Distinguishing Sexism From Masculinism Sociology Essay Example
Distinguishing Sexism From Masculinism Sociology Essay Example

Distinguishing Sexism From Masculinism Sociology Essay Example

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  • Pages: 17 (4623 words)
  • Published: August 26, 2017
  • Type: Dissertation
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In the opening section of chapter one, the structure of an Academic Novel is outlined as a summary.

According to the definition, a campus novel is a novel in which the setting or characters are related to an academy or campus. Originally, these novels depicted academic life in Oxford and Cambridge. Over time, significant changes occurred, such as the admission of women to universities and the secularization of institutions of higher education. As a result, the respect for academe has been replaced by more satirical tones that focus on trivial matters. When categorizing academic fiction, I have followed Merritt Moseley's approach, which allows for three groups based on different focal points.

Firstly, some novels focus on group trades between pupils, while others center around trades with disposal workers or the module. These student-centred novels provide insights into life at high category universities or t


he experiences of regular people with real-life jobs. However, the majority of these books are primarily concerned with academic forces. Within this genre, some novels delve into campus enigmas, while others incorporate elements of scientific discipline fiction. One prevalent element found in academic novels is sarcasm, which serves to magnify the professors' frailties and errors, revealing their true nature.

The text frequently targets academic fiction readers and can be sarcastic towards college conditions and professional syndromes. Some novels explore racial and gender relations in campus society, which will be discussed further in the next chapter. There are also academic novels that are not directly related to academia. The theoretical chapter that followed discussed the concepts of Professorromane, Professor itself, and the typology of professorial images. In the chaos of professional and personal desires and issues

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the professor, often male, is often the subject of satire.

Labelled as the declining strain, he descends from intellectual heights to rock bottom by indulging in his physical desires. While some characters in this story suffer greatly from this downfall, others manage to recover from the destructive situation. The appeal of engaging readers in the criminal acts committed by their peers stems from the favorable conditions found within the confines of the campus walls. The close relationship between teachers and students, a natural attraction between young and beautiful individuals, increases the risk. On one hand, an academic seeks to satisfy his physical needs, while on the other hand, he tirelessly strives for power in the university.

Despite resorting to deception, cheating, and plagiarism, he remains resolute in his pursuit of ambitions to become a "tenureless" instructor. Economic power is one of the four types of power he seeks; struggling to support himself and his family financially. Additionally, personal power drives him as he yearns to sway others and exert control over those he wishes to associate with.

There are two types of power that a professor can strive for: political power and philosophical power. As their ego grows, it becomes more difficult for professors to remain connected to reality. Despite the belief that professors are solitary individuals, it is crucial to view them as regular people who desire a life similar to others.

Chapter I Part II

Masculinism: Non-Sexism

To examine the two books in the 2nd chapter of my thesis, it is essential to establish a theoretical basis on political orientations. In this section, I will provide a definition of masculinism, which is a concept that opposes sexism.

The Definition of


Masculinism has developed as a political ideology over many centuries. The terms sexual relations, patriarchy, and gender-based division of labor were introduced during the second-wave feminist movement in the 1960s and 1970s.

During the early 1990s, theoretical plants emerged to analyze and certify the production of masculinities in relation to gender relations. The primary objective of masculinism is to eliminate patriarchy, which represents a specific form of sexism. However, it remains difficult to establish precise definitions and boundaries for societal ideologies pertaining to masculinity. Haywood and Mac an Ghaill's Men and Masculinities argue that societal relations are constructed based on a fixed origin, akin to early feminist studies attributing women's subjugation to the male body.

Poststructuralist theoreticians have emphasized the uncertainty of meanings, arguing that the lack of identifiable sources hinders straightforward answers. The concepts of manhood, masculinity, and masculinism are intricate, fluid, and ambivalent. To resolve the conceptual tension, Brittan employs the term 'masculinism' to refer to an ideology of patriarchy. In this context, masculinism promotes the belief in the natural and inherent superiority of males, which I interpret as sexism in this thesis.

The notion of men being superior, capable, successful, and fundamentally different from women has existed throughout various historical periods. Easthope argues that this belief in male dominance originated in ancient Greece and Rome and was further influenced by the Renaissance and the emergence of capitalism. However, in my interpretation, masculinism opposes sexism. Haywood and Mac an Ghaill define masculinism as encompassing masculine perspectives, behaviors, and institutions. It often compares the enduring essence of manhood to the changing historical manifestations of "male" behaviors.

