Tourism And Economic Growth Of Sri Lanka Tourism
1. Tourism is a good concern in modern universe to pull foreign currencies and it gives a big figure of businesss to the people. Modern tourer industry develops with assorted demand or intents of tourers like pleasance, concern, instruction demand, research and many some more other visit foreign states during their holidaies or winter seasons of their native states. Because they expect to cut down their disbursals and troubles due to seasonal alterations.
2. Thailand, Brazil, Singapore, Malaysia, India, Maldives and Indonesia are the most celebrated tourer finishs in modern universe. Sri Lanka is besides a universe celebrated tourer finish and known as a Paradise Island in the universe. Country size, geographical fluctuation, climatic status, cultural and heritage sites, natural environment and tourers disbursals are the cardinal facts to pull tourers to the state.
3. But this Eden Island suffered with a 30 old ages conflict state of affairs and during that clip tourer industry collapsed. Tourists rejected this Island with struggle environment because there have been many detonations in Colombo and suburban countries. Equally good most provinces labeled this state as non touristry finish for safer visits. As a consequence most tourers were attracted to other finishs like Fuket Island, Maldives and Thailand.
4. Tourist industry of Sri Lanka regenerated after the terminal of crisis environment of the state and started a new economic development programme since 2009. Elephantine substructure resources invested to hike the economic system of the state. This miracle was started after the morning under sustainable peace and political environment of the state. Foreign money is really of import for these developments because economic system development extremely expects to pull foreign currencies under many ways like Foreign Direct investings, Aid, foreign businesss, touristry and loan installations.
5. Sri Lanka is anticipating to develop this state as a major tourer finish in Asia. Sri Lanka has assorted chances to accomplish that end like pleasance touristry, eco touristry, cultural and heritage sites, spiritual base touristry, concern, instruction and facilitator as a Centre of international transits. But touristry sector need broad scope resources and installations to develop that as the chief economic sector subscriber. Present substructure development programme concerns to develop tourer sector demands like international criterion roads, hotels, urban countries, air power and seaport sector developments.
6. International touristry is a elephantine concern because it consists with big figure of services and demands. Tourists visit to take new experiences and pleasance from their visits. They do non anticipate complex legal processs and limitations from their finish topographic points. In contrast tourer industry additions some large problems to host state as sexually transmitted diseases, illegal drugs and societal challenges. Therefore Sri Lanka needs to concern equilibrate economic development through touristry in the hereafter.
7. The purpose of this paper is to discourse the development of touristry industry and it ‘s part to develop the economic system of Sri Lanka.
IMPORTANCE AS A TOURIST DESTINATION
8. Tourist finish needs stronger chances to pull touristry easy because tourers expect different environments than their place or provinces. Natural luster, scenic beauty, tropical climatic status and historical sites increased the value of this island to tourers in all over the universe. Besides they can go from different climatic conditions within 3 to 4 hours travel from any portion of the state with the geographical size of the island. These factors are deriving extra value to their Tourss and to Sri Lanka to improvize touristry and state ‘s development.
NATURAL VALUES OF SRI LANKA
9. Sri Lanka is a humid tropical island lying in the South Asiatic part to southwest of the Indian peninsula in the Indian Ocean. When sing the geographics and topography of the island three tallness degrees or eroding degrees are recognized by their tallness and incline characteristics. The first degree is the largest of the three and extends from sea degree to 270m above mean sea degree. The Uplands or the 2nd degree extends from 270m to 900m above mean sea degree and the Highlands or 3rd degree at 900 to 2420m. These height degrees illustrated really valuable scenic beauty and climatic difference to the state. Most tourers attract this fluctuation and they basking with these values during their visits.
10. The island has besides been divided into four climatic zones based on rainfall. The Dry zone occupies less 60 per cent of the entire land country of the state. It ‘s one-year rainfall is between 1250-1900 millimeter and its average one-year temperature ranges 27 to 30 & A ; deg ; C. It is characterized by monsoon woods and thorn scrublands. The Wet zone which covers about 23 per cent of the entire land country, receives a rainfall of 2500-5000 millimeters per twelvemonth. It consists of lowland evergreen woods, montane rain woods and semi evergreen rain woods.
