Perception Of Female Managers In Leadership Sociology
- REASONs WHY THERE IS A Differentiation
- INVESTIGATING STYLE OF LEADERSHIP OF MALE & A ; FEMALE
- STEREOTYPING PATTERNS
- Barriers TO WOMEN ATTAINING LEADERSHIP POSITION
- CAREER PROGRESSION
- 4.2 Research Methodology
- 4.3 Interview and Case Study Research Methods: A combined attack
- 4.4 Research Methods
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- Chapter FOUR: Discussion OF FINDINGS
- 5.1 Introduction
- 5.2 Demographic Detailss
- Age of Respondents:
- Marital Status:
- Fiscal Independence:
- Highest degree of instruction:
- Subject of Survey:
- Have you of all time been employed:
- Hypothesis 1: Family members constrains the calling picks and aspirations of adult females
- Traditional values constrain calling picks, occupation fulfilment and aspirations of adult females
The purpose of this thesis is to look into the manner of leading largely associated with females as compared with male directors. In peculiar it examines how adult females progress in their calling, how many adult females occupy leading place as compared with work forces and in male dominated industries, the grounds which are given as to why there is a differentiation between male and adult females in work, how its assessed by society. It will besides see pigeonholing forms, challenges adult females face in developing a suited leading manner, barrier to adult females achieving leading place. The implicit in principle of this survey is that work forces and adult females are acknowledged to hold different leading strengths and the increasing impact of adult females in Nigerian work force has besides stimulated the research on their manner of leading. It might be argued that such strengths are complementary and that organisations might profit from a combination of both masculine and feminine manners. Its perceived that adult females have competences of planning and managing activities, regard and empathy for others, while work forces have strength in strategic vision, commercial focal point and personal impact. [ use a beginning here to corroborate this perceptual experience ] . Making a balance of both types of leading is considered to be good to the organisation. XYZ have argued that adult females tend to be stronger in interpersonal facet of leading and in competences of planning. However, the common perceptual experience of leading accomplishments as being basically male has led to an under-representation of adult females in leading places. The analysis will concentrate on workplace environments and in those occupations affecting contact either with clients or other persons. The survey will be focused in Nigeria. This research aims to acquire a deeper apprehension of gender differences or inequality patterns and contribute to the literature on leading. Overall, the thesis seeks to measure between the male and female leading manners and the deductions for their callings and to the major challenges that hinder adult females in direction and executive places from recognizing the same potency as their male co-workers
Nigeria is a extremely patriarchal society, where work forces dominate all domains of adult females ‘s lives ( NGP, 2007 ) . It is seen as a male dominated society because the activities of Nigerian work forces and adult females tend to favor Nigerian work forces above the adult females. In other words, the parts of work forces and male behavioral repertories are more extremely valued than those of adult females. The entree of adult females to leading places is constrained by gender functions of work forces and adult females ( Olojede, 2004 ) . In the Nigerian Federal Civil Service, which is the largest single-entity employer in Nigeria, 76 % of civil retainers are work forces, while 24 % are adult females ( CIDA NigeriaGSAA, 2006 ) . Besides, in malice of the assignment of adult females to the place of Permanent Secretaries, they hold less than 14 % of the entire direction degree places in the Nigerian populace sector. Anker ( 1997 ) conducted surveies on adult females ‘s engagement in the formal sector of the economic system and attested to the fact that non merely is adult females ‘s engagement in the formal sector low, but that adult females are being discriminated against in footings of occupational segregation. Womans are underrepresented in direction places
in comparing to work forces all over the universe ( Tai et al. , 2005 )
REASONs WHY THERE IS A Differentiation
Taking into history household and domestic duties that adult females may meet and which, in bend, interfere with adult females ‘s callings ( Mae Kelly and Dabul Marin, 1998 ; Marongiu and Ekehammar, 1999 cited Cassar and Cortis 2005 ) . Family duties and domestic duties may therefore be reenforcing the impression that because of household association, adult females are non as profoundly involved in their work as work forces. This may be one account why males populate managerial places, since it is a calling that requires an equal grade of occupation engagement ( Cromie, 1981 ; Lewis, 1994 cited Cassar and Cortis 2005 ) . the definition of occupation engagement is non merely the grade to which employees engross themselves in their occupation but besides involves the extent to which employees view work as being a cardinal portion of their lives.
Harmonizing to this definition, female directors who are both calling and household oriented are at a disadvantage. This is because household demands may be interfering with adult females ‘s callings, taking them possibly to decline overtime, rearrange their on the job hours or decline excess work assignments, therefore put on the lining the possibility of being perceived as less job-involved than their male opposite numbers ( Keene and Reynolds, 2002 cited Cassar and Cortis 2005 )
INVESTIGATING STYLE OF LEADERSHIP OF MALE & A ; FEMALE
Reading most Management text editions would readily uncover that leading is one of the four direction map that needs to be assumed by any director. In general, many of the maps of direction are activities that are consistent with the definition of leading ( Northouse 2004 ) . Leadership has ever been a topic of great involvement, it tends to capture the attending of academic and concern audiences. Burns ( 1978: 2 ) argues that leading is one of the most ascertained and least understood phenomena on Earth ‘ . As Stogdill ( 1974 ) argues, there are as many definitions as the figure of bookmans in leading, which demonstrate the complexness of this phenomenon. Furthermore, Barker ( 2001 ) argues that leading is kindred to conventional cognition, hence, we all know what leading is until person asks us to specify it specially ‘ ( Barker, 2001: 475 ) . However, Fiedler ( 1996 ) argues that there has been much moaning and groaning in the past that we did n’t cognize anything worthwhile about leading, that leading theories and research lacked focal point and were helter-skelter, and some authors asked even whether there is such a thing as leading ‘ ( Fiedler, 1996: 241 ) . So what is leading? To reply this inquiry, some of the of import definitions of leading are illustrated here in order to do readers familiar with the construct of leading. However, as Karmel ( 1978 ) notes, it is accordingly really hard to settle on a individual definition of leading that is general plenty to suit these many significances. Its seen as a consequence of the feeling of pleasance of the ability of others to make their ends and be influential ( Vecchio, 2008 ) . Leadership is a procedure that is similar to direction in many ways. Leadership involves influence, as does direction. Leadership requires working with people, which direction requires every bit good. Leadership is concerned with effectual end achievement as is direction and specific plenty to function as an operationalization of the variable. ‘ ( Karmel, 1978: 476 ) .
