Health attention in Nigeria is structured along, and administered through the cosmopolitan three grades: the primary degree run by the local authorities, the secondary by the province and the third by the federal authorities ( FMOH 2005 ) . The part of Nigeria 's wellness sector to the national economic system remains ill defined, and as a consequence Nigeria was ranked a blue 187th place among the 191 United Nation member province ( WHO 2000 ) .Health attention installations are unequal in Nigeria ( Yohesor 2009 ) and this includes wellness Centres, forces and medical equipment. Moreso, the province of bing installations is frequently distressing due to miss of care.
As Lee provinces:
'A wellness attention system is an organisational model for the distribution or service of the wellness attention demands of a given community. It is a reasonably complex system of inter-rel...
ated elements that contribute to the wellness of people-in their places, educational establishments, in work topographic points, the populace ( societal or recreational ) and the psychological environments every bit good as the straight wellness and health-related sectors. ' ( Lee 2009: 1 ) .
However, with the many societal and infrastructural jobs facing the state is the chase of the politically attractive third wellness attention which, arguably, has remained the lone attractive country of the wellness system, to the hurt of other degrees of attention. The disregard of Nigeria 's wellness attention, with particular mention to the primary wellness attention system, its maldistribution, will ensue in an upside-down wellness attention pyramid. By deduction, instead than bring forth wellness for the people, would ever hold the menace to fall in on itself.
Harmonizing to Asuzu ( 2003
) , Nigeria 's wellness attention system has experienced past reforms, runing from the traditional wellness attention system that existed in the single Nigerian communities and the cultural groups before the epoch of colonisation boulder clay day of the month. Though Nigeria 's wellness attention system is geared towards guaranting handiness and handiness of wellness attention by Nigerians, yet the state 's wellness attention remains a major concern.
On the other manus, wellness attention reform is the 'process of bettering the public presentation of bing systems of presuming efficient and just responses to future alterations. It has besides been defined as sustainable, purposeful alteration aimed at bettering the wellness sector ; wellness attention reform is initiated by public or political action, is motivated by dissatisfaction caused by the failure to present results and implemented on a sector broad degree ( Berman 1995 ) . This presupposes that reforms might turn to the jobs of hapless quality of attention, inefficiencies in the bringing of services, inequalities and limited entree to wellness, degree of answerability and deficient reactivity to client demands.
Globally, it would look Non-governmental Organizations have undertaken a broad scope of maps, including but non limited to, human-centered aid, developmental assistance, and publicity of human rights and lobbying to protect the environment. In other words, the function of non-governmental ( NGOs ) might hold been seen to spread out. Capturing the kernel of wellness NGOs, Gilson states: aˆ¦..humanitarian aid is 'assistance given to run into the challenges of a human-centered crisis, about ever includes proviso of some type of health care, be it preventative action ( such as supplying shelter, clean H2O and healthful installations, immunisation against
epidemics ) or direction of exigencies ( such as hurts from a catastrophe ) . '
Arguably, Nigeria is presently undergoing wellness sector reform aimed at accomplishing improved efficiencies in resource use, improved quality of wellness services every bit good as greater equity of entree to wellness services. Jong-Chan ( 1998 ) asserts that given the strong influence they possess, NGOs remain the lone sector that can authorise the populace to demand a stable national wellness plan ; NGOs should convey their experiences in wellness attention reform to bear in order to beef up their alone place in the wellness attention system, independent of both governmental laterality and medical liberty.
In the visible radiation of the above averment, it might look Non-governmental organisations ( NGOs ) have ever been in the head of advancing new thoughts and in encouraging authoritiess to implement them. At a simple degree, NGOs by and large represent the 'voice of the people ' at all levels- local, national and international, and have taken on functions such as protagonism, instruction and preparation ( Ogunbekun, 2004:3 ) , and have been active in monitoring and bettering what has, or has non, been implemented or achieved. For illustration, NGOs have been in the forepart burner in advancing, developing and bettering a comprehensive and holistic attack to wellness attention services.
For alteration to go on, it is necessary to convert the cardinal stakeholders, whether they work in authorities, in disposal, or as suppliers of the necessary services, to convey approximately needed alteration and betterment ; besides to guarantee the people understand and support the alterations which need to be made.