I concur with the statement and am of the opinion that there

are numerous opportunities for exploration. To begin, Lashkar-e-Taiba primarily centers on patriarchal values, which form the fundamental foundation for sexism. Over time, dating back to Adam as the first man on Earth, men have consistently established their dominance over women, who have been viewed as the weaker gender.

The origins of patriarchal political theory can be traced back to Aristotle's Politics. In this work, the concept of the state was viewed as an inherent continuation of the family, a society governed by a parental figure. Aristotle's perspective influenced anthropological theory and shaped the understanding of the nuclear family as the essential social structure. These concepts were adopted by the Roman Catholic Church. Nonetheless, it was only in a secular philosophy that assigning political significance to family values became relevant.

The male-dominated patriarchal household served as a political role model. Aristotle distinguished the family's "economic" relationships from the political relationships within the state. His teleology views were based on the idea that the family eventually evolved into the state. French legal expert Jean Bodin embraced the Aristotelian concept.

Bodin gained importance for his concept of absolute, indivisible, and unalienable autonomous power. He argued that paternal power was inherent and bestowed by God. Drawing from Christianity, the commandment to honor parents outlined in the Decalogue gained popularity and later held political importance. "Honor your father and your mother," the Fourth Commandment for Roman Catholics and Lutherans and the Fifth for Anglicans, began to advocate the fundamental duty to obey all authority figures, including masters, teachers, priests, and magistrates.

In England, the omission of "mother" from the commandment was directly associated with the autonomous authority of the male monarch. It was expected

for citizens to obey their majesty. This biblical principle of paternal authority and relationships became a fundamental teaching. It was commonly used in political domains, legal documents, and theological writings. This ideology aligned with the social systems of numerous countries, such as England.

In common literature, the sovereign's absolute power was often likened to the boundless authority of male parents in a traditional, patriarchal household. The belief was that this would create harmony and prevent conflict between the realms of economy, politics, and family. Alongside Aristotle's political observations on the history of humanity, this concept formed the implicit belief system known as patriarchal philosophy in Europe.

Sir Robert Filmer, an English theoretician of political relations, was the foremost advocate of deriving political duty from patriarchal origins. Among the authors who analyzed patriarchate, he was the most direct and emphatic. Filmer's interpretations were employed to critique royal authority during the mid-17th century. In his work, Patriarcha, he discussed the theories prevalent in Stuart England and among political authors. Filmer asserted that the role of a father was bestowed upon Adam by God, and all natural authority emanated from this divine grant.

Filmer's theories were based on a combination of scriptural history, societal structural inferences from family administration, and interpretations of English constitutional patterns. These theories ultimately relied on the Bodinian concept of sovereignty. According to Filmer, all authority was indivisible and absolute, deriving its power from God and nature. This power was passed down from one heir to another. The division of the world among Noah's sons, the establishment of separate states at the Tower of Babel, and the eventual loss of true inheritors' identities were key events. Regardless

of successful usurpers, power remained patriarchal in nature.

The text emphasizes the idea that Filmer's statement on the individuality of patriarchal and political power was strongly supported by various sources. These sources include the scriptural history of the Hebrews, the secular patterns and doctrines of ancient Greece and Rome, and the political history of England. Filmer's viewpoint was distinct in its focus on individual power rather than using paternity metaphorically or analogically. This allowed him to critique theories that viewed humanity's original state as one of natural freedom and believed that authorities and political relations were artificial inventions designed to correct nature's flaws or fulfill God's plan.

Filmer argued that subjugation to administration was the original human status. According to him, people are capable of authorizing male parents and there is no distinction between paternal and political power. He believes that natural autonomy, which would have been required for people to institute their own authorities, never existed. Filmer asserts that because government is not a human creation, but a divine one, it must be controlled by Royalty and not by the people. Rulers only respond to God, not to their subjects. Charles Leslie and Jonathan Boucher, both supporters of Filmer, defended his beliefs in the early 18th century. The French bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet later advocated a version of patriarchal philosophy that could have rivalled Filmer's.

Locke aimed to validate the Aristotelean distinction between familial and political authority, while also adopting a non-teleological interpretation. This revised narrative, explaining the evolution of political relationships from primitive families, became the dominant explanation for government origins in the 18th century. It can be seen in writings by Hutcheson, Rousseau, Hume, and other

theorists exploring state origins. While it took time for Locke's achievement to be fully recognized, his response to Filmer laid the groundwork for perceiving government as a human creation that could be restricted by constitutional limits.