The differences in work forces ‘s and adult females ‘s leading manners are seen as peculiarly of import in visible radiation of the tendency toward level administrations, team-based direction and increased globalisation. Rosener ( 1990 ; 1995 ) and Adler ( 1993 ) make converting statements that adult females ‘s synergistic manners may stand for a different and of import new attack to leading that can and will be valuable to corporations as diverseness and networking addition in our planetary economic system
Womans appear to be more concerned towards holding a strategic attack to alter, challenge constructions, be less concerned with manners and more with societal aims and inclusive direction, favour collaborate working, have a principled but hands-off attack which stimulated motive among some and ill will among others. CITATION NEEDED HERE TO SUPPORT THIS STATEMENT However there is besides a good trade of grounds that adult females find themselves forced to follow a male function theoretical account in order to win in their chosen profession ( Davidson,1999 ) . Groves ( 2005 ) found female leaders of course scored higher on societal and emotional accomplishments and hence obtained higher evaluation for magnetic leading. But so once more, adult females who are modest will look less competent ( Rudman, 1998 ) . In a nutshell, the pick of leading manner is expected to fit the gender function stereotypes, and this outlook is even more apparent in the instance
Deciding on one best theoretical account is decidedly an impossible undertaking as these theoretical accounts have been proven through empirical observation in assorted contexts. . Most of these theoretical accounts tend to hold overlapping dimensions which can be summarized into three chief dimensions-autocratic/directive, participative, nurturant-task ( Sharmila 2009 ) . These 3 leading manners would be referred to as leader behaviour interchangeably as these dimensions were measured utilizing statements that represented leader behaviour.
An bossy leader is a leader who is really rigorous, directing, makes usage of his power of influence from his place to command wagess and coerce the followings to follow with his direction ( Blau & A ; Scott, 2006 ) . This type of leader dominates and controls all the determinations and actions by giving direction and way to the followings on what to make and how to transport out a undertaking whereby curtailing follower ‘s creativeness and innovativeness. However, in position of globalisation and the cognition economic system, bossy leading may no longer be accepted by the subsidiaries who are going more competent, independent and knowing ( Tom, 2002 ) .
Participative leading involves audience, encouragement and facilitation between the leaders and subsidiaries in doing a determination ( Yukl, 2006 ) . Given the impression that work force are more knowing and are equipped with relevant accomplishments, subsidiaries would prefer directors who would give them the chance to be heard. Alternatively of stamp downing the dissension to pacify their superior as done antecedently, the new coevals of workers would decidedly desire to hold a portion to play in determination devising. The outgrowth of this penchant for participative manner was apparent in the findings of several research workers.
A female director that patterns bossy leading which is more masculine in nature will be rated even more ill than their male directors in footings of effectivity because they have violated the gender function stereotype. On the contrary, people expect adult females to be warm, expressive, understanding, compassionate, and concerned about their subsidiaries. Eagle and Johnson ( 1990 ) found that effectual adult females directors practiced more participative leading. This determination can be attributed to adult females ‘s nature in general which can be characterized by good properties and character in interacting with people, possessing better human relation accomplishments, sharing the information and heightening people ‘s dignity ( Groves, 2005 ) . Therefore the show of leading behavior reflective of their nature enabled them to be rated extremely and somewhat more effectual than work forces ( Rosener, 1990 )
Few surveies have considered the possibility that adult females may in fact behave otherwise as directors in ways that enhance their public presentation. Statham argues that although work forces and adult females may be every bit effectual as directors, they may non be perceived as such because of certain differences in their managerial manner and attack. Her findings suggest that sex-differentiated direction may be, that adult females may utilize a more task-engrossed and person-invested manner, while work forces may utilize a more image-engrossed and autonomy-invested manner. Womans were perceived as concentrating more on the undertaking to be done and the people working for and with them, paying careful attending to what is go oning in their countries of duty and interacting with others a great trade. Work force were seen as concentrating on themselves and the demand to endorse away from those who work for them, stressing the power they have and the parts they make in a state of affairs. They felt the ideal manner to pull off is to remain out of it. Such an scrutiny of low-level perceptual experiences, in add-on to the leaders self-assessment, furthers our apprehension of how and why work forces and adult females are perceived to differ.
In understanding what it takes to be a good leader, a displacement that has interesting deductions for the present treatment. Rather than stressing power, aggressiveness, fight, etc. , this literature has tended to concentrate on the importance of ‘softer ‘ accomplishments such as communicating and emotional bonding with subsidiaries. Interestingly, these new characteristics of a good director can be interpreted every bit good in footings of gender stereotypes: if the traditional director was an alpha male, this new type of director is clearly de-masculinised and arguably acquires many stereotyped ‘female ‘ features ( such ascommunication, caring, emotional bonding ) . In the grade of incursion of adult females into leading places gender function, and accommodating that manner is a manner for them to execute as directors. With adult females moving more in transformational ways ( every bit good as in footings of transactional manner, adult females deliver wagess to subsidiaries for appropriate public presentation more frequently than work forces ) , and work forces more in transactional and individualistic manners.
In an earlier meta-analysis, Eagly et Al. ( 2003 ) distinguished three sorts of leading manners that work forces and adult females occupy: transformational, transactional and individualistic manners. The last 1 is described as a failure to take duty for pull offing. In the analysis, a societal function theory attack to leading behavior was applied, foregrounding the fact that leading functions are constrained by gender functions. Harmonizing to Eagly et al. , a transformational manner suits the female gender function, and accommodating that manner is a manner for them to execute as directors.