Moreso, wellness professional associations might be effectual in
working with wellness NGOs in bettering wellness attention bringing. Often, they seek the advice of wellness professionals on issues to make with wellness attention, because they know that medical moralss require doctors to supply nonsubjective advice on wellness issues ( in the best involvements of their patients ) .
Health NGOs, together with wellness professionals might besides use the accomplishments and experiences that NGOs have acquired in seting across messages to the populace in a manner that the populace is able to understand, and this will be really necessary in bettering wellness attention.
Many NGOs are involved in preparation programmes which is a function they seem to hold undertaken at all degrees. Therefore, they are well-placed to help the relevant authorities sections in conveying about alterations and betterment in wellness attention system ( Gilson 2003 ) . It would follow that NGOs should be invited by authoritiess to help as spouses in creative activity of consciousness, mobilisation and development of developing programmes on wellness attention reforms.
As Asuzu ( 2003 ) points out aˆ¦ 'NGOS act as accelerator by promoting the assorted sections concerned with wellness to go actively involved in reform exercisesaˆ¦ ' This would be effectual if different NGOs work in synergism. For case, in add-on to wellness NGOs, there is engagement of other relevant NGOs such as development NGOs that focus peculiarly on development issues, Women 's NGOs that concentrate on activities to better the position of adult females.
1.1 Background of survey
1.2 Development of Human Rights -The Holocaust & A ;
The Declaration of Universal Human Rights
1.3 Impressions, debates & A ; definitions of human Rights
1.4 An overview of human rights as a planetary linguistic communication
part of sociology to human rights, overlapping philosophical and legal discourses.
2.1. Sociological theories on human rights
2.2 Failures, jobs and challenges of human rights-question of execution or empty promises?
2.3. Civil society/NGOs: empirical surveies on refugee protection and extrajudicial violent deaths
2.4. Role of sociology in lending to the construct human rights
3.1 Summary-toward a sociological sociology of human rights
3.2 Recommendation-need for farther sociological enterprise sing human rights.
Essay Question: Why have human rights become a important subject for modern-day
With emerging sociological discourse on homo rights which reflect, basically on the complexness, catholicity and inclusiveness outlined by the Universal Declaration of human rights has a made sociology of human rights a modern challenge. And the involvement in societal jobs, consistent but peripheral for sociology, has led to its engagement in human rights arguments for planetary modern-day sociology.
Human rights, as the rights every individual is entitled to, in a merely or 'good'society have hitherto been the sphere of Law and understood merely as a legal phenomenon since it existed merely as legal entities and all inquiries around human rights were addressed with a critical analysis of a long-established and widely held myth refering the predomination of jurisprudence within the theory and pattern of human rights ( Fagan, 2009 ) .
Arguably, human rights are basically legal phenomenon and the grade to which they have secured a legal being testifies to their efficaciousness. From a planetary position, nevertheless, lawfully ratified human rights are violated on a day-to-day footing ; where effectual mechanisms of ailment and damages exist, they potentially constitute an obstruction to go oning maltreatment and on the other manus, such mechanisms either do non be or are unequal ( Fagan,
2009 ) . It could hence be argued that the mere being of lawfully recognised human rights guarantees no step of their articulation, realization and or practicality.
How human rights are understood in the visible radiation of societal complexness and difference is important to finding the range of their application and the character of a legitimate relationship between human rights rules and bing societal worlds ( Donnelly, 1985 ) . To this terminal, the sociology of human rights poses a cardinal inquiry on the aims of sociology. Sociology, as argued, can non be involved in advancing or specifying anything other than consistently gathered, well-theorized and well-researched cognition about societal life ( Deflem, 2008 ) .
In position of progressively divergent theories, hypotheses and legal sentiments on the construct of human rights, this survey will try to analyze the outgrowth, construct and theories of human rights from a sociological position, how such predications relate to the rules of human rights and societal worlds and the failures and jobs ( or human rights as empty promises ) that sociology might hold to face in supplying an apprehension of human rights.
As Edmund Burke provinces:
''I do non revile theory and guess because that would be to revile ground itself. Whenever I
speak against theory, I mean ever a weak, erroneous, unsound, baseless or imperfect
theory and one of the ways of detecting that it is a false theory is by comparing it with
pattern. ' ( Burke quoted in Idowu 2008:27 ) .
