The Manifestation Of Hedonism In Malaysian Entertainment Theology Religion Essay
The aim of this paper is to place the effects and grade of hedonism in Malaysia. The survey is conducted utilizing secondary beginnings. The determination of this paper is indicated that hedonism occurs in Malayan amusement industry via the excessive of exposure persuasive advertizements and enormous sum of world show in local telecasting.
Entertainment is any activity that is designed to please and, to a smaller grade, enlighten through the exhibition of the lucks or bad lucks of others, but besides through the show of particular accomplishments by other and or self ( Bates & A ; Ferri, 2010 ) . It has been portion of civilizations. Peoples from different civilizations have different ways to entertain themselves. For case, the traditional Malaysians tend to divert themselves by playing congkak, gasing and many more. Therefore, amusement has become the individuality of one ‘s civilization. As the life goes on, amusement and media industry have been developing since the debut of electronic telecasting in the late 1920s ( Maggie, 2008 ) .
However, this transmutation has resulted to several impacts toward the local amusement industry. For case, the recent analysis on Malayan amusement in electronic media specifically has showed that this industry has adopted inordinate component of Western civilizations or in other word it has been westernized ( Shriver, 2002 ) . As a consequence of this procedure, most local telecasting plans tend to exhibit the component of hedonism implicitly. Recent research workers have proved that one of the hedonistic demands is amusement ( O’Brien, 2010 ) . Hedonism fundamentally derived from the ancient Greek term which is “ hedone ” . It means pleasance, joy or lecherousness ( Mees & A ; Schmitt, 2008 ) . Hedonism as defined by Crisp ( 2006 ) is the position that human action is motivated by a concern for the greatest expected balance of pleasance over hurting. Further, harmonizing to pagan, what is good for any person is the gratifying experience in one ‘s life and what is painful considered as bad. Therefore, the life best for an person is that with the greatest balance of enjoyment over agony.
Entertainment in Islam
Entertainment in Islam is an issue which has been debated across clip. It has no certainty whether it is prohibit or allowable or in Islam is called dhan ( O?U†US. ( . However, this issue should non be the ground Muslim being divided and separated. Harmonizing to Yusuf Al-Qaradawi in his book al-halal wa al-haram fi al-Islam, amusement can be allowable and prohibited harmonizing the state of affairs. It is nature of human being to be entertained and entertaining others. Entertainment is prohibited when it is associated with things which forbidden so it is prohibit. It is in line with an Islamic legal axiom which says “ what lead to haram than it is haram ” . With the coming of engineering, the amusement industry has flourished and become vastly popular. Unite this with the exponential progresss in engineering, and the consequence is an increasing figure of ways to divert ourselves. Harmonizing to Pahrol ( 2011 ) in Solusi, Entertainment in Islam by and large can be divided into two ; primary and secondary. Primary amusement is the amusement that is purposes to pleasure Allah such as supplication, zikr, declaiming Al-Qur’an and more. Secondary amusement on the other manus is amusement that intends to delight oneself in allowable manner. However, how Muslims scholars specify amusement? In Malaysia, the amusement has its ain guidelines or ordinance to be followed. Harmonizing to Perlis Islamic Legislation Council ( 1970 ) amusement is include the vocalizing and music with instruments or without that is allowable as long it is non against the few conditions ; I ) The plans were organized has good benefits, two ) Dress modestly and cover themselves, iii ) Not to blend male childs and girls up to mischievousness and noncompliance stimulate, four ) Lyrics quality and does non conflict with Islamic jurisprudence and V ) Topographic point of public presentation that does non ask for immorality. If these guidelines is broken so it has reach the position of prohibition or haram. Therefore, from these conditions we should be cleared whether the amusement today is harmonizing to Islam or non. This fatwa was done on Malayan civilization but is it still applicable presents?
2. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Hedonism requires leisure clip and personal wealth. No state in all of universe history has of all time been every bit hedonic as the United States now is. Americans now spend more money on enjoyable chases of all types than on faith and instruction combined ( as cited in William S. Banowsky, 1969 ) . Hedonism besides occurs in Malaysia. Hedonism makes Muslims easy quarry for Christians, turning hedonism, philistinism and liberalism among Muslim have weakened their religion and made them easy for Christianization. ( Malayan insider 4 April 2012 ) . Many research have been conducted to analyze hedonism, small is known about the thrust behind their behavior. Thus it is necessity for a survey to be conducted to place the manifestation of hedonism particularly in Malaysia.
3. RESEARCH Question
What are the effects of hedonism toward Malayan amusement?
To what extent Malayan society involve in hedonism?
4. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
1. To place the consequence of hedonism toward Malayan amusement.
2. To analyze the grade of hedonism in Malayan society.
5.1 THE EFFECT OF HEDONISM IN THE CONTEXT OF MALAYSIAN ENTERTAINMENT.
Malaya is considered one of Islamic universe most modern and unfastened societies. Although Malaysians to the full embrace their ain cultural and Asiatic values, influences from foreign civilizations and values such as those of the West transmitted by the media are by and large accepted. In Malaysia, these influences from the media are considered portion of the media globalisation procedure. More influences from the West, which conflict with Asiatic values, began to be transmitted in signifiers of Western telecasting genres with the launch of Malaysia ‘s first authorities controlled satellite telecasting station in 1997. Although the content is censored by the telecasting station, there are still really strong Western influences in these plans which invite the Malayan audiences to follow Western patterns. Unconditionally, it may impact the nature of Malaysia amusement and may take to hedonism.
All merchandises have a certain grade of hedonism. This is because all merchandises have some grade of symbolic significance that arouses at least some grade of hedonistic motives among persons ( Hirschman and Holbrook, 1982a, 1982b ; Kleine, Kleine and Kernan, 1993 ; Schlosser, 1998 ) . If merchandises are changing in the extent of built-in symbolism, so one can anticipate that the hedonistic value would change across merchandise classs. This is supported by research analyzing the extent of hedonism in different merchandises ( Batra and Ahtola, 1991 ; Bloch, Sherrell and Ridgway, 1986 ; Babin and Darden 1994 ; Lofman, 1991 ) . Hedonic value across merchandises seems to change depending on the intrinsic and extrinsic properties of the merchandise ( Dodds and Monroe, 1985 ) .
All merchandises used advertizements to pull purchaser. Ads or commercials are an of import facet of telecasting broadcast. Merrill, et Al. ( 1994 ) indicated that telecasting lives and dies by advertisement because patrons straight or indirectly provides all of the station ‘s gross. By and large, telecasting makes net incomes from advertisement grosss. Therefore, telecasting station devote considerable attempt to construction their scheduling in order to keep the larger desirable audience possible ( Saenz, 2001 ) . Higher and graded plan, for case plan with larger audience size, pull more advertisement compared to take down graded plan.
Therefore, advertizements play an of import function to instil information to the spectator straight or indirectly. It may act upon viewer thought and behavior. In relationship with the constructs of hedonism, this inordinate exposure of persuasive advertizement may take to the act of unneeded disbursement of money. It is because ; frequent exposure may increase the likeliness of change in people ‘s perceptual experience toward the act of inordinate disbursement. Those alluring advertizements may implicitly exemplify such uneconomical act of utilizing money as a agency for to achieve pleasance or to let go of their tenseness and emphasis.
Based from this phenomenon, the enormous increasing of amusement industry net income may clearly bespeak the elevation of hedonistic life style among Malaysians without they realize it. Those people are really blinded by the motive to fulfill their hungriness for pleasance. Therefore, they are willing to pass immense sum of money merely to watch their favorite contestant win the show. However, without they realize, those irresponsible telecasting station companies are really pull stringsing these world Television shows as a agency to prehend spectator ‘s money for the interest of their net incomes.
Psychological View on Effect of Hedonism
This relates to behaviourism construct, as behaviorist James Watson ( as cited in Elliot & A ; Covington, 2001 ) suggested that, pleasance and hurting can be regarded as “ springs of action ” . He further that, pleasance can be considered as a “ enormous reinforce ” and trouble as the “ enormous inhibitor ” of behavior. In other word, the experience of pleasance may stand for support for an person to reiterate a specific action. Meanwhile, the experience of hurting may stand for the punisher for an person to avoid the act. While harmonizing to Freud ( as cited in Elliot & A ; Covington, 2001 ) , he presumed that worlds are like lower animate beings and invariably seek pleasance and avoid hurting. He besides viewed this hedonic inclination as the motivational footing of psychodynamic and it is regulated automatically by the rule of pleasance ( 1939 ) .
5.2 THE DEGREE OF HEDONISM IN MALAYSIA
In Malaysia, telecasting is the most popular among constituents of media. It has become an indispensable family point and watching telecasting is a past clip activity ( Rahmah, 1996 ) . I back uping this state, Media Guide ( 2004 ) indicates that among the media available in Malaysia, telecasting is the most popular as it is able to make 96 % of big population. Adult populations are those above 15 old ages old.
