The Importance Of Water In Islam Theology Religion
In Malaysia, after Pakatan Rakyat party successfully suppressing Selangor province from Barisan Nasional party since 2008, they have launched a batch of inaugural public assistances for Selangor occupants. On 13 March 2008, Selangor State Government has announced the execution of ‘Merakyatkan Ekonomi Selangor ‘ ( MES ) docket to better populating criterion of Selangor occupants. There are 14 dockets included in MES and one of them is free H2O proviso for the first 20 three-dimensional metres H2O domestic consumers who utilizing single metres in Selangor get downing from June 2008. Selangor State Government offers foremost 20 three-dimensional metres H2O which equivalent to 20,000 litres or 5.680 gallons per month for free. This benefit is for all Selangor people irrespective of their economic system position, race or political association.
Other than that, the chief aim of this public assistance is to cut down the load life particularly for low-income groups as a consequence cost of life and the rising prices rates are continue to increase. At the same clip, it is of the holistic and incorporate constituents to reconstituting H2O direction in order to supply more efficient and effectual service. Through this plan, Selangor State Government bear the mean cost of discount RM 11.00 per month for each user. Then, the record payment by the Selangor State Government is stated in measure received by each user from SYABAS ( Selangor Water Supply Company ) .
Besides that, 20 three-dimensional metres of free H2O supply is merely eligible for domestic consumers who use single metres. For domestic users who use bulk metres in condominiums and flats, they need to alter to single metres to bask this free H2O. Change of majority metres to single metres is capable to the conditions set by SYABAS. As the consequence, presently more than one million people who use single metres enjoy it particularly low cost flat inhabitants. Until July 2012, over RM 6 million was spent on free H2O to occupants of low-priced flats through Safwa Scheme ( Free Water Rebate Scheme ) . Harmonizing to Housing and Property Selangor Board ( LPHS ) study, 92 % or 58, 049 units already received. While the staying 8 % or 6, 666 units failed to implement the discount claim due to labour deficits in Joint Management Body ( JMB ) .
This positive action shows the authorities ‘s duty toward public public assistance. In Islam, this is a good illustration because the leader should take attention of their people. However, some consider this plan involves high costs and will impact the allotment of financess provided by the Government of Malaysia to Selangor province. In Islam, the leader should pull off the public belongingss to avoid waste for non so of import activities. Therefore, a comprehensive survey and analysis are needed to guarantee that the plan is consistent with Islamic jurisprudence.
2. WATER ACCESIBILITY ANALYSIS
2.1 THE IMPORTANCE OF WATER IN ISLAM
Historically, all ancient civilisations in the universe began in country that has H2O resources such as river or coast. For case, Mesopotamia civilisation began at Euphrates and Tigris River, China civilisation began at Huang He River and India civilisation began at Indus River. This fact shows that they are truly rely on H2O in their day-to-day life. Water from the river is used to water agricultural countries, cookery, bathing and others. Based on Al-Mu’jam Al-Mufahras book, H2O or ‘al-ma ” in Arabic was mentioned 63 times in the Al-Quran.
Harmonizing to Naser I. Faruqui, H2O is really importance in Islam. It is a approval from Allah that gives and sustains life, and purifies humankind and the Earth. It is based on Allah words in verse 65 of Surah Al-Nahl: “ And Allah sends down H2O from above, and therewith gives life to the Earth after its decease. Surely there is a mark in this for a people who listen ” . Besides that, Allah said all existences is made from H2O. Harmonizing to the research, the Earth is covered with 3/4 H2O and the human organic structure contained of 3/4 H2O. In verse 30 of Surah Al-Anbiya: “ Do non those who disbelieve see that the celestial spheres and the Earth were closed up, so We rent them. And We made from H2O everything life. Will they non so believe? “ .
Due to H2O is really of import resource for every people regardless rich or hapless, Islam declared that everyone has the right to a just portion of H2O ingestion. This claim is emphasized by the Hadith reported by Abu Dawud that Rasulullah said “ Moslems have common portion in three things: grass ( grazing land ) , H2O and fire ( fuel ) ” . In add-on, the Prophet forbids Muslims stashing the extra H2O and he is obliged to let others to utilize it. The Prophet stated: “ Among the three people Allah will disregard on the Day of Resurrection are a adult male who possessed otiose H2O on a manner and he withheld it from the travelers. ” This Hadith was narrated by Al-Bukhari.