What is the ultimate intent of human rights? The modern human rights motion emerges out of a response to the Holocaust, that 'hideous icon of human enduring for station war coevalss '
( Fagan, 2009:94 ) . Many of the thoughts around such human rights motions developed in the wake of the 2nd World War and the planetary societal jobs ensuing from the atrociousnesss of The Holocaust, culminated in the acceptance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Paris in 1948 ( Donnelly, 2003 ) ; the acceptance motivated, in portion, by an effort to put effectual limitations upon any province 's ability consistently to eliminate whole populations. It remains ( arguably ) the cardinal criterion for mensurating advancement or degeneration in civilised society, functioning as the guideline for puting ends for the hereafter and to which provinces should draw a bead on ( Korey, 1998 ) .
All discourses and arguments address the inquiry: what are human rights? By and large, these are rights built-in to all human individuals by virtuousness of their being as human existences. There are cardinal rights and those that are under the directing rules of the province policy ( Deflem, 2008 ) .
The cardinal rights are cosmopolitan as contained in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and planetary while the rights derived from province policy are considered aspirations and come-at-able if and when the province has the resources. It can be argued, nevertheless, that both sets of rights are cardinal and complementary. For case, of what usage is the right to life without a beginning of support or nutrient to prolong and continue it. It would look that the inquiry about these sets of rights is cyclical ( Idowu, 2008 ) .
Any statement on human rights must be in a mode consistent with the planetary position and concern for the cardinal
rights of all human existences ( Moyan, 2010 ) . And harmonizing to Fagan, human rights exist, non to guarantee human life, but to advance and protect the conditions for a certain quality of life for all. This implies that human rights are inherently normative but raises the inquiries over the proper range of their application and at what level the quality of life standard can justifiably be set. ( Fagan, 2009 ) .
Some human rights sociologists have related human rights with the impression of citizenship. Bryan Turner ( 1993 ) argues that citizenship has served as a replacement for the survey of human rights. Besides, the human rights of the planetary epoch, harmonizing to him, travel beyond citizenship, because citizenship is bound to nation-states.
Turner ( 1993 ) therefore argues in favor of a position that recognizes the institutionalization of human rights, therefore going more and more a fact of societal life, whereby human rights are defined as societal claims for institutionalised protection. In the visible radiation of this averment, sociology of human rights has become important because of the restrictions to the thought of citizenship which is based on rank of a nation-state. In similar vena, switching the focal point off from citizenship and jurisprudence ( nation-state ) , Connel ( 1995 ) positions rights in footings of the mobilisation of rights in societal motions.
The argument on human rights as a planetary linguistic communication points to the demand to switch some of its analysis from theoretical, abstract accent to a more empirical attack. Beitz ( 2001 ) notes that the philosophy of human rights has come to play a typical and in some ways,
an unexpected function globally. He argues that the function is carried out in a assortment of ways and the most seeable is the increasing willingness to see concern about human rights misdemeanors as an acceptable justification for assorted sorts of international intercession, runing from diplomatic and economic countenances to military action, in the domestic personal businesss of provinces ( Beitz, 2001 ) .
In modern-day discourses on human rights, really few constructs are invoked. The thought that every human individual has some basic rights which others should esteem demands a conceptual foundation of human rights as planetary phenomena. Theoretical justifications of human rights effort to place what it is that finally constitutes us as human agents and to turn to the common inquiry: where make these rights come from? And what we all normally portion that makes us human and from this commonalty, concept an history of the range and application of human rights ( Fagan, 2009 ) .
The involvement theory and pick theory attacks in warranting human rights will be considered. In the work of the involvement theoretician, the sociologist Bryan Turner, human existences are viewed as physiological and societal agents who require the sufficient protection and publicity of certain involvements in order to be human ( Turner, 1993 ) . This implies that human rights are built-in and their being serves to protect and advance the involvements that constitute us as homo. Put compactly, such rights serve as the mechanism through which such involvements are identified and secured.
The other attack, the pick or positivist theory, topographic points accent on the free exercising of pick as the touch-stone for human rights. In the work of
Alan Gewirth, possessing both the status of autonomy and chances for exerting such autonomy is what it means to be human. He states that 'human rights are of supreme importance and are cardinal to all other moral considerations, because they are the rights of every human being to the necessary conditions of human action ; i.e. those conditions that must be fulfilled if human action is to be possible either at all or with general opportunities of success in accomplishing the intents for which humans act ' ( Gewirth, 1982:3 ) . Put merely, he argues that what makes us human is the ownership of human rights.