He EAGLY? ? ? found that the manner workplaces are managed varies with the gender composing of the managerial squad – an addition in the per centum of adult females at direction degree is associated with more intense interpersonal communicating, higher engagement of directors in employees ‘ calling disposal and with more democracy in decision-making at the workplace.
In analyzing male and female leaders, subsidiaries are besides frequently included in the scene. For illustration, Johnson ( 1994 ) argues that director function demands and position cut down any consequence of gender on the communicating between directors and subsidiaries. However, differences may lie in the look of gestural behavior, such as smiling and express joying. Callan ( 1993 ) has examined manager-subordinate communicating. Callan ( 1993 ) He expected that male and female directors who adopt a relationship-oriented manner would be judged as leting more chances for male and female subsidiaries to discourse issues and to unwrap their concerns in comparing to leaders with a task-oriented manner. It was besides assumed that subsidiaries who judged the communicating to be more frequent and of higher quality would be more. Female subordinates believed that directors allowed them fewer chances for treatment compared to perceptual experiences of their male opposite numbers.
Additionally the cultural stereotype of ‘leadership is male ‘ , presents a barrier to any adult female who aspires to a leading place. Despite the fact that many research workers have found that there are undistinguished differences in the unconditioned abilities of male and female directors ( Farm horses and Platz, 1986 ) , stereotypes that portray adult females as less capable leaders than work forces persist. The stereotypes come from the premises that there are widespread differences in abilities between adult females and work forces refer to a cultural bias that assumes that work forces are better suited for leading places ( Heilman et al. , 1989 ) . Past literature analyzing adult females ‘s patterned advance states that adult females do be given to hold a lower outlook in the workplace than their male co-workers ( Davidson, 1993 ) .
Highly seeable stereotyping ;
male dominated civilizations in footings of both staff and political
deficiency of acknowledgment of feminine direction manners as valid by male
Male haughtiness and “ male childs nine ” outlook ; civilization and stereotypes which fostered echt barriers to patterned advance ;
long hours and flushing meeting civilization which restricted positive work /
life balance ;
sabotaging adult females ‘s work and value through usage of inappropriate
linguistic communication e.g. usage of the term “ bitty miss ” ;
male foremans short-circuiting adult females directors in favor of lower-graded
male staff ;
male intimidation that affected adult females ‘s assurance
The stereotyped beliefs about adult females in managerial places generate the thought that holding traditional male features is a better forecaster for success, therefore reenforcing the belief to “ believe manager-think male ” ( Schein as cited in Sauers et Al, 2002 cited Cassar and Cortis, 2005 )
The Nigerian Institute of Management ( NIM ) in ( 1991 ) organized two national seminars for adult females in Management at which the undermentioned observations were made:
( I ) negative socio-cultural beliefs which tend to curtail the Nigerian adult females ‘s function to place devising activities.
( two ) Lack of full grasp and apprehension of the multiple roles the Nigerian adult female has ever played and is still willing to play in the development aspirations of the state.
( three ) Discrimination against adult females to come in top direction places peculiarly in the private sector of the Nigerian economic system.
( four ) The slower rate at which adult females are advanced in comparing with their male opposite numbers even when they are of equal or greater competency.
( V ) The comparative denial of trading chances extended to adult females to function in places of policy and disputing duties both in Government and private sectors.
Barriers TO WOMEN ATTAINING LEADERSHIP POSITION
Coffey et Al ( 1999 ) found that adult females executives are often the lone adult female at their degree. The sense of being a lone female voice was a frequent portion of the experience of such adult females. Furthermore adult females in upper direction, consisting about 5 % of upper directors, are about ever in the ‘token ‘ place. Tokens are capable to more on-the-job force per unit area and examination than dominants because they are more seeable to the remainder of the group and that visibleness increases public presentation force per unit areas ( Kanter,1977 ) .
The psychological force per unit areas of being a item can non assist but hold a long term negative consequence on adult females ‘s feelings and attitudes. Most significantly, for adult females seeking publicity or perchance draw a bead oning to go up to the CEO place, their minority position frequently makes it more hard to tap into the information they need from informal beginnings and webs, making yet another obstruction in the way toward farther publicity.
Surveies indicate that obstructions to progression arise merely after the first five old ages of adult females ‘s callings when work forces ‘s compensation, publicity and occupation satisfaction begins to billow in front. Women face certain challenges at work: female features and stereotypes are viewed negatively, and their minority position increases their visibleness ( Riley, 1993 ) . In add-on, as adult females enter paid employment their male spouses tend non to presume an just portion of the housekeeping and kid attention.
Many administrations have family-friendly policies to relieve the force per unit areas of uniting work and household life ; nevertheless employees can be loath to entree these because of the possible impact on their calling. Schwartz ( 1994 ) indicates that adult females assume that calling punishments would ensue from utilizing family-friendly policies, but she besides concludes that usage is really career heightening in that it provides a agency for adult females to stay affiliated to the work force. She adds that utilizing family-friendly policies will be mediated by both single attitudes and by corporate civilization there has been a significant addition in the figure of adult females who are bank directors in Nigeria. Nigeria adult females are now presuming greater duties in the direction of concern organisation. Despite the barriers militating against their full engagement in the labor market, the economic clime in the state requires adult females to augment the earning of their hubby and their parents. Therefore, their part to the state ‘s economic system can non be overlooked. Nigeria adult females now hold more place of leading or prestigiousness in direction than of all time before ( Oladejo et al 2012 ) . Harmonizing to Opeke ( 2002 ) more female employees are bit by bit traveling in direction and besides determination doing degree. Although adult females ‘s engagement in the work force has grown steadily worldwide, bing gender inequalities have increased with regard to pay and working conditions. Harmonizing to the Beijing Platform for Action adult females continue to confront barriers to economic authorization and entrepreneurship.