11. The passage zone between the above two zones is known as the Intermediate zone where the one-year rainfall varies between 1900-2500 millimeter. The two semi-arid zones in the South-east and North-west receive less than 1250 millimeter of rainfall per twelvemonth. Climatic difference made wider environmental difference in the state. Therefore tourers can see assorted natural environments with high fluctuation of biodiversities.
12. Another most of import natural value for touristry industry development is land part of Sri Lanka because our fatherland is little in size with merely 65,610 square kilometres of land. It ‘s important fluctuation in clime, topography and dirt belongingss has given rise to a dramatic assortment of forest types. It provide home grounds for a broad diverseness of faunal and flowered species. In fact Sri Lanka is one of the eight ‘Hottest Hotspots ‘ out of the 25 Biodiversity Hotspots of international significance and is ranked among the highest in Asia in footings of ‘biodiversity ‘ per unit country. Tourist can see through these environments because Sri Lanka provides adequate installations to watch sanctuaries, wildlife Parkss and forest reservoir countries after taking appropriate permissions to visits. This is a large experience for tourers because they can take most natural experiences from this bantam island.
13. Fifteen floristic parts have been recognized within the state and these diverse home grounds have given rise to a corresponding broad scope of natural floras including woods like Tropical moisture evergreen woods, Tropical moist half-evergreen woods, Tropical dry assorted evergreen woods, Tropical irritant woods, Savannahs, Riverine forests, Tropical lower Montana woods and Tropical Montana or cloud woods, grasslands, Dry Montana grasslands, Lowland grasslands, Wet villu grasslands, inland wetlands and coastal and marine home grounds. Such natural values heighten the value of the state and this island universe celebrated as one of the natural hoarded wealth of the universe.
14. Sri Lanka is a rich state with heritage values with over 2500 old ages modern history and 1000000s of twelvemonth ‘s pre historic epoch. Most cultural and heritage values developed in the state with the influence of Buddhism and Hinduism. Sri Lanka consisted with large hoarded wealth of heritage sites and ancient buildings like Load Buddha ‘s statues, tope, armored combat vehicles, other statues, wall pictures, cave pictures, rock carvings and spiritual topographic points. Sri Lanka provides installations to see these heritage sites and tourers can take interesting experiences from these Tourss.
15. Tourists can see ancient lands like Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa, Dambadeniya, Yapahuwa, Sigiriya and Kandy. As good Sri Lanka has figure of colonial epoch buildings and architecture in assorted topographic points and they can besides see autochthonal groups and their life manners if they travel to Dambana countries. Sri Pada or Adams peak, Anuradhapura Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi and Temple of Tooth relic are most of import spiritual topographic points of Sri Lanka and tourers can see all these topographic points with their involvements.
CULTURAL AND TRADITIONAL VALUES
16. Sri Lanka is a multi cultural state and universe most popular spiritual groups are populating in the state. Therefore they can take experiences about the cultural and traditional differences of these communities. They can take experiences about customary nutrient of Sri Lankans like rice and curry, hoppers, milk rice, roti, threading hoppers, pittu, and kottu. They can take these experiences much easy because most local eating houses, hotels and smaller hotels provide broad scope nutrient for everyone. Furthermore tourer can purchase any other culinary art from most tourer eating houses and hotels with their involvements.
17. Sri Lankans celebrate assorted spiritual and cultural festivals throughout the twelvemonth hence tourers can take these experiences with seasonal jubilations like Sinhala and tamil new twelvemonth, Wesak, posson and Esala festival, Christmas and new twelvemonth jubilations when they visit to Sri Lanka. Esala emanation and assorted other emanations can be seen in Sri Lanka and it additions good experience for tourers because they can watch these cultural and traditional events without any payments.
18. Visit to Sri Lanka provide assorted amusement chances to tourers. They can bask their vacations with assorted attractive things like beach parties, nine parties, music, bright sunlight, sea bathing and Ayurvedic interventions. Furthermore they can see to watch giants, corals, plunging events, boat trips, elephant orphanhood, zoological and botanical garden. Tourist can see to local shopping and they have chances to purchase assorted attractive things like treasures, handcrafts, frocks, responsibility free equipments and most local market points like fresh fruits, meats, fish, instant nutrient and package points.
