

Socialization barrier occurred largely among female as they are expected to complete their undertaking given absolutely and to be less ambitious ( Etzkowitz, 1994 ) . Besides, they are expected to be in group with merely misss alternatively of male childs. In the Eastern civilization context, people tend to perceive misss who get along with a group which chiefly made up of male childs as flirty, promiscuous or any other negative term that could be best depict them.

Doubtless, socialisation barrier happens when adult females are inhibited to blend good into work forces 's group. Like in Public Relation industry, as work forces tends to keep a higher place such as managerial function, adult females are barely to be placed in the top direction places as they are prohibited to blend up good with the work forces. This made adult females to retain in their technician function but non be promoted to a higher place.

Furthermore, socialisation barrier occurs when adult females need to equilibrate up their on the job life. Women come across with socialisation balance as they need to concentrate both on their household and occupation. This causes them to hold lesser clip in making societal activities. Social activities are important in Public Relation industry as it can assist to construct up the relationship between the clients and the companies by increasing the credibleness between each

other and supplying a common apprehension between the company and the stakeholders. Social activities such as holding a repast, making athleticss together and others tend to assist in relationship sweetening through sharing of information and working experience. However, adult females have a lesser chance in fall ining the off-office societal activity as they need to take history of their household.

Percept has been implanted in the society since old ages ago in which work forces are born to be responsible on their household in footings of working outside and supplying fiscal and economic system support to the household. While for adult females, they are perceived as babe Sitter or homemaker in whom they should concentrate more on their household alternatively of their calling. These convention perceptual experiences were earlier transformed as civilization. It is so unjust particularly when the convention-minded companies tend to be bias and believe that merely male employees are suited to be appointed in the direction function for the interest of socialisation intents.

Work-life effectivity

Looking into this, a good relationship between Public Relations and its stakeholder is important in acquiring thing to be done good. Furthermore, a good relationship signifiers may add credits for the Public Relations practicians in order for them to be promoted to a higher place such as director. As work forces are still keeping the higher place in the Public Relation industry, to a certain extent, adult females are still come across with some trouble in organizing good relationship with the top direction as they need to take history into their household and their self-respect and repute as a female. It is so disputing for adult females to keep the

effectivity both on household and calling. Women has become a less attractive campaigner for publicity because they are busy fighting to keep their work-life balance. Both work forces and adult females think that adult females are unable to get by themselve in a leading function if they need to give their clip to their kids and place.

Dilemma between household and calling is besides one of the obstructions or issues that faced by female gender when presuming public relation functions. It is so difficult for adult females to take attention and balance up on their household and calling.

Work force who merely need to work hard to supply fiscal support to the household. But adult females, who have to neutralize between their occupation and household ensuing in distraction to either their occupation or household. Therefore, in naming adult females in a managerial function, the superior demand to take into dual consideration as adult females might be concentrating more on their household alternatively of their occupation. Aside from that, in order for adult females to get by every bit on both sides which are household and calling, they need to lend excess attempt and energy to accomplish the comparative criterions and quality requested by the superior. It has become more nerve-racking for adult females to get by every bit with to things compared to work forces who merely need to concentrate wholly on their calling. Therefore, it is sooner for the superior to take work forces to manage the direction map which will ensue in a better public presentation compared to adult females.

Glass ceiling consequence

In add-on, adult females tend to come across with the glass ceiling consequence when

they are in their work field. They are prohibited from being promoted to a higher place merely because they are adult females. In Public Relations industry, pass oning and negociating accomplishments are of import. It is believed that work forces master better on these accomplishments than adult females who merely master better accomplishment in composing. Furthermore, merely because adult females are adult females, even if they have good communication accomplishments and negociating accomplishments, it is still difficult for them to be promoted to a higher place because they are adult females.

The glass ceiling does non merely a barrier for single adult females, it besides applies to adult females as a group. Subtle, indirect obstructions as a consequence of labeling and pigeonholing topographic point stumbling-blocks in the calling waies of many adult females presents.

Occupational segregation is one of the of import causes of glass ceiling. Executive place is still remained segregated by gender. Like mentioned, adult females must work harder than their male comrade in order for them to travel up the corporate ladder. Women believe that they fail to acquire promoted to exceed due to systemic favoritism against them.

An interview was done with Michelle Mone, who is the co-founder of MJM International and Godhead of Ultimo, one of the UK 's most successful interior decorator lingerie trade names. She have stated that glass ceiling do occur in adult females today. However, glass ceiling may do by the fear rejection of adult females or the lacking of assurance of them alternatively of merely purely favoritism ( Moss, 2008 ) . Besides, adult females tend to come across with glass ceiling in which their others female co-workers

who will likely griping about each other in the work topographic point which consequence in the creative activity of glass ceiling ( Moss, 2008 ) .


Rather, the superior tends to name people who are non from the Public Relations industry to manage direction maps. This is called invasion. For adult females, they tend to be subordinated to others unit in the organisation hierarchy such as serving section or secretary function.

As adult females are perceived to be keeping more feminist value, they are perceived to be more familiar with the authorship or feminine occupation such as nursing, learning or functioning. Therefore, their higher-ups tend to put them in low-level place like secretary or service information retainers ( Heath, 2005 ) . To replace place like direction map, the superior instead appoint people from others unit in the organisation hierarchy such as people from direction or selling section to manage the Public Relations maps as they tend to believe others unit will be more capable to manage the occupations compared to adult females ( Heath, 2005 ) .

Lack of Mentors

Lack of wise man is another barrier to adult females in leading. This simple means deficiency of critical mass of senior or visibly successful female functions and wise mans. Mentoring is a procedure whereby an experience or believable individual aid and steer a junior to ease the acquisition or development ( Jakobsh, 2012 ) .