The obstructions for adult females in direction are still formidable, and are turning more intractable. In many developing states, such as Nigeria, there are merely a little per centum of adult females in direction and related decision-making places ( Al-Lamki 1999 ) . The function of Nigerian adult females in national and economic development is an issue that demands serious consideration. Harmonizing the ( BBC 2006 ) the population of Nigerian adult females is given as 68,086,302 degree Fahrenheit out of entire population of 140,431,790 This represent about 50 % of the Nigerian population ; moreover, an increasing figure of adult females are get the better ofing past constructs that they should non take part in decision-making or wield authorization over others.
In Nigeria, there are merely a little per centum of adult females in direction and related determination doing place ( Al-lamki 1999 ) . The function of Nigerian adult females in National and economic development is an issue that demand serious consideration.
The barriers that prevent adult females from go uping to senior direction places in big corporations have frequently been described jointly by the metaphor “ the glass ceiling ” ; a transparent barrier which thwarts adult females from traveling up the corporate ladder past a certain point ( Morrison et al, 1987 ) . Therefore undertaking the under-representation of adult females at senior degrees is important.
The glass ceiling was a term foremost used in the 1970 ‘s to depict the unseeable barrier which exists within company organizational constructions which prevent adult females deriving the top managerial stations ( Hansard, 1990 ) . There is now extended literature on this subject with grounds from both the West which indicates that adult females face obstructions in their callings which are non faced by their male opposite numbers ( Davidson,1999 ) .
The strongest tool for interrupting the glass ceiling in building industry because statements on equal chances, or make fulling the accomplishment spread by enrolling adult females, does non intend more adult females in managerial places brings better direction to the industry ( Ginige et al 2007 ) . Kanter ( 1977 ) explains that because adult females in managerial places are non proportionally represented in organisations, they are in a vulnerable place, merely because they are in a minority.
The first barrier identified is organizational civilization. Secondary beginnings defined organizational civilization as “ the worlds, values, symbols and rites held in common by members of an administration and which contribute to the creative activity of norms and outlooks of behavior ” ( Phillips, Little and Goodine, 1997 ) . Organizational civilization defines behavior within an administration, find what is and is non valued, and how authorization is asserted ( James and Saville- Smith, 1992 ) .The values which frequently underpin the bulk of administrations, and therefore define personal success, arguably include money, power and position. The corresponding behaviors include working long hours and seting in ‘face clip ‘ ( as placeholders for productiveness ) , fight and a willingness to set work above all else ( McKenna, 1997 ; Cornelius, 1998 ; Raggins et Al, 1998 ) . McKenna ( 1997 ) and Cornelius ( 1998 ) argue that it is these values and behaviors that create the sort of organizational civilization which many adult females find so inhospitable. Womans, every bit good as many work forces, non merely happen this environment inhospitable but the forms of interaction between staff members it creates as being potentially uneffective ( Marshall, 1995 ) . Womans say that an inhospitable civilization is one of the most important barriers to their promotion and a major factor in decreasing their satisfaction with work in big administrations ( Phillips, Little and Goodine, 1997:571 ) . Explanations for the highly low Numberss of adult females in the place of senior direction places go beyond corporate policies and patterns but are besides impacted by gender-based issues.
The “ old male child ‘s web ” is frequently cited as a barrier to female patterned advance to senior stations as adult females at the top are frequently perceived as menaces by their male co-workers in that they would recommend alteration from the position quo. The “ old male child ‘s web, ” is when adult females are excluded from informal webs because of their gender these are informal groups of male equals who provide each other with information, feedback, and contacts for necessary calling promotion. A critical mass of adult females in top places would be a menace to the “ old male child web ” which presently functions rather good in continuing and heightening wagess for males at the top One manner that adult females are kept out of ‘old male child ‘s web ‘ is through the procedure of competence proving. Competency proving is a procedure by which a individual is required to turn out herself over and over once more. Rosener ( 1995 ) studies that when carry oning her research male senior executives, freely admitted that adult females in upper degree places were subjected to competency proving much more frequently than their male opposite numbers.
This behavior on the portion of male executives could be seen as an effort to band together to continue the upper ranks as a preponderantly male sphere by directing the message to females who attempt to infiltrate their sphere that they are less than welcome and will hold to contend to derive entry HR policies and patterns were identified as a important barrier to womens patterned advance. A study by Catalyst ( 1990 ) of human resource directors found that corporations were still non making diverseness enterprises or policies that efficaciously lessened the obstructions for adult females wishing to go up through the ranks to senior direction ( Riley, 1993 ) argues that work / household struggle is often cited as an obstruction to female employment and publicity chances. The long hours civilization or “ child blind ” administration timetable supports the wont of early forenoon and eventide meetings out of more regular “ 9-5 ” hours potentially doing attending hard for adult females Tharenou ( 1995 ) found that adult females were more likely to go Chief Executive Officers or top directors when they had fewer external ties in footings of partner or kids.
Research into adult females ‘s barriers to senior places indicates that adult females ‘s deficiency of assurance is one of the chief inhibiting factors in adult females ‘s calling development and the chief ground why some people think that adult females are their ain “ worst enemies ” ( Powell 1993 ) . However, possibly this is a convenient manner to apportion duty for a broader societal job of gender favoritism and needs to be looked at in this manner.
This is bad at all. It does n’t get down really good ( chiefly because of it is imprecise and full of generalisations ) but it picks up as it goes along. I have made some alterations to the beginning to propose ways you can better line of statement. However the remainder of it reads good with lone occasional jobs. You have to be more witting of the demand to direct the statement and explicating to the reader what your principle is. Sometimes you do this rather good – at others is losing wholly.
You need a drumhead now to state what the chief issues are in this chapter and what the deductions are for the manner you are traveling to analyze the methodological analysis.