Reality Television additions its popularity in the Malayan telecasting industry with the debut of the extremely acclaimed American world Television, Survivor in twelvemonth 2000. After the success of the programme, Malaysia telecasting industry has introduced its ain local world Television show, known as Explorace broadcast on TV3. The first season of the programme managed to pull an norm of 2.3 million viewing audiences and was billed as one of the most successful world adventure/game show programme in Malaysia ( Utusan Malaysia, 23 February 2005 ) . A turning point in the Malayan telecasting industry came with the creative activity of Akademi Fantasia ( 2003 ) broadcast on ASTRO. Akademi Fantasia is an version of La Academia, one of the most successful musical/ singing endowment world Television show originated from Mexico ( Utusan Malaysia, 7 August 2005 ) . For the first clip, ASTRO through Akademi Fantasia has created the first synergistic Television phenomenon that became a immense fad to about every degree of Malayan society. Home and studio audience are invited to vote for their favorite contestants. Audience through short message service ( SMS ) ballot were given a hundred per centum of make up one’s minding power to find the victor ( Utusan Malaysia, 6 July 2005 ) .
The first season of Akademi Fantasia in 2003 Drew in net incomes through the ballots made by audiences throughout the nine hebdomads of the show. All-Asian Satellite Television and Radio Operator ( ASTRO ) managed to roll up 2.5 million ringgit as a net income in return for their services to entertain the audience. In 2004, 15 million SMS were sent to ASTRO, and the net income made for the 2nd season amounted up to 7.5 million ringgit, all made possible by the vote system created for the audiences ( Utusan Malaysia, 6 July 2005 ) .
Psychological Position on the Degree of Hedonism
6. ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVES
The enemies have flocked towards us by utilizing assorted attacks such as schools and credos, theories and doctrines, organisations and establishments, provinces and states. They have all gathered to contend Islam and the Muslims. Some of them are driven by a concealed hate and some by an old animus. The Twentieth Century has witnessed one of the fiercest blows inflicted upon our Islam nation by our enemy such the prostration of the Khilafah. They did non halt at that place but to the extent they went on to indoctrinate Muslims with unusual, foreign thoughts and constructs, in order to confound our apprehension of our faith ( Deen ) . Once we wake up and seek to return to our original faith ( Deen ) , we will be confronted with an rational perplexity, in which immorality and good is assorted. Hence, the truth will be equivocal and we will travel astray, and lose the true apprehension of Islam. It is clearly show in the doctrine of hedonism whereby it connotes the being pleasance is the ultimate end of human being aside that it is used for avoiding hurting. Harmonizing to depth psychology we are born with sexual desire and the behaviorist tend to believe that we are promoted to hedonism due to reinforcement with the intent of avoiding hurting which is categorise as negative support. However, Islam does non set that ultimate desire or pleasance as the highest purpose. We are born we sexual desire but we can educate or foster it toward pureness. Allah mentioned in the Qur’an that we are sent to this land to idolize Him non to give ourselves to merely pleasance.
“ I have merely created Jinns and work forces, that they may function Me. ”
( Az-zariyat 51:56 )
Then, for this intent Allah has sent Prophetss to educate people with the cognition how to idolize Him. The Pleasure of Allah, Mighty is He, is an aim before which all other aims diminish in importance:
“ And Allah is better [ as respects reward in comparing to your wages ] , and
more permanent [ as respects penalty in comparing your penalty. ”
( Surah Ta-Ha 20: 73 )
However, human being can seek pleasance as they want but within the boundary of Islam. Harmonizing to Alias ( 2008 ) a batch of poetries in the Qur’an shaping or explicating about how we can utilize our esthesis and perceptual experience to seek pleasance. It is our as His retainer to carry through our duty by utilizing this senses to seek allowable pleasance. As we know, we are granted by Allah with lecherousness ( nafs ) which defines by Al-Ghazali ( as cited in Najati, 1993 ) the powers of choler and sexual appetency in a human being. Although being has sexual appetite we non should merely fuel ourselves with sexual activities but by educating it to pleasure merely Allah. In add-on, this lone can be change but sublimating one ‘s bosom. Imam Al-Ghazali and Ibn Qayyim ( as cited in Najati, 1993 ) even reference that bosom ( Al-Qalb ) is the governor of the senses which if pure will do our perceptual experience cleaned and if it dark or dirty than it can do our perceptual experience polluted. Allah mentioned,
“ Have you seen the 1 who chooseth for his God his ain lecherousness? ”
( Al-Furqaan25:43 )
“ He followed his ain lecherousness. Therefor his similitude is as the similitude of a Canis familiaris ; if thou attackest him he panteth with his lingua out, and if thou leavest him he panteth with his lingua out ”
( Al’Araf7:176 )
and about the individual who controlled the passion of his self-importance God says:
“ But as for him who feared to stand before his Lord and restrained his psyche from lecherousness, Lo! The garden will be his place ”
( An Nazi’at79:40-41 )