With the unfavorable judgments that abound ( in both theories ) , Fagan ( 2009 ) notes that any theory of human rights must needfully widen its boundaries good beyond national frontiers to encompass world in its entireness.
A group of sociologists whose plants have led to an increasing acknowledgment of sociology of rights as an emergent sub-field ( e.g. Turner, 1993 ; Morris erectile dysfunction, 2006 ; Woodiwiss, 2005 ) but arguably, are yet to see an emerging robust research docket in regard of human rights discourse ( Morgan, 2009 ) . From a sociological position, nevertheless, a better apprehension of human rights, and more significantly its misdemeanors, might back up its publicity and protection in pattern. With diverse scope of human rights declarations and pacts, the inquiry of set uping the machinery for the execution of these criterions is raised, so that a dramatic characteristic of modern-day human rights is that we face a universe in which nation- provinces persistently find cause to go against the human rights
of both citizens and non-citizens, and in which genocidal political relations is platitude ( Morgan, 2009 ) .
The instances of Cambodia, Afghanistan, Asia, Rwanda, Somali and Africa, point to an addition in the frequence with which human rights misdemeanors occur and insofar as sociology has the methods and tools to determine societal and cultural causes of human rights misdemeanors, it can propose how human rights might better be realised, and hence do a part to their promotion by avoiding normative judgements in favor of aim, scientific analysis ( Morgan and Turner, 2009 ) .
Human rights are complex phenomena that can non be grasped by legal scholarship entirely which is 'text oriented ' ( Freeman, 2003 ) , and chiefly concerned with the internal logic, elegance and coherency of the jurisprudence ( Evans 2003:157 ) , and hence non sufficient for the apprehension of the causal or contextual dimensions of human rights misdemeanors.
A important subject for modern-day sociology globally, is to place and stipulate the socio-cultural conditions that explain why human rights misdemeanors occur. As Morgan ( 2009 ) argues, there is frequently a striking spread between the ideals of rights as embodied in the international human rights papers and societal worlds of human rights misdemeanors as reported daily in our media and the studies of the universe 's burgeoning non-governmental administration ( NGO ) community. Sociology might hold to find these explanatory factors.
As Hurrell ( 1999:287 ) points out, while the blameworthiness of provinces might non be apparent, the capacity of provinces to rectify and forestall human rights maltreatments might besides be limited. Arguably, the function of monitoring and advertising human rights maltreatments and runing
on specific causes has been taken up by a web of NGOs and societal motions, focused on battles for planetary reform and planetary justness, moving within planetary civil society ( Morgan, 2009 ) , where civil society refers to 'patterns of political behavior by private histrions across boundary lines ' ( Brysk, 2005:16 ) . And the orientation of planetary justness reflects schemes affecting collaborative activism between civil society histrions and conformable authoritiess ( Falk, 2004 ) .
Human rights might be seen to both sustain and challenge power, argues Stammers ( 1999 ) , but the 'challenging ' dimensions of human rights make for a common apprehension of human rights undertaking, apparent in the organic structure of literature on the patterns of human rights activism ( Keck and Sikkink, 1998 ) . The literature tends to propose the of import function of NGOs and societal motions in ( rhenium ) making and implementing human rights and in disputing unfair patterns in the linguistic communication of human rights ( Keck and Sikkink, 1998 ; Brysk, 2000 ) .
I argue that to sociologise our grasping of human rights ( with mention to its theoretical foundation ) therefore, is to analyze, in a most empirical manner, the function and ( non ) engagement of NGOs ; and how might this service as a sociological platform in mensurating human rights? It raises the inquiry: how have NGOs been able to turn to the spread between the philosophies embodied in the Declaration article and societal worlds of the ( Bachelor of Arts ) usage of human rights?
Korey ( 1998:3 ) has argued that NGOs have operated on several degrees, including
ab initio, standard-setting, investigative and would subsequently function as a span to step in on behalf of ''prisoners of scruples '' or on behalf of the laden. Finally, NGOs would go actively involved in the creative activity of assorted types of implementing bureaus or establishments. NGOs protagonism came with the outgrowth of internationally focussed NGOs, which besides involved the proliferation of national human rights monitoring and protagonism groups in all parts of the universe ( Korey, 1998:498 ) .