This chapter will discourse the methodological analysis and the types of research methods that will be
chosen for this survey. It will try to analyze and warrant why they will be used. To this terminal,
the chapter will pull upon relevant literature in explicating how such methods will be
designed in the context of this survey ; that is to look into the perceptual experience of female directors as leading compared with the male counterpart.. Hence, the remainder of the chapter is organised as follows: an scrutiny of the research methodological analysis, treatment of the value of utilizing assorted methods and a description of the research methods that will be used.
4.2 Research Methodology
When taking on how to carry on research, one frequently finds the work of Bryman ( 2003 ) ,
Nachmias ( 1996 ) and Saunders ( 2000 ) Stokes ( 2011 ) to be rather informative and enlightening. Harmonizing to these writers there are a figure of concrete picks that an writer must do before shiping on empirical research.
An of import 1 is the methodological analysis that one employs to transport out this research. Now we look at the epistemic and ontological point of position and the attitude taken towards
human nature. Ontology is concerned with differing positions on the nature of ‘reality ‘ and provinces of ‘being ‘ . In other words, it is about the survey of the nature of being and premises we make about it ( Stokes, 2011:90 ) . Every research worker must go consciously cognizant of his or her
ontological frames of mention as they will later border how he or she will transport out a
survey of human interactions, the like of this survey. Epistemology is concerned with the inquiry of what is ( or should be ) regarded as acceptable cognition in a subject ( Bryman, 2003 ) .Hence, prior to discoursing research methods in item, it is of import to give some attending to these points of position and attitudes in the context of the present survey and its built-in research purposes.
In relation to the ontological roots of this survey, a societal constructivist attack is employed
and this is posited in blunt contrast to a rationalist ontology which places an accent upon
functionalism, quantification and managerialism. Positivist ontologies assume that one can
learn about human nature and behavior by analyzing the forms and relationships that
emerge between them in their mundane life. Functionalism informs us that such forms will
be of a rational nature. As opposed to the ontology of positivism societal constructionism can be defined as the new paradigm that has been developed by philosophers roots from the position that ‘reality ‘ is non nonsubjective and exterior but is socially constructed and given significance by people ( Easterby et al, 2002:29 ) . It does non presume that one can larn about mundane life by merely
detecting it or looking for ( rational ) forms within it. Alternatively one must see it through
heightened interaction with research topics. As such it represents ‘an ontological rebellion
against the dominant functionalist or ‘scientific ‘ paradigm ‘ of positivism ‘ ( Denison, 1996: P
619 ) .
This survey uses this ontological point of position for two chief grounds: foremost, many writers
speak of the virtue of societal constructivism in supplying high explanatory power for
single and instance specific societal contexts ( see for illustration, Denison, 1996: P 635 ) . This survey represents an scrutiny of the societal context of Nigeria and the perceptual experience of female directors in leading These perceptual experience can hence be said to be socially constructed and therefore any scientific or positive scrutiny of these would be limited to state the least. Second, ( as will be discussed afterlife ) the survey employs both quantitative and
qualitative methods. The purpose here is to avoid any positive focal point on proficient or
quantification of societal phenomena, as this is thought to be wholly unsuitable for explanatory intents. The combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods is much more
compatible under a societal constructivist attack for explicating the societal phenomena looking into how they progress in their calling and challenges toward adult females achieving leading place their patterned advance. It is to these two methodological analysiss this
chapter now turns, the principle for utilizing and uniting them and the particular means by
which they were designed and disseminated.
4.3 Interview and Case Study Research Methods: A combined attack
The value of utilizing quantitative informations based on questionnaire to carry on research. In relation to a questionnaire, its announced inorder to hold high degrees of prognostic value and truth and hence leting relevant parties to do appropriate accommodations to their current operations. This therefore the hope for this survey and the ground a questionnaire is used ( truth and dependability ) . Even with this, it is still of import to understand the built-in restrictions of questionnaire methods, in peculiar given that a societal constructionist attack is employed to theoretically border the survey. For illustration, ( Hines 1993: P 729 ) speaks of the dangers associated with study research: ‘with diverse cultural and cultural minority groups… a complex and disputing enterprise that confronts the research worker with jobs related to lingual and conceptual equality and measuring every bit good as jobs related to troubles that respondents have with the socio cultural dimensions of the survey/ interview procedure ‘ . As this can be seen in the instance of Nigeria a state with diverse cultural and over 250 cultural groups, it ‘s a spot disputing when pass oning with respondents from other cultural groups because there civilization has an impact on concern activities and the general logical thinking of people compared with other portion of the state.
Therefore, it is really of import when building a study that the inquiries are clear and concise.
Harmonizing to Survey monkey ( 2011 ) , the consequences from study informations ‘are best when inquiries are clear, direct, and brief inquiries will assist the study respondents to cognize precisely what you are inquiring. By doing certain that the inquiries asked do non hold more than one possible significance besides helps in forestalling respondents confusion. Asking sensitive inquiries in alternate ways may assist to relieve respondents concerns ‘ ‘ . When look intoing culturally diverse populations, nevertheless, jobs tend to originate in this context. Because in some portion of the state due to their cultural group traditions, adult females are non meant to speak about how work forces treat them or out of fright that some individual may acquire to see their response and that they want to hold issues with any one so they tend to writhe the information that they answer. To farther buttress on this Hines ( 1993, p.730 ) states that “ ‘respondents do non remember or cognize the reply to points, are motivated by fright, stigma, or uncomfortableness to conceal or falsify information, deficiency inducement to retrace experiences, or misunderstand inquiries ‘ . This so, of class, has a terrible impact on the research workers ‘ ability to
accurately report findings or for the findings to hold any existent explanatory power.
To get the better of these possible booby traps, this survey provides a complementary research method
( Sale et al. , 2002 ) ; that is both questionnaires and interviews methods are used to basically
provide the same information, but to besides squelch any socio-cultural edginess brought about
by either method. While respondents are non comfy about replying inquiries in a face-to-face interview type scenario, they may be more comfy with composing down replies in an
open-ended questionnaire. Supplying this double chance here allows this to happen. Another
major advantage, of utilizing uniting questionnaires with interviews, is ( as discussed above )
to supply a more in- ” deepness and comprehensiveness ” analysis and ‘experience ‘ of the research subjects.