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Tigris-Euphrates River in Egypt and Huang He River in China usage for irrigation
2.2 TYPES OF WATER IN ISLAM
In Islam, H2O is indispensable for the Muslims to sublimate themselves such as perform ablution ( wudhu ‘ ) before the supplication and execute obligatory bath ( ghusl ) after holding sexual intercourse. One of the conditions, these actions is necessary to utilize pure H2O to do it valid. Therefore, the absence of clean H2O will do it hard for Muslims to pull off their day-to-day life and to idolize to Allah SWT. In world, there are different types of H2O in this universe and non all H2O is suited for homo. Basically, the H2O covers about 70 % of the Earth and it is really exposed to other elements that can alter its original status. Therefore, this requires human wisdom to find whether the H2O can be used or non. In Fiqh Taharah or Islamic Hygienically Jurisprudence, Islam has divided H2O into three chief parts which pure H2O and can sublimate other things ( tahur ) , pure H2O but ca n’t sublimate other things ( tahir ) , and H2O incorporating soil which non pure and ca n’t sublimate other things ( mutanajjis ) .
First major class is pure H2O and can sublimate other things ( tahur ) . This H2O can be divided deeper into ‘mutlaq ‘ H2O and ‘musyammas ‘ H2O. For ‘mutlaq ‘ H2O, it remains with the original nature of its happening have been made by Allah. It is H2O that has non been mixed with soil, H2O reservoir that is more than two armored combat vehicles no longer used and non assorted with other substances. In add-on, the H2O is still ‘mutlaq ‘ H2O even thought it has changed due to abandoned for long period in dirt, moss and dead countries. In add-on, if the H2O continuously fluxing but contain S it still categorized as ‘mutlaq ‘ H2O. This is due to H2O is in liquid status and hard to distinguish it. For two armored combat vehicles measuring, the length and the breadth is 60 centimetre or 22.5 inches severally with depth 62.5centimeter or 25 inches. If the two armored combat vehicles measuring is converted into the weight measuring, it equals to 174 litres or 190 kg or 11 kerosine tins.
Besides that, there are eight types of H2O including in the ‘mutlaq ‘ H2O which are river H2O, good H2O, rain H2O, dew H2O, sea H2O, snow H2O, spring H2O and tap H2O. The Prophet Muhammad besides ordered to utilize ‘mutlaq ‘ H2O to clean the soil. This grounds is based on Abu Hurairah narrative: “ a Bedouin stood up and make in the mosque, so his friends prevent it. Upon this Rasulullah said, leave him and pour a container of H2O over the piss. Indeed, you are asked to ease non troublesome ” . Then, harmonizing to Sheikh Abu Abdullah Husayn Nasir bin Muhammad Taib in his As-Subyan Hidayatul book: ” Not valid the purification unless H2O semen from common ‘qaid ‘ such as sugar cane, sugar, soap and such, and H2O from the sky such as rain and dew or H2O coming out of the Earth such as sea H2O, river H2O and good H2O ” .
On the other manus, ‘musyammas ‘ H2O is rather different comparison to ‘mutlaq ‘ H2O. In Al-Badrain Matla book written by Sheikh Abdul Al-Fatani Faqir Muhammad Bin Ismail Daud Al-Fatani stated: “ ‘Musyammas ‘ H2O is besides pure H2O and can sublimate other things but detestable ( makruh ) to utilize it on the organic structure. It afraid contributes to hairpiece disease when people used it. The place is lasting in a container and heated by sunshine in hot clime provinces ” . This affair really earnestly considered by Rasulullah as in a narrative narrated by Baihaqi: “ From Saiditina Aishah so she is heating the H2O under sunshine, and Rasuluhlah SAW had said to her: make non make that O Aishah because the H2O can do hairpiece disease. ” Literally, ‘makruh ‘ agencies dislike, blamed and displeasing. It refers to go forth anything non demanded by Allah but non prohibited to make it. Acts which are ‘makruh ‘ are decidedly discouraged but the grounds to turn out they are out is less strong. Therefore, the committee of ‘makruh ‘ Acts of the Apostless is non blamed but its skip is preferred.