Hence, the entire devotedness to want or pleasure is non being accepted in Islam but we need to set our ultimate end to merely pleasure Allah. By pleasuring Allah, the negative support which leads to seeking secular pleasance will decrease because it is change by Allah with a batch of nutriment. As mentioned above, depth psychology merely concentrate on sexual desire and hedonism explained about the turning away of hurting. In Islam, as Allah stated in the Koran:
“ And We send down of the Qur’an that which is mending and clemencies for the trusters, but it does non increase the offenders except in loss ”
( Al Isra’17:82 )
In this poetry Allah reminds us that the remedy of the hurting is in the Al-Qur’an. In order to cut down or bring around the unwellness it is better for human being to follow what has been prearranged by Allah SWT. In add-on to that, the most of import things in Muslim life are supplication. The importance of supplication really mentioned by Allah:
“ Verily, supplication prevents from Al-fahsha ( i.e. great wickednesss of every sort, improper sexual
intercourse etc. ) and Al-Munkar ( i.e incredulity, polytheism, and every sort of immorality wicked deed etc. ) ”
( Al-Ankabut 29:45 )
Therefore, from this poetry we can see that as depth psychology believed that homo are born with sexual desire and they need to carry through it by making sexual related behavior which if non done struggle will originate. However in Islam it is prohibited to make sexual associate behavior in illegal manner such as criminal conversation that is the consequence of hedonism. Therefore, supplication finally is one of the medicines that have been provided from Allah to human being. Allah adds:
“ O world! There has come to you a good advice from your Lord ( i.e. the Quran, telling all
that is good and prohibiting all that is evil ) , and a healing for that ( disease of ignorance, doubt.hypocrisy and differences, etc. ) in your chests, – a counsel and a clemency ( explicating lawful and improper things, etc. ) for the trusters. ”
( Yunus 10: 57 )
This poetry mentioned the healing procedure that give into the chest. Breast here can be defined as bosom. Harmonizing to Murad ( 1985 ) bosom is non merely mere portion of flesh in your organic structure, but the Centre of all your ideas, emotions, motivations, thrusts, aspirations, memory and attending. It can be softened and can be hardened. Allah provinces:
“ aˆ¦their Black Marias do soften to the jubilation of Allah.s congratulationss. Such is the counsel of Allah. He guides at that place with whom He pleases, but such as Allah leaves to roll, can hold none to steer. ”
( Az-Zumar 39:23 )
“ Thenceforth were your Black Marias hardened: They became like a stone and even worse in hardness. For among stones there are some from which rivers gush away ; others there are which when split asunder direct forth H2O ; and others which sink for fright of Allah. And Allah is non forgetful of what ye do. ”
( Al-Baqarah 2:74 )
The Prophet besides said narrated from Abu Nu’man: “ Lo! Verily, there is in the organic structure a little piece of flesh ; if it is good the whole organic structure is good and if it is corrupted the whole organic structure is corrupted ; lo! it is the bosom. ”
Therefore, it is our duty to take a good attention of our bosom as it governs our organic structure and head. Therefore as Imam Al-Nawawi explained in al-Majmu`a ” as for the cognition of the bosom, it is cognizing the diseases of the bosom, such as enviousness, amour propre and the similar. ” Imam al-Ghazali said in ihya ‘ ulumuddin: “ Knowing the definition of these diseases, their causes and their remedies, and remedies how to repair them, is personally obligatory ( fard `ayn ) on every Muslim. “ Hedonism merely can be taken attention by bend back to the lone beginning of Al-Qur’an and Al-Sunnah nevertheless, the inquiries is the Muslim and non-Muslim which do non cognize it. How can it be possible to get the better of this affair? We need to bear in head and bosom that the Qur’an and prophet Muhammad ‘s Sunnah and instructions is non merely for Muslims but to full existence. As the prophesier mentioned: Abu Sa ” Idaho al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with him, reported that the Messenger of Allah ( SAW ) had said: “ Whoever amongst you sees anything obnoxious, allow him alter it with his manus, if he is non able, so with his lingua, and if he is non even able to make so, so with his bosom, and the latter is the weakest signifier of religion. “ Narrated by Muslim.
This Hadith really explicate the manner of covering with evil workss and hedonism is one sort of evil workss. First, it is the duty of the authorization which has been commentary by Muslims bookmans that the manus it the 1 who with power. For case, the authorities of Malaysia should recognize their undertaking is non merely doing development but besides to transfuse the religion or credo of Islam in Muslim specifically and society by and large by making some alterations in amusement industry, educational system and media. Second, the function of society is fundamentally taken from the word lingua in the Hadith. The society should non merely speak about the issue but finally take chance to ask for or advance good wellness life style to their household and friends since hedonism merely will take to bad wellness life style. Healthy life style is non merely limited to Muslims but besides should be practiced by all races.
As discussed above the concern about manifestation of hedonism in Malaysia revolved around the consequence and the grade of hedonistic values in the Malayan amusement industry.