For centuries, a power imbalance favoring men has been prevalent. Nevertheless, in the 1800s, feminist movements emerged and started making a difference. Consequently, women were given chances to take on leadership positions and attain equal rights as men. They also obtained access to education and diverse professions.

According to Figures 1, 2, and 3 on the diagrams, there was an intention for power to become equal for both genders. However, with the arrival of three successive waves of feminism, an unexpected shift occurred. The power of women did not stop at the point of equality. It continued to rise and led us to the current situation depicted in diagram figure three - the dominance of women in modern society. There are numerous instances that provide evidence for this situation.

The book "The Decline of Males" by Lionel Tiger discusses how it is commonly accepted to publicly portray men as having lower status, such as in advertisements. An example of this was seen in Manhattan, where a store window displayed a sign that said: "Why test on poor defenseless small animals when they could use my husband?". It would cause a lot of controversy to create a similar ad about a woman. In 1996, Nynex's telephone repair trucks had a sign that read: "You were wrong. Call her."

Despite being innocent, men are once again being targeted. The current trend shows that women are gaining more confidence and power, while the confidence of men

is decreasing. This shift highlights the increasing superiority of women, who were previously considered the 'weaker sex'. Many women are now raising children without male involvement. Studies have shown that as a group, women are working more and earning higher incomes compared to their male counterparts.

Females in high schools and colleges now outperform male students academically. Moreover, women have secured the right to vote and are increasingly participating in politics. This societal shift is exemplified by women assuming leadership positions themselves. During Lionel Tiger's time in school during the 1950s, young individuals did not question the conventional family model. This model entailed women receiving some education, working for a short period, then marrying and focusing on raising children while men were expected to provide financial support. However, in contemporary times, men who work are viewed as exploited whereas women who choose to be homemakers are seen as lacking employment opportunities.

Being a homemaker or a mother has become more challenging due to the increasing importance of careers and personal fulfillment in society. Perceptions have also changed, as being labeled an "old maid" no longer implies being unmarried.

In today's society, unemployment is a topic that sparks intense debate and disagreement. This issue arises not only from present circumstances but also from the overall financial state of our economy. Moreover, women have increasingly taken charge of their reproductive choices by utilizing contraceptive methods.

The introduction of the birth control pill has given women the ability to choose if and when they want to have a baby, as well as decide whether or not they want to create a family with the child's father. This choice to remain single has

resulted in an increase in the number of fathers who do not have children. Additionally, in cases of divorce, most child custody rulings tend to favor mothers. According to data from The Decline of Men, approximately 38% of absent fathers may not have any visitation or custody rights for their own children. As a result, it is unsurprising that these fathers often struggle to provide financial support for their children during their limited time together.

Outside the ongoing household circle, individuals become outlaws. In 1995, the Million Man March of African-American males highlighted that behind the 60 six per cent of single-mothers, there are 660,000 absentee male parents. The pro-feministic alterations have deprived men of their traditional societal roles and have not provided many new avenues for fulfillment. Additionally, women have now entered even traditionally male domains, including warfare.

It is possible that the apparent enthusiasm of men for sports and pornography can be justified by the fact that men are trying to find new outlets to express their inherent masculinity, which they are otherwise compelled to suppress. The perceived animosity between men and women, largely attributed to feminism, may actually stem from female resentment and disillusionment about male inadequacy in supporting family life. In the past, it was much easier for a man to earn enough income to support himself and a family of four. Nowadays, the father's salary is often insufficient for a three-person household.

Soon, workforces may not yet realize they are losing this perplexing war, even though they may have a vague awareness of their discomfort. They may fail to comprehend their predicament and find themselves even more confused, questioning what women truly desire.

While there have been some feeble attempts to mobilize men and transform private sentiments into public engagement and commentary, none have proven as effective and influential as those among women. A male-oriented group that briefly managed to captivate attention and garner supporters were the Promise Keepers.

In 1998, unfortunately, the organization had to lay off its entire staff due to lack of support. Despite being united as a corporate with common interests, it is observed that men are not effective when working in groups. The Decline of Males discusses how there are no effective national organizations in the United States that represent the interests of men, except for some well-coordinated men's studies programs at universities. Lionel Tiger also warns that highly educated graduates of women's studies programs often pursue careers in politics and decision-making roles. The modern feminism movement of the 1960s and 1970s brought about significant changes and served as a successful catalyst.