The primary map of nation-states is the protection of lives and wellbeing of their citizens. However, Donnelly argues that 'the modern province has emerged as both the principal menace to the enjoyment of human rights and the indispensable establishment for their effectual execution and enforcement ' ( Donnelly, 2003:35 ) .
Therefore, , the argument on the function of human rights at national, multinational or supranational degree points to the demand for a displacement from mere analytical accent on nation-state to issues such as the impact of local or international militant webs and their relation to ( planetary ) human rights issues ( Ruzza, 2006 ) . And turn toing modern-day cosmopolitan human rights issues, sociologically, should exceed the ways such issues have been traditionally viewed, vis-a vis societal worlds. And the cosmopolitan declaration of human rights, arguably, remains the cardinal criterion for mensurating advancement or degeneration in civilized society, functioning as the guideline for puting ends for the hereafter and to which provinces should draw a bead on, through the mechanism of NGOs ( Korey, 1998 ) .
The modern-day sociological discourse might besides try to revolutionize the linguistic communication of human rights, transforming the subject to the
linguistic communication of justness and reason, and this will imply a more empirical position, and non merely theoretical analysis, in the survey of human rights. However, the theoretical and empirical import of human rights is one that, with rare exclusions, has been skirted by sociologists. Suffice it to state, human rights are cardinal to the organisational and cultural agreements of the modern-day planetary order ( Sjoberg et al. , 2001 ) .
On human rights discourse and pattern, given the progressively apparent instances of planetary human rights misdemeanors and the proliferation of human rights NGOs, the cardinal inquiry that has posed a challenge to sociology, revolves around the issue of human rights as empty promises? For sociology to supply an apprehension of the significance of human rights might be to ab initio detect their gross misdemeanors, to turn to the causes of such misdemeanors, and to understand that some rights are more basic than others, arguably. For case, awful genocidal episodes were happening in Asia, military ictuss of province power were happening in Africa and major Latin American states, followed by the pitiless repression of human right including the usage of anguish and extrajudicial violent deaths ( Korey, 1998 ) .
Consequently, a turning organic structure of sociologists within the human rights community, has begun to analyze those societies and civilizations which do non instantly 'fit ' the human rights societal templet and argue that the nature of such civilizations and societies is inherently oppressive and can non be considered as sufficiently respectful of human rights in their current signifier ( Fagan, 2008 ) .
Nigeria, and so some parts of Africa, provides a good mention point of
statements highlighted above, since it has undergone a myriad of government passages, unsuccessful war of sezession, and high degrees of regional force ( Carey et al. , 2010 ) . To this terminal, Africa 's records on human rights misdemeanors appear hapless and authorities functionaries at all degrees continue to perpetuate serious maltreatments.
Harmonizing to the study on the extrajudicial violent deaths in Nigeria, the most important maltreatment of regulation of jurisprudence and human self-respect, the nucleus of cardinal human rights in Nigeria is extrajudicial violent death, arising from the usage of inordinate force by security forces ( Steven 2010 ) . In the same item, Dada ( 2011 ) perceives that extrajudicial violent death ( the deliberated violent death of a individual by governmental governments without the countenance of any legal procedure ) strives where its happening receives not or unequal response from the province, and failure of establishments, viz. the tribunals, civil society and NGOs, to turn to the root causes and convey culprits to justness. It can be argued that this needfully challenges the function of the legal system, and more significantly, the perceived or existent function of an ( pro ) active mechanism to undertake the issue of human rights maltreatment.
However, Carey et al. , ( 2010 ) have argued from an empirical analysis, that merely to the full established democracies have a well lower hazard of human rights misdemeanors, while semi-democracies are more likely to see the misdemeanor of human rights.
Human rights issues on refugee and refuge ; one of the universe 's great human rights challenges involves refugees. Discourse on the rights of refugees and the inquiry of planetary justness
are ingrained in the thought of planetary duty ( Misztal, 2011:156 ) . Therefore, a refugee is a individual who has lost human rights protection in his or her ain state and is in demand of another place in order to bask such protection ; 'asylum ' merely another word for refugee protection. And because most western provinces have denied entree to asylum, Carey et Al. postulate that a province has human rights duties non merely to those within its ain territorial boundary lines, but besides those who reside in other states ( Carey et al. , , 2010 ) .
