The role of gender in employment Essay Example
The role of gender in employment Essay Example

The role of gender in employment Essay Example

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  • Pages: 4 (973 words)
  • Published: September 4, 2017
  • Type: Research Paper
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The term "gender" refers to the social and cultural definition of adult males and females, which distinguishes between men and women in society. The differentiation between sex and gender was introduced to address the belief that women's subordination is solely due to their biology. In Asia, including India, there are various reasons for the current imbalance in male and female populations. Since the early 1980s, sex ratios have been recorded in India, where the issue of female discrimination is complex due to social and economic diversity. Cultural and economic factors, as well as policy initiatives, contribute to this diverse situation. Understanding this complexity can help improve mechanisms and inform policy debates on combating gender discrimination.
In our society, gender is closely tied to assigned roles and behaviors based on biological differences between men and women. When a chil


d is born, their family and society begin assigning them a gender. Celebrations often accompany the birth of boys while girls are often seen as disappointing. Boys receive more love, respect, better food, and proper healthcare while being taught toughness and excellence. On the other hand, girls are encouraged to be shy homebodies. All these differences stem from societal constructs surrounding gender. Despite progress in Indian society, significant disparities remain in educational attainment and employment opportunities for girls.

In rural areas, girls are expected to handle household and agricultural tasks, leaving little time for schooling. Moreover, they face safety concerns when traveling long distances to school due to worries of sexual harassment. Although urban areas offer more opportunities for girls than rural areas do, there is still an imbalance in educational and employment prospects. Women in India hav

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made progress in various sectors like aviation, multinational corporations, bureaucratic positions, industrial leadership, photography, filmmaking, cooking engineering as well as train and truck driving; however, the low representation of girls in traditionally male-dominated fields is concerning. Nevertheless it is important to acknowledge that many girls and women still lack access to education and employment opportunities. The number of those excluded from these opportunities far exceeds those who have them. This gender segregation also manifests through occupational segregation by sex – with men often occupying top positions in business hierarchies while women are frequently relegated to lower positions both vertically and horizontally within industries. Gender inequality is a significant issue in several developing countries including India, affecting education employment health outcomes with higher mortality rates for girls and women along with significant disparities in educational achievement compared to boys and men.The gender inequality in India is a result of long-standing socio-economic and religious practices, leading to a significant disparity between men and women's roles in society. In terms of employment, women generally earn less than one-third of what men earn. The World Economic Forum conducted a study that revealed a substantial gender gap across all levels of employment in corporate India, from entry-level positions to top management roles. Out of the surveyed companies, only 10% had female senior managers, none had female CEOs, and approximately 40% reported having just 10% female representation in their workforce. Additionally, only 4% of these companies monitored salary disparities, with 84% believing there was no pay gap at all. The remaining 12% did not track pay gaps at all. According to the WEF's India Gender Gap Review in 2009, India ranked

low at 114th out of 134 countries overall for gender equality indicators. This review also highlighted areas where gender gaps persisted within India, including healthcare where it ranked last at the position of 134th among countries with a health gender gap closure rate as low as 93%.India ranks relatively low in terms of educational gender parity, with only 84% closure in the gender gap. It also struggles with economic participation and political empowerment gaps, with respective closure rates of 41% and 27%. Gender discrimination is perpetuated by religion, which often marginalizes women compared to men. Pandey Prahlad Kumar's survey emphasizes the importance of gender equity for equal opportunities and human rights. Gender discrimination hinders a country's progress towards becoming a superpower. Research shows that countries offering more employment opportunities for women tend to have better governance. Discrimination exists not only in developing nations like India but also in developed countries like the USA, where wage disparities persist. A study by Joanne Healy and Zucca J. Linda reveals male dominance in high-paying executive positions, with women holding only 3%.Female executives tend to concentrate in specific industry groups. Simon Appleton (1977) suggested that promoting female education can contribute to achieving gender equality. This was supported by his study in Uganda, which examined women's political involvement in South Africa and Uganda. Similarly, a connection between the importance of gender equality for economic advancement and recognition of women's civil society was observed in Uganda. In a 2006 research by Song, Appleton, and Knight, it was found that boys have higher school attendance rates than girls in China. This supports the idea that gender equity is considered a "luxury good,"

as demand for female schooling is more responsive to income changes compared to male schooling. Shellenbarger's study also showed that task assignments vary based on gender, with boys being given more physical tasks while girls are assigned household chores. Even parents who support gender equality unintentionally reinforce traditional gender roles when assigning tasks among their children within their marriages. Indra Nooyi, PepsiCo's president and CEO, has emphasized the importance of educating both men and women about women's empowerment for societal progress. The lack of equal skills presents a significant barrier for low-income women seeking employment;The methodology for addressing the issue of gender and employment focuses on skill development. Skills in primary school education, nursing, and dressmaking can empower women by providing income opportunities and meeting practical needs. This study solely relies on secondary sources such as literature reviews on our economy to gather information on gender discrimination and employment.

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