In these state of affairss, it is best to utilize a alleged a assorted method design in which we use both quantitative ( for illustration, a questionnaire ) and qualitative ( for illustration, a figure of instance surveies ) methods. Mixed method research is a flexible attack where the research design is determined by what we want to happen out instead than by any preset epistemic place. In assorted method research, qualitative or quantitative constituents can rule or both can hold equal position. ( Sukamolson, n.d )
Interviews provide research workers much more than inactive responses from a questionnaire but let them to interact with research topics. It allows them to direct the conversation in a peculiar
way when something of involvement harvests up. The purpose will be non to look for forms or behaviors, but to really derive an in-depth apprehension of the Nigeria female directors in leading, their calling patterned advance and challenges they face in achieving a leading place.
Such penetrations will be gained from the interviews, therefore seen as a chief advantage of utilizing assorted methods research.
In instance survey research Robert K. Yin is an important bookman, he farther says it represents the most effectual and enlightening agencies by which to carry on research for many bookmans ( Yin, 2009 ) . He applauds the usage of instance survey which depend upon ‘more holistic informations aggregation schemes for analyzing the chief instance but so name upon questionnaires… .to roll up informations about the more embedded unit ( s ) of analysis ‘ ( Yin, 2009: 63 ) . Within this survey, fixed nonsubjective informations will be gathered in the questionnaire, subjective informations will be largely collected in the interview. Objective information relates to that which is comparatively fixed ; that is the verifiable traits and features of Nigeria female directors in leading, for illustration the calling patterned advance and their manner of leading. Subjective information relates more to the perceptual experiences and attitudes they possess about challenges they face. Hence, questionnaires are more specific in range, whilst the interviews were wider and covered a broad array of research subjects and findings.
Hence, assorted methods constitutes a ‘class of research uniting quantitative and qualitative methods which sounds like a good thought. Using multiple attacks can capitalize on the strengths of each attack and countervail their different failings. It could besides supply more comprehensive replies to research inquiries, traveling beyond the restrictions of a individual attack ( Robinson 2004, p6 ) . Currently it seems that assorted methods research schemes are being progressively employed as a figure of workshops have been devoted to assorted method research ( Brannen 1992 ) . It is promoted as an of all time increasing agencies of carry oning research. For illustration, in support of blending methods he asserts that they can ‘permit research workers to turn to more complicated research inquiries and roll up a richer and stronger array of grounds than can be accomplished by a individual method ‘ ( Yin 2009, p63 ) .
Yet, there has been much contention environing the usage of assorted methods research such as the changing and spread outing definition of assorted method research and if the value added by assorted method is beyond the value added by qualitative or quantitative research ( Cresswell 2007 ) .
Yin ( 2009, p6 ) tends non to rate it when the research methods are arrayed within a hierarchy and discounts the impression that instance surveies ‘ can non be used to depict or prove propositions ‘ . Within this survey, that peculiar point of position is non ignored. In order to prove the research propositions, it is envisaged that the interviews will be rather descriptive and enlightening and non entirely explorative in nature. Hence, such a agencies of carry oning research is thought to be an ‘inclusive and pluralistic 1: Every research method can be used for three intents – exploratory, descriptive and explanatory ( Yin, 2009: pp.7- 8 ) . Hence, harmonizing to Carey ( 1993 ) ‘quantitative and qualitative techniques are simply tools ; incorporating them allows us to reply inquiries of significant importance ‘ ( Sale et al. , 2002: P 44 ) . Basically, hence, this survey uses assorted methods as a complementary agency of research which ‘seeks amplification, sweetening, illustration, elucidation of the consequences from one method with the consequences from another ‘ ( Greene et al. , 1989: 259 ) . The exact agencies by which this assorted methodological analysis was carried out is now discussed.
4.4 Research Methods
Research was conducted in two coincident phases. The first of these was the usage of semi
structured face to confront interviews. These were conducted to seek and place some key
concerns of the adult females in relation to their manner of leading and calling patterned advance and challenges they are faced with. The purpose was to find what issues they feel are of import and what their hereafter holds in respects to well representation of adult females in leading place. The undermentioned interview inquiries were used as a general semi structured guideline:
1 ) Do you hold any specific manner of leading? If yes what and explicate why? .
2 ) How long have you been in employment? ?
3 ) What is your highest degree of instruction?
4 ) In footings of your employability as a adult female in Nigeria, what do you see your calling chances to be?
5 ) Likewise, what do you comprehend are barriers to your calling patterned advance?
6 ) Do you experience that these can be overcome by virtuousness of the fact that you have attained a
Tertiary or higher degree of instruction?
7 ) Have you been opportuned to take squads or group of people? If yes do you move as a function theoretical account
8 ) Similarly, to what extent make your household ties have an of import impact on how you
do calling picks?
9 ) Do you hold to work excess difficult to derive regard or acknowledgment at your work topographic point? ?
10 ) To what extent do you experience you could oppugn those that hold power in a workplace
11 ) Do you see favoritism in any signifier?
12 ) Are at that place any farther remarks you would wish to do given the treatment that we
It is of import to observe that the above inquiries are designed as a guideline merely. Each
interview could take a different way and the interviewer will frequently oppugn the interviewee when something of involvement arises. Therefore, at the beginning it will be made clear that
the inquiries should be viewed as the general way in which the interview should
proceed, but this will be left to the interviewer to make up one’s mind during the interview. Interviews by nature are really much unpredictable and the rigorous construction of fit inquiries should be avoided at all costs so as to guarantee but most of import is that all relevant and interesting penetrations are
The participants for the interview are graduate Nigeria adult females who are employed ( or were
antecedently employed in Nigeria and are in the procedure of finishing their post-graduate surveies. Ten interviews were conducted. The interviewees obtained are personal contacts of the
research worker. It is felt that this did non in any manner infringe upon the research, as the participants
freely shared their experiences with the research worker. Their personal relationship with the research worker merely affected their willingness to take part in the research due to their assorted busy agendas and non the responses they gave. It was made rather clear at the beginning of each interview that the research worker was an non-partisan perceiver to the subjects under treatment and this allowed the participants to talk freely about their experiences.