Women traditionally have had lesser mentoring opportunities open to them compared to the male. This has become an so hurt for them to be advanced in their calling. As work forces frequently keeping the highest place, they are more likely to be authorized to

open doors for those with inferior position ( Jakobsh, 2012 ) . It has happened to go a serious barrier to adult females 's publicity. As patriarchate is a system of which the males are those who involved in dominant alliance, whereby the relationship of work forces with another work forces is established, therefore, in order for female to acquire into the dominant alliance, however, the relationships between adult females must be established foremost ( Jakobsh, 2012 ) .

Recommendations of survey

Public Relations were ever known as male-dominance industry. To get rid of this misperception and inequality that occur among the both genders, male should larn to be more open-minded and generous in mentoring adult females. On the other manus, for those adult females who possess the feature of Queen Bee, they should besides larn to be more generous in a sense that holding a farther vision and open up to steer the others for the organisation or industry 's betterments. By making so, more adult females are more familiar and well-mastered on the Public Relations direction maps which can consequences in a better domination of managerial function.

Furthermore, civilization perceptual experiences on adult females are born to be more feminine whereas work forces are born to be more masculine should be altered. Yes, adult females might be feminine physically but non needfully for their mental development. Mentally, adult females might be masculine in a sense that they might be ambitious, believe critically, aggressive and competitiveness whilst for work forces, they might be feminine mentally which they might be indecisive, emotional, thoughtful, good in authorship, event planning and technician functions ( Alex, 2012 ) . Womans are

transforming to cisgender. Cisgender refers to the transmutation of adult females to a character which possess masculine traits particularly in their workplace ( Alex, 2012 ) .

Harmonizing to Dr Ruth Simpson ( 2004 ) , the premise of enhanced leading has so benefited work forces who are merely from their minority position. This is besides known as the false authorization consequence. Men are benefited through the addendum of differential intervention such as the particular consideration consequence and being linked with a more careerist attitude and behavior to work which is known as the calling consequence ( Dr Ruth Simpson, 2004 ) . Dr Ruth Simpson ( 2004 ) besides heighted that the stereotyping such as relabeling, position sweetening and distancing from feminine has resulted in work forces to follow in the re-establishment of maleness that has been weaken by the `` feminine '' nature of their work. Negative pigeonholing on adult females is going one of the disadvantages for adult females for their promotion in their calling while premises of male careerism and managerial capableness frequently refer to positive calling result accruing for work forces ( Dr Ruth Simpson, 2004 ) .

In a nutshell, gender instability tends to rise calling barriers, inhibit calling advancement and make a hostile working environment particularly for the adult females ( Dr Ruth Simpson, 2004 ) . For illustration, sexual torment of adult females has been found to be more recognized and malignant in male dominated businesss. Unfairly, emotional labor such as authorship and planning or other technician function in Public Relations industry may name are automatically pointed to adult females who are deemed to possess ( Dr Ruth Simpson,

2004 ) . . However, harmonizing to Dr Ruth Simpson ( 2004 ) , this has become jobs for work forces in their competency and suitableness if they insist a traditional maleness and yet who invite challenfes to their gender and maleness if they adopt a more feminine attack.


As the society is tending to civilisation today, adult females are going more educated presents. Women has now become smart plenty in voicing up their sentiment and contending against their rights alternatively of being oppressed by the dominant group when they come across with gender favoritism or torment or other obstructions.

In this twenty-first century, the sum of adult females in come ining the Public Relations industry has bit by bit increased. Study has shown that the Numberss of adult females in ruling Public Relations has now going important because they are now make fulling 70 per centum of the places in the profession ( Aldoory & A ; Toth, 2002 ) .

Harmonizing to latest rank figures released by the Institute of Public Relations ( IPR ) , adult females now had far exceeded work forces by 60:40 which consequences in a monolithic swing since 1987 ( Working, 2010 ) . Brenda Wrigley, the chair of the Public Relations section at Syracuse University has one time stated that in the twelvemonth of 1970, there are merely 27 per centum of adult females practicians which now has increased to about 85 per centum ( Working, 2010 ) .

Looking into the increase of the female Public Relations professions, we have known that the gender barrier has now bit by bit dissolved as people today do set an oculus on adult

females 's ' rights. As people are educated to be more civilised, they are taught what is right and what is incorrect. Therefore, they have learned to esteem adult females and the realisation of the importance of adult females in the Public Relations field in lending a better bipartisan communicating.

Womans are come ining to this profession because the Public Relations industry provide flexibleness in term of chance for career-minded adult females in keeping high powered occupation whilst still equilibrating household life at least to some extent ( Working, 2010 ) . Aside from that, Wrigley highlighted that adult females flock to Public Relations because the entry-level accomplishments tantrum in good with what they gain in educational countries with big representation of adult females like humanistic disciplines ( Working, 2010 ) . Womans are good known for their capableness in authorship, presentation, event planning and technician accomplishments.

However, although the entry of adult females into the Public Relations field is blossoming today, the top direction functions are still mostly dominated by male. This is due to male possessing a feature of ambitious as they tend to concentrate wholly on their occupation. Since adult females need to equilibrate up both on household and calling, they tend to cognize what is more of import to them. Therefore, adult females are less appointed in direction function as they might be distracted by their household in non executing a 100 per centum good work in their occupation.

In a nutshell, a adult female has to work harder than a adult male and have more forbearance in order to accomplish success. On contrary, like Plato said, if adult females are expected to make

the same work as work forces, we must learn them the same thing ; if they were non given an equal opportunity like work forces in managing direction, how should we say adult females to make the indistinguishable degree of public presentation in their occupation like work forces does?

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