There was a large plan of talks, conventions, and workshops on gender. Many books and important statements were written. Reading and discussing them eagerly became a key aspect of a significant change in knowledge and awareness about sex and gender in industrial countries. Although the arguments were mostly peaceful, some hostility developed. Feminist ideology supports the opposite situation; it is motivated by moral outrage and fueled by frustrated male isolation. The previously balanced interaction between the two sexes has been disrupted by multiple events.

The introduction of contraceptive pills empowered women by giving them control over having children. However, men have seen a decline in their success in the labor force. As a result, they are often seen as potentially useful fathers rather

than contributors to the household. Women now commonly perceive themselves and their partners as burdens rather than sources of support. This perception stems from the belief that men tend to consume resources instead of providing them.

They have the ability to bring in jobs that do not support the household unit. These problems could be insignificant but constant. Tiger applies a specific speech pattern to the field of biological science, which affects the lives of all human beings. He believes that in the near future, our society could resemble primate species' communities that revolve around females and their offspring, while males compete for reproductive access to females and a position in the political arena.

Surely many proponents of women's rights would happily agree with this. The author of The Decline of Males presents two thought-provoking ideas through which we can comprehend the current metaphorical situations. Firstly, he refers to the biblical birth narrative where Mary gives birth to a child.

She lacks any accommodation or means of support. There are evidently no other family members to rely on. At least they have found shelter, however, the mother and child require additional assistance.

Active attention and resources are needed for the three wise work forces in order to provide an authoritative solution to the new mother's job. This job is equivalent to contemporary public assistance and the three providers symbolize the community. Although Joseph is in the shadow and not the father of Baby Jesus since Mary is a virgin, he plays no important role. Nevertheless, society welcomes the mother with her child.

He does not have to financially support the family as he is not the biological father; this responsibility

falls on the state community. Both people and the government view this reaction positively and welcome it. Unfortunately, we can see a somewhat negative perception of a modern man in this situation. Similar to Joseph, he becomes an important figure in the family, even if not biologically related, for an unexpected reason. As I mentioned earlier, women gained control after the introduction of a contraceptive pill, which brought about significant societal changes.

The number of abortions has increased, while the awareness among men about fatherhood has decreased. Men are less concerned about the possibility of pregnancy and do not take responsibility for their actions, as they believe it is solely a women's issue. With more casual sexual encounters, men can no longer be certain about their actual paternity. In many cases, they are not even aware that they will have a baby. Women have taken on all the responsibilities of parenthood.

More and more women are choosing to become independent modern single mothers. This often means being single mothers by choice. What is important to note is that even if the child's father wants to fight for his rights in court, he is always at a disadvantage. Additionally, men are at a disadvantage when it comes to taking paternity leave, which is becoming increasingly rare. Margaret Mead, in her 1949 book Male and Female, described paternity as "a human invention." Therefore, it is generally understood that being a mother is a completely natural state, while being a father is considered artificial.

The condition of the male workforce is declining, manifesting as exposure, recklessness, and economic incompetence. However, the prevailing perception of males in society remains oppressive, potentially troublesome,

and self-interested patriarchs. Nearly two generations of women have already gained control over childbirth, resulting in a significant redefinition of sexual values primarily led by female and feminist leaders.

The inequality that existed between men and women in the past is no longer present in Western European countries and North America. Both men and women in positions of power have implemented legal policies and societal initiatives to support women, sometimes at the expense of men. This has resulted in feelings of bitterness, frustration, demoralization, and confusion among men, according to Lionel Tiger. However, there are now efforts being made to improve the status of women and reduce their historical oppression relative to men.

Authorities should require all-male schools, like The Citadel in the USA, to recognize adult females, while exempting all-female schools. This results in the success of females and a decline in male status. Currently, slogans such as Gloria Steinem's "A woman without a man is like a fish without a bicycle" are used to express nihilistic sexism and are printed on t-shirts. It appears that after years of fighting for women's rights, we now face a great demand for men to provide support and equal respect. Gender discrimination is sometimes compared directly to racial discrimination. Although there are only differences in skin color between individuals of different ethnicities, there is also overlap between the two sexes on a biological level.

There is a significant difference between the workforce and adult females, and it is important to acknowledge these inequalities. We must consider certain characteristics typically associated with males, such as their desire to show off. This behavior is analogous to the way Inachis ios (a butterfly)

displays its traits as part of an ancient biological system.