TOURIST DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES AND
EFFECTIVENESS TO ECONOMIC GROWTH
19. Tourism industry is still developing after crisis environment. But big figure of tourers attracted to this state after the crisis environment in 2009. Therefore tourer industry is boosted once more with high potency in income ways and substructure development ways. Tourism sector development helped to develop state ‘s economic system and economic development rate and it represents as a major foreign currency gaining manner of the state.
a. Earn Foreign Money. Tourism sector straight helps to flux foreign money into the state. Tourism industry is a elephantine foreign income manner because we can gain foreign money through supplying tourer sector services to the invitees and sale other type of goods and services to them. Sri Lanka earned over 213 million US dollars in 2001 from direct tourer sector services and it increase as 350 million US dollars in 2009 and 575 million US dollars income in 2010 and 645 million US dollars income in 2011.
B. Develop Local Business and Tourist Sector Facilities. Tourist sector installations besides developed after the war. Large figure of hotels and eating houses were closed and others depended with really low incomes during past two decennaries. Sri Lankan tourer sector survived in 2001 with 414 adjustments topographic points included with 13,626 room installations. This environment increased up to 783 adjustments with 14,714 suites in 2010. This development helped to hike state ‘s economic system every bit good we could supply nutrient, watering place services and other indispensable installations to tourers through this industry and developed all these sectors during past few old ages.
c. Attract Foreign Direct Investments. From the terminal of 2008 Sri Lankan economic system displayed some positive attitudes once more after few old ages. The FDIs influx to the state in 2010 reveals that about 59 per centum came into substructure development undertakings, fabrication sector attracted 30.9 per centum, service sector attracted 8.6 per centum included with 2.7 for tourer sector and agribusiness sector attracted 1.3 per centum. China invest a big sum of fiscal in Sri Lankan land in touristry sector and Sri Lanka expects US dollor1.5 billion foreign direct investings through its first tourer metropolis undertaking.
d. New Job Opportunities. Tourist industry consisted of wider occupation chances to Sri Lanka as direct and indirect occupation chances. This sector includes hotel field occupation chances, watering place and barroom, usher and field services and conveyance sector occupation chances. Employment in tourer industry is represented 80,904 individuals in 2001 and it increased up to 134,250 in 2011.
Adjustments for Tourist
Employment of tourer Industry
Gross Tourist grosss ( US dollars Million )
Annual room business rate ( per cent )
Table 1: Tourism sector development 2001 to 2011.
Beginning: Annual study 2011, Central Bank of Sri Lanka.
TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AT PRESENT
20. Tourist industry has re-emerged after two decennaries under peaceable environment. Now most states have removed their barriers for their citizens to see Sri Lanka and they accept the present environment in Sri Lanka as an ideal state for touristry. Most tourist sector magazines and web sites guaranteed our security environment and tourer sector services. As a consequence 654,476 tourers visited Sri Lanka during the twelvemonth 2010 and it increased up to 855,975 reachings in 2011. The tourer reaching has increased by 30.8 per centum in 2011 than twelvemonth 2010.
21. About 85,874 tourers have visited in January 2012 and this tendency continued until April 2012. Large Numberss of tourers have arrived to Sri Lanka from European states. They have been elected this state for their seasonal holidaies after a really long clip. Most of them extremely appreciate about our cordial reception, adjustments, our charges and new inventions in the industry. Sri Lanka could gain 830.3 million US dollar income through touristry industry in twelvemonth 2012 and anticipate to increase tourer reachings up to 1 million in this twelvemonth.
22. Around 78.9 per cent of tourers arrived Sri Lanka to pass their vacations and most of them represent the in-between income earners. Therefore, they spend small for extra intents than their major intents. About 12.7 per cent visited Sri Lanka for concern demands and 5.4 per cent visited to run into their dealingss and buddies. Most tourers visit Sri Lanka to take more chances in sing sites and engage in amusements under effectual budget. They have been attracted by our Ayurvedic interventions and watering place services because they have to pay big sum in their states for such services.