While article 14 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights provides that 'Everyone has the right to seek and bask in other states asylum from persecution, proposing therefore bases for international refugee jurisprudence, empirical surveies indicate the societal exclusion and isolation of refugees and their experience of stigmatisation and antirefugee ill will ( Nyers and Wren cited in Misztal, 2011:157 ) . However, Misztal ( 2011 ) argues that the outgrowth of human rights as planetary establishments, even if non basically honoured in pattern, function as the chief beginning of hope for the cyclosis refugees around the universe. However, the ( in ) effectivity of such planetary establishments i.e. the job of universalism ( Roach Anleu, 1999 ) , poses a challenge to which sociology must react. Sociology, by assisting to supply apprehension of human rights ( by manner of parts to modern-day arguments ) , can do a alteration in societal policies which aim to dispute and face human rights misdemeanors across boundary lines.
One might therefore ask: what is it that sociology can specifically
convey to the tabular array in the survey of human rights? Unraveling the building of human rights and so the conditions of the misdemeanors of human rights is what is distinguishable about the sociological part, which entails non merely empirical position, but theoretical analysis, in the survey of human rights ( Deflem and Chicoine, 2011 ) . In a similar point of view, Sjoberg et Al ( 2001 ) have argued that sociological focal point on the moral order, as a societal world, should be able to encompass justness inquiries in its analysis. They posit that while sociologists typically shy off from nearing cosmopolitan constructs, using such cosmopolitan rules to empirical state of affairss would be lighting. Analyzing the slow development of rights discourse by sociologists, Somers and Roberts ( 2008 ) view the place and ideal function of sociology as a societal pattern by reasoning that sociologists have avoided human rights due to its philosophical foundations ; saying that sociology of human rights entail a transcending, negociating, or deconstructing of the obstructions of societal scientific disciplines opposition to foundationalism and normativity ( Somers and Roberts, 2008 ) .
In analyzing sociologists ' current captivation with human rights, Roach Anleu, in contrast to the general impression of a universe where everyone has some step of rights, because we are all human, and interact with one another, which will ensue in greater acceptance and acknowledgment, she argues that political instability of rights in a universe characterized by huge economic inequalities which does non suit into some of the visions of planetary community, is necessitated by the force of the jurisprudence that demands human jobs be cast in
the linguistic communication of rights which is legal linguistic communication ( Roach Anleu, 1999 ) .
On the inquiry of the thought, and the existent function and end of sociology of rights, is its ability, argues Deflem, to exceed normative arguments to prosecute in analysis of the bing universe, failure of which may ensue in the politicization of sociology and a ill-conceived orientation towards the apprehension of rights and their misdemeanors ( Deflem, 2008 ) . In same item, Turner ( 2009 ) makes a revealing remark that value-neutral place can non discourse ( un ) rightness of political government, therefore a sociological position ( on rights ) committed to analysis instead than review reveals the failure of a political government when considered unjust. Deflem ( 2008 ) therefore provinces that sociology reveals the societal conditions of justness. However, the extent to which sociology of human rights has become sociological still remains inadequately analysed.
In drumhead, the sociology of human rights, taken as a freshly emerging field including ( it is argued ) its rich empirical and theoretical parts can lend in most model and utile ways to the analysis of human rights misdemeanors ( Deflem, 2008 ) , and the demand to recognize its truly valuable potencies in the continuity of such misdemeanors, which are as much a planetary world as the diffusion of human rights norms, is more pressing than of all time before ( Klug, 2005 ) .
In decision, the statement has been put frontward that the realization of human rights rules depends on the extent to which sociology can do theoretical and empirical enquiry into rights discourse, taking into awareness, the demand to
look into the interconnectedness ( s ) between jurisprudence and political relations, paying greater attending to the establishments, particularly tribunals, that will recognize and implement those rights designated as human rights ( RoachAnleu, 2009 ) . This implies acknowledgment of the fact that there are other positions to rights discourse and sociology, in keeping and beef uping its boundaries, can construct multidisciplinarity to the survey of human rights, thereby uncloaking the ( Bachelor of Arts ) usage of rights by stipulating its socio-historical contexts ( Deflem and Chicoine, 2011 ) .
However, given the limited literature on sociology of human rights, farther endeavour by modern-day sociologists, encompassing empirical surveies and theoretical constituents to the survey of human rights, can hold a critical input in societal policies which aim to face and dispute human rights ( and their misdemeanors ) .
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