Although merely 10 interviews were carried out, they constituted a wide representation of
alumnus from different folks ( as noted earlier that a Nigeria has a diverse civilization and over 250 cultural groups but dominant amongst them are the Yoruba, Hausa and Igbo ) adult females from Nigeria ; that is they were employed in different professions and from different age brackets. The interviews ranged from 30 proceedingss to one hr in length. They were semi-structured in nature. As discussed above, the research worker had a preset list of inquiries upon come ining into the treatment yet when something of involvement arose, clip was put aside to let the research worker to examine farther. This was considered to be advantageous as many issues came to illume that may non hold antecedently been considered and therefore constituted an interesting agencies of probe.
The responses received to the inquiries proved to be rather insightful. At the petition of some interviewees the interviews were non recorded. The research worker took elaborate notes for those non desiring to be recorded and with their permission, in some cases, paraphrased their
replies to some inquiries posed. This interview certification was later analysed
farther and this will be discussed in the following chapter.
The 2nd method used was questionnaires. As celebrated above, the interviews conducted were
of incontrovertible worth in clear uping some issues for the research worker and besides in raising others. Questionnaire responses came from Nigeria alumnus adult females actively employed in Nigeria.. It was so sent to twenty participants through their electronic mail references. The questionnaire was designed to be short and concise to promote a higher response rate 14 responses were received climaxing in an overall response rate of 70 per centum. Due to the rather little Numberss of questionnaires disseminated ( 20 in entire ) , sophisticated agencies of analysis were non necessary. Simple spreadsheet analysis of the consequences more than sufficed.
Analysis of the consequences and responses obtained will be discussed in the following chapter. The signifier
of the questionnaire is given in the followers:
This questionnaire aims to supply a background for a survey that examines some relevant
issues sing Nigeria adult females ‘s female directors. However, you do non necessitate to be employed in order to lend to this survey. This survey is traveling to be proceeded in an anon. manner and to extinguish any frights whatsoever. The underlying intent is to promote responses that reflect world.
I. General information
1. Your age is: ______________________
A. 15-25. B. 26-35. C. 36-45. D. 45 and supra. E. I prefer non to state
2. Your gender is: ______________________
A. Male. B. female. C. I prefer non to state.
3. Are you a native Nigeria?
A. Yes. B. No.
4. Are you presently: ______________________
A. married. B. separated. C. widowed. D. individual. E. divorced. D. I prefer non to state.
5. Make you hold kids: ______________________
A. Yes. B. No.
6. If you are married or have kids how good do you equilibrate with your occupation? Do you experience could function as a challenge to your calling patterned advance
7. Please circle the highest twelvemonth of instruction completed:
A. Primary. B. High school C. College D. University E. Master F. PhD
8. Your topic of survey is: ______________________ .
9. Be at that place any female relation in your household ( apart from yourself ) who is besides employed?
A. Yes. B. No.
10. Make you believe working as a leader or in a leading place for a Nigerian female is ( tick all that apply ) :
A. a luxury, and is non truly utile or practical ;
B. a good thought, but I have ne’er thought about it before ;
C. I do n’t believe there is any usage ;
D. I do n’t believe my household wants me to make that because of my hubby and kids
E. A good thought but really hard for Nigerian adult females due to the challenge from the work forces
11. Can you delight explicate your ground for your reply to oppugn 10 in one to two
12. Have you of all time been employed?
A. Yes. B. No.
13. If your reply to Question 12 is B, would you delight state us:
1 ) Have you of all time considered taking up a occupation? A. Yes. B. No.
2 ) Have you of all time made an attempt to happen a occupation? A. Yes. B. No.
3 ) If you have ne’er considered working, can you delight explicate why in one to two
14. And how long you have been working since you ‘ve got your first occupation?
15. Make you believe adult females can be successful taking up the male manner of leading:
16. Make you believe the society has accepted and supported adult females as leader in their ain right? ?
17. What would you state is the most used leading manner adopted by female directors?
18. If your reply to Question 12 is A, would you delight state us:
what is your occupation duties?
19. Have you of all time encountered a failure to acquire a occupation because of you gender?
A. Oh yes, many times. B. Yes, but merely one time or twice.
C. No, ne’er. D. I prefer non to state.
20. Have you at any clip being afraid of transfusing subject at work topographic point all in the name of being abused and hated? Could you portion your experiences:
21. Make you see work forces as challengers at your workplace? If yes why and what are your experiences with them. ?
Make junior male staff genuinely see you his superior capable to be a leader? If no explain why
22. By and large talking, are you happy with your job/jobs? If non why?
23. Have you of all time felt unhappy with your job/jobs? If so, would you delight state us what
elements cause these unhappy minutes?
24. Is at that place anything non covered in the questionnaire relevant to the subject that you would wish
Thank you really much for your engagement!
Chapter FOUR: Discussion OF FINDINGS
In this chapter the findings of the research undertaking will be presented, as discussed in earlier this survey was planned to reflect and describe on the worlds that Nigerian adult females face with respects to their calling picks, aspirations and restrictions. It does so through the usage of both questionnaires and in-depth interviews. The primary purpose of the survey is to analyze the content of these and analyze how they relate to an apprehension of Hofstede ‘s national civilization theory and its relationship with Nigerian adult females calling.
There are a figure of hypotheses proposal within this model. This chapter look into how the information relates to them utilizing each hypotheses in bend.
First, nevertheless, a brief sum-up of the demographic inside informations of the questionnaire and
interview respondents will be given.