Tourist reaching for pleasance
Tourist reaching for concern
Tourist reachings for other
Entire Tourist reachings
Table2: Tourist reachings to Sri Lanka from 2001-2011.
Beginning: Annual study 2011, Central Bank of Sri Lanka.
23. Sri Lankan authorities has identified the demands of tourer sector developments and has given precedence to develop this state as a tourer finish. Under this programme the authorities has provided assorted installations to tourers, tourer sector enterprisers and employees. Government has given much stronger support to these programme because it can utilize as major income of the state.
a. Government has arranged elephantine hotel development programmes and attracted universe largest hotel sector enterprisers to the state.
B. Introduced new tourer finishs like Nilaweli, Arugam bay, Mirissa and reopened Kumana and other sanctuaries to tourers.
c. Conducted international degree publicity run to give promotion about Sri Lanka. This plan conducted through diplomatic relationships. This programme was named as ‘Visit Sri Lanka ‘ .
d. Government has launched urban development programmes to build major metropoliss of the state to heighten touristry. These undertakings enhance the substructure installations, tourer information premises, standard adjustments, leisure countries and of import topographic points of the each part.
24. Sri Lanka Tourist Board and Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority are runing under the authorization of Ministry of Tourism and these organisations helped to develop touristry in the state. The Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority was formed under Section 2 of the Tourism ACT. SLTDA has provided several installations to develop touristry in Sri Lanka. Ministry of touristry organized programmes to protect tourer industry and national values of the state with:
a. All tourer sector services registered under the Tourist board and arranged restrictions and standardisation methods to heighten adjustments, eating house, transit and tourer usher installations of the state.
B. Manage and keep tourer development programmes with the support of ministry of cultural and heritage.
c. Banned illegal drugs, harlotries and some intoxicants in the environment of touristry industry. Sri Lanka constabularies provide indispensable service and support to this plan. Sri Lanka constabulary has established particular constabularies unit to manage touristry related instances of the state.
d. Tourist Board and Municipal Councils maintain Tourist information centres in all major metropoliss of the island.
25. Sri Lanka expects to heighten touristry industry as the chief subscriber of our economic system. Therefore we expect to pull 2.5 million tourers in 2016 and it will utilize to develop the economic system of the state. Most substructures development undertakings help to heighten touristry sector of the state. Today our route web upgraded as international degrees and local air power systems besides started to supply good service to tourers. Sri Lanka Air force and civil air power authorization provide good service to hike this programme.
CHALLENGES AND THREATS FOR FUTURE TOURISM
26. Tourist industry of the state is developing with a rapid growing rate at present. Most adjustment and eating house installations comprehensively renewed to heighten touristry of the state. But we have been faced several issues in this sector with higher tourers reachings. Comfortable adjustments and tourer board approved eating houses are non plenty to manage the capacity of tourer sector. Number of new hotels and motels are building in everywhere of the state but we ca n’t make the end in 2016 without expedited programmes in this sector. Our economic development ends are illustrated through these aims, therefore we should be needed to catch these ends in right clip.
27. New tourer finishs need more adjustments, sanitations and eating house installations. Adjustments and eating house installations are really hapless in northern part and new buildings are traveling under manner. Therefore aliens still do non see to these countries. Sri Lanka is a nautical state and most tourers like to pass in beach countries but our lifesaver services are non plenty to supply good security to tourers who use our beaches and sea countries. As good Sri Lanka has beautiful inland H2O reservoirs but these resources can non be used by anyone under deficiency of trainee personalities around those countries.
28. Prostitution and drug use are other cardinal issues in Sri Lanka. As good some tourers find sexual pleasance during their Tourss therefore these concerns are in secret arranged in Sri Lankan environment. Gay sexual engagement is higher than female harlotries because this method can be used without major jobs under present legal procedure. Over 40,000 cocottes and around 150,000 secrete harlotry members engage in this concern.
29. Tourism industry is widely spread in most states and Numberss of regional states provide singular installations to aliens. Thailand, Maldives, Singapore, Vietnam and India are cardinal rivals in this part and they provide harlotry services to tourers and they have given comparatively low cost bundles to visitants. But we have faced large issues in this affair because Sri Lankan jurisprudence enforcement, societal environment, spiritual environment and wellness environment do non let for harlotry in this state. Particularly HIV infection is widely spread with harlotry, hence this affair is a large challenge to the Sri Lankan environment. Sexual transmitted diseases and chancing have broad spreaded in tourer finishs and it will spread out with new tourer finishs excessively.