Similar to prehistoric gatherers, individuals collect resources in order to be able to reproduce. Once traditionally male jobs, such as fire-fighters or soldiers, are seen as ways for men to demonstrate their masculinity. Even at school, boys are often excluded because of their masculine traits. They might be prescribed drugs for Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) when they cannot stay focused for as long as girls can. Their condition is simply being male. Schools and curriculum designers should remember that boys enjoy activities involving building and using objects.

In high school and college, males receive worse grades than females. As a result, the issue of misunderstood men becomes more prominent. In certain countries, up to 25% of young men are either incarcerated, on parole, or involved in another severe connection to the criminal justice system. They lack any meaningful connections to society. Only a small proportion, less than 5%, of inmates in New York state receive visits from anyone. Furthermore, young males, particularly African Americans, are increasingly at risk for successful suicides.

Males continue to be the gender most likely to engage in crimes related to race murder, rape, gang warfare, robbery, terrorism, prisoner abuse, and a wide range of other violations of military and civil decency. These illegal actions are their way of seeking attention, recognition, and validation. However, they easily lose their path and direction. The current normalcy has weakened men's commitment to both the productive (work) and reproductive (parenthood) aspects of life. This pressure leads to severe social problems, especially among restless, unfulfilled young men, many of whom become yet another generation of absent males in

the broader adult society. Men are also being penalized for their unique qualities that are typically associated with masculinity, such as bravery, endurance, resilience, clear thinking, strength, and emotional restraint.

Once, virtue was supported and celebrated. However, nowadays, men are unsure of the distinction between right and wrong, good behavior and bad behavior. Each gender has its own agenda. Sigismund Freud referred to it as the ID or the unconscious.

The continuous impact of biological science on our behavior is unconsciously evident in our daily lives. Sigmund Freud established a connection between our emotions and current behavior. Our inherent human nature is a part of us regardless of our desire for it. Similar to the prehominid bones discovered in Ethiopia and East Africa that resemble our bodies, our behavioral history also mirrors these bones.

Some gender differences have already been recognized, such as the fact that men tend to prioritize physical attractiveness more than women do, while women place more emphasis on intangible factors like economic status. The author of "The Decline of Men" suggests a possible explanation for the long-term disparity in mortality rates between non-smoking men and women. This explanation can be found in the Bible.

According to the claim, the narrative of Adam and Eve should be reversed, with Adam being created from Eve's body. The reason is that the master model of our species is female, as female organisms have a more robust nucleus physiological system. In many mammals, including humans, the fetus develops as female initially. It is only later when the mother produces more testosterone at the right time that the fetus becomes a male. Therefore, from the beginning, females have a more

natural existence and excel over males.

Different theories exist regarding the development of the household in industrial communities. Hobbes claimed that all adult males are inherently aggressive, using their hands and natural weapons like teeth and claws. However, this perspective disregards the importance of human affinity. Society has established laws to facilitate harmonious coexistence. Aristotle, on the other hand, suggests that civilization is not solely shaped by external factors, but rather it is a reflection of human nature and behavior.

Einstein's theory of relativity reveals a previously unknown pattern in the social universe. As mentioned earlier, the scales are shifting in favor of women. Women have the option to either have a baby or prevent pregnancy. Men, on the other hand, are frequently confronted with an unavoidable situation - they must work to support their family. If a man wishes to opt out, the increasingly popular paternity tests will serve as evidence of his responsibility.

It is unclear whether the current political orientation is a response to men's nonfamilial behavior or its cause. New economic and educational initiatives led by women are reshaping the societal hierarchy into a matriarchy, with single motherhood as the new dominant social arrangement. It is surprising to consider that men in the past were the selfish takers and privileged rulers of a system they somehow managed to maintain despite the interests of their own vulnerable mothers, daughters, and wives. There are three realms in particular that were previously exclusive to men and inaccessible to women. The first is erotica. The fantasy world of sexual symbols may provide personal catharsis or fantasies in which men play dominant roles.

Sport serves as another infinite space for

symbolic struggle, allowing viewers to connect with the athletic heroes of this realm. The goal is to evoke a sense of commitment and belonging to a team, in turn receiving recognition. In the past, warfare used to fulfill this role.

Lionel Tiger brings together erotica, athletics, warfare, and the armed forces as symbols of the shifting dynamics of gender. In today's society, women are actively involved in all these realms. Male chauvinists hold biased views towards women, attributing differences to limited opportunities or resistance from men, or a combination of various factors. Despite being the majority, some women strategically identify themselves as part of a functional minority group.

Assigned by adult females to a "patriarchate" non of their choosing, work forces however look about for the concrete marks of their presumed kingly position. But when they look in the mir

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