5.2 Demographic Detailss
Twenty questionnaires in entire were sent out and sixteen were returned to the full completed,
taking to an overall response rate of 80 per cent. The survey revealed the followers
Age of Respondents:
Highest degree of instruction:
Subject of Survey:
Have you of all time been employed:
Therefore, in relation to the range of the survey, in general, there is a wide representation of
respondents. The fact that sixty per cent of respondents that replied are aged between
20 six and thirty five demonstrates that the chief findings of the survey will refer to
adult females in their early callings. This is viewed in a positive sense as such adult females are freshly
graduated and therefore supply a fresh and slightly nonsubjective position of the workplace in Nigeria.
The demographics provides farther penetrations:
All of those who are individual do non hold kids.
All of those who are married have kids.
Among those who are divorced have kids.
All of those who choose non to uncover their matrimonial position do non hold kids.
Among those who are individual 16 per cent of them are financially independent.
Among those who are married 40 per cent of them are financially independent.
Among those who are divorced all are financially independent.
Those who do non uncover their matrimonial position are besides all financially independent.
Among those who have been employed, 40 per cent remark that they have failed
Many times in seeking for a occupation, twenty five per cent provide no appropriate reply,
15 per cent have ne’er met a failure, 15 per cent prefer non to state and five per
cent has failed merely one time or twice.
Hence, 50 two per cent openly acknowledge that they ‘ve experienced failures.
Among those who have non been employed, all have made an effort to happen a occupation.
This chapter now turns to analyzing the interviews and questionnaires in visible radiation of the
hypothesis generated from Hofstede ‘s theoretical model of national civilization.
Hypothesis 1: Family members constrains the calling picks and aspirations of adult females
This hypothesis received the most responses within the interviews and questionnaires.
The issue of fiscal independency and whether or non a adult female can stand on
her ain with or without familial ties is slightly telling in relation to it. A
definition of fiscal independency was given to the questionnaire respondents, so as there
would be no uncertainty with respects to its significance. There are a figure of of import cross mentions that need to be made from which illations may be drawn ; viz. to measure the fiscal independency of adult females with respects to their matrimonial position.
An interesting determination here from the questionnaire is that all of those who are divorced and
those who choose non to uncover their matrimonial position are financially independent. Amongst
those that responded as being individual 16 per cent declared themselves to be financially independent. Further, among those financially independent individual adult females, all have graduated from third instruction and all of them are employed or got really profitable concerns of theirs. Yet, the most interesting facet to these findings is that reciprocally eighty four per cent of individual adult females are non financially independent and non yet employed or got any concern still depend on their parent and extended household and one can possibly reason that they have some influential familial connexions that may impact upon their calling and instruction picks. When these respondents were probed as to whether they had encountered a failure to acquire a occupation, none choose non to reply, and two answered, ‘Yes, many times ‘ . This might demo that it is non easy for a Nigerian adult female who is individual to happen a occupation and therefore become financially independent because in some companies, individual adult females are made to hold or subscribe to the fact that they would non hold kids for a specified period of clip, so as non to interfere in their flow of work. Leaving the pick for the individual ladies to stay individual because of the work topographic point and to be financially independent or instead have to acquire married as it ‘s the national civilization for most Nigerian adult females to acquire married early in their mid-twentiess.
Among those who are married ( 20 two per cent ) , 40 per cent are financially
independent, 60 per cent are non. Further, among those financially dependent married
adult females, they all have some on the job experience, so presumptively their income is non adequate
for them to be financially independent. However, two respondents commented that that they
had taken up a occupation because of the force per unit area from their hubbies because he entirely could n’t transport the load. While some others get their hubby to fund them towards holding a businessn e.g supermarket or holding a store mercantile establishment. Yet, in this survey, compared
with those who have non been married, most of the married adult females have been employed particularly if there are no marks she traveling to hold more babes. It shows, to a certain extent, it is easier for certain married adult females to happen a occupation. This has besides been mentioned
by one of the participants: ‘the chief ground they will non develop me and give classs and when I start holding kids I would go forth them.It would n’t be easy acquiring an experient replacing as myself and would impact concern activities.
Furthermore, several other remarks revealed familial force per unit areas upon the attainment ( or non ) of taking up a occupation: ‘My hubby see that I do n’t necessitate to work where he is responsible for our house ‘ ; ‘My hubby prevent me till my kid turn up ‘ . Therefore, the national civilization in relation to married adult females and female parents and their ability to come in employment clearly has a strong impact. The inquiry nevertheless is whether this is to some extent overruled by the attainment of a alumnus instruction.
In this survey, it besides shows that among those who have kids or married, raising their
kids and carry throughing their function as a female parent and married woman are of import elements when they
decide whether they want to travel to university. They can be hinderances, as shown above, but
they can besides be motivations. For illustration, one participant remarks, ‘in my sentiment University
Education for Nigerian adult females is going a must, non merely that she has to travel out to work, but to be able to raise up her kids ‘ ( original text ) However, confronting the same inquiry, most individual adult females point out that traveling to university can be a ‘great accomplishment ‘ , and is ‘good for their lives in all facets ‘ , or ‘have good occupation place ‘ ; merely one of them ( 1 out of 11 ) references that ‘being a good female parent and married woman ‘ is a factor. Therefore, it can be argued here that maternal duties are of import for those who are married, when they come to do a determination of whether or non they should travel to universities ; but they are non that of import for those who are still individual. However, one interview respondent does observe: ‘Currently there are no obstructions but possibly in the hereafter because of the handiness of
hubby and kids and in peculiar the length of working hours ‘ . Overall, as demonstrated above, familial ties do hold an consequence on calling picks.
Traditional values constrain calling picks, occupation fulfilment and aspirations of adult females
Though the questionnaire did n’t truly supply us with good information about Nigeria traditional values but from the interview with the interviewee it was really much impressed on the interviewer. In Nigeria traditional values be given to be seen as possible for adult females advancement. The traditions irrespective of the folk in Nigeria the interviewee are from topographic points so much importance on the matrimony establishment than adult females career aspiration. At a