30. Large figure of individuals engage to this monolithic concern as Tourist ushers or conveyance agents. But most of them prosecute in this elephantine industry without any professional making and it affected to derive many inauspicious consequences to Sri Lanka. This industry need professional individuals in many Fieldss like multiple linguistic communication users, professional chefs, servers, tourer lectors and instrumentalists to develop touristry in Sri Lanka. We can gain extra income through our cultural events and Ayurvedic interventions but the job is most of these sector professionals are really rare in modern environment.
31. Sri Lanka is a great touristry finish and it is popular among Europeans since 12 Century. This industry developed in this state with three cardinal factors like Sri Lanka is an reliable tourer finish, the state is a compact Island of 65610km and biodiversity and heritage spread is in a really widen scope than other states. Equally good this state is situated in a cardinal place in international naval trade path and it can utilize to develop touristry industry.
32. Sri Lankan people, civilization, spices nutrient, treasures, handicrafts, festival characteristics, spiritual environments and escapade events increase the value for existent touristry sector development. Sri Lanka is a cardinal maritime state and now we need to develop this state as economically developed state. Therefore we need to happen suited income ways and touristry industry is really of import for that. Tourists extremely involvement to see this island therefore we need to supply indispensable installations and effectual bundles to heighten touristry industry.
33. Past dark old ages conflict environment adversely affected to tourism industry and it smartly affected to worsen economic development of the state. Sri Lanka survived with agribusiness Corps since ancient history but now we need to develop with much stronger economic schemes. Therefore Sri Lanka needs to heighten touristry sector development with proper authorities mediations.
34. Over 800,000 tourer visited this state in 2011 and it continued in first one-fourth of 2012. In 2011 Sri Lanka earned 830.3 million US dollars through touristry and authorities expect to increase up to 1 million tourers visits in 2012. With the current adjustment installations we can pull off this mark and now we need suited expedited programmes to heighten tourer industry substructure developments in following two or three old ages.
35. Government should be needed to intercede to work out touristry sector issues, particularly in Sri Lanka touristry sector need big figure of professionals in each Fieldss. Therefore authorities should be needed to implement preparation and development programmes or standardisation method to classs touristry sector employees as standard degree.
36. Tourist Board can implement preparation programmes for tourer ushers who work as beach boys or ushers at present. This programme should be included enrollment system and demand to publish standard individuality card for them. This procedure is assisting to increase gifted occupation chances and it is effectual to heighten the economic system of the state.
37. Sri Lanka expects to gain foreign currencies through touristry therefore we need to standardise touristry sector monetary value scopes and service values because tourers expect effectual service during their visits.
a. We can present proper charge method for adjustments. Under this we can implement suited scope of monetary values for each hotel categories.
B. We can present proper local cab services and tourist conveyance procedure to heighten state ‘s conveyance installations for tourers.
c. Ayurvedi watering place services and medical installations should be need to classs with proper ways.
38. Sri Lanka need 40,000 to 50,000 adjustment installations to heighten touristry in following few old ages. Therefore authorities should be needed to supply extra installations to pull new local and foreign investing to his sector.
39. Harbor and airdrome development programmes straight support to heighten our economic system but we can gain extra foreign income with the development of touristry industry. Most international seamans and air power industry professionals need adjustment installations during their journeys therefore we can develop new touristry environment among these people.
40. Sri Lanka needs new jurisprudence enforcement to develop touristry industry because most tourers visit this state for pleasance or fall ining with assorted entertaining events. We should be needed to supply some indispensable services like chancing and some intoxicants to tourist under new formations.
41. Sri Lanka has a beautiful natural environment therefore we can market this resources through eco touristry development. Most aliens are interested in passing their leisure with the natural environment.
42. Ayurvedic medical specialties and interventions are really of import to heighten tourer attractive force. Therefore we should be needed to present proper model to supply right ayurvedic interventions to tourers.
B M A N V GUNATHILAKA CR