Second major class is pure H2O but ca n’t sublimate other things ( tahir ) . This H2O can be divided more into ‘musta’mal ‘ H2O and ‘muqayyad ‘ H2O. For ‘musta’mal ‘ H2O, the H2O is able to imbibe but non applicable for cleansing. Harmonizing to Ibn Akhil in his book entitled Al-Mutaalim Zadul: “ ‘Musta’mal ‘ H2O is less than two armored combat vehicle that has been used for drosss such as has been used in ablution and bath or H2O that has been used in take the soil. After that, it is non valid to sublimate other things ” . Besides that, H2O from trees, fruits and roots besides considered as ‘musta’mal ‘ H2O. Then, all H2O can alter by two ways which are altering by ‘taqdiri ‘ and altering by ‘hissi ‘ . Changing by ‘taqdiri ‘ means the H2O merely alteration on ‘taqdir ‘ ( judicial admission ) and the alterations ca n’t be seen. So, ‘musta’mal ‘ H2O is under altering by ‘taqdiri ‘ However, altering by ‘hissi ‘ means the alterations that can be seen. ‘Mutlaq ‘ H2O is under altering by ‘hissi ‘ . In add-on, Syeikh Faqih Dr. Wahbah Al-Zuhaili argued that the sum of H2O besides affect H2O quality. For illustration is ‘musta’mal ‘ H2O go ‘mutlaq ‘ H2O if the measure more than 2 armored combat vehicle or 270 litre.
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Dew H2O, river H2O and snow H2O are some beginnings that can be used for ‘mutlaq ‘ H2O
Following, H2O is mixed by two ways. First manner is through ‘mujawir ‘ . This means the H2O alterations because there is something that can be separated from the H2O. For illustration, a individual put a stick in a bucket to stir the H2O in the bucket. Then, the stick can be pulled out from the bucket. Then the H2O is still regarded as pure H2O. Second manner is through ‘mukhalit ‘ . This means the H2O alterations because there is something that unable separated from the H2O. For case, a individual put the fruit spirit in a bucket of H2O. It is impossible to divide fruit spirit and H2O to their original status. Then the H2O no longer exists as pure H2O as has alterations to ‘musta’mal ‘ H2O.
In contrast, ‘muqayyad ‘ H2O is H2O that is assorted with something pure that altering one of the features. For case are coffee H2O, sugar cane juice and soap. In Islamic position, parametric quantities for H2O quality are based on the chemical and physical features of odor, gustatory sensation, colour and temperature. Then, ‘qayyad ‘ on H2O is divided into ‘qayyad lazim ‘ and ‘qayyad musfaq ‘ . For ‘qayyad lazim ‘ , it means substances attached together until it perfectly different from pure H2O such as java and honey. Although pure, it still ca n’t be used for purification because already assorted with fluctuations of H2O. However, for ‘qayyad musfaq ‘ , it means substances detached among each other and non affect pure H2O such as rain H2O and good H2O. Therefore, the H2O is still cited as pure H2O.
Third major class is H2O incorporating soil which non pure and ca n’t sublimate other things ( mutanajjis ) . There are three chief conditions sing to ‘mutanajjis ‘ H2O which unable for purification. First status is H2O incorporating less than two armored combat vehicles even though the H2O does non alter colour, odor and gustatory sensation. Second status is H2O incorporating more than two armored combat vehicles but has alterations colour, olfactory property and gustatory sensation due to the soil. Third status is H2O is blending with clean substances but has the colour, odor and gustatory sensation. In footings of linguistic communication, soil is defined as soiled things such as blood, urine and fecal matters. In footings of syara ‘ , soil is defined as all the drosss that prevent cogency for pray.
There are three types of soil harmonizing to their hierarchy and all the soil must be purified utilizing ‘mutlaq ‘ or pure H2O. The lightest soil is ‘mukhaffafah ‘ . It is the piss of babe male child who merely eat breast milk and less than two old ages old. The cleaning methods are by wash and pass over the piss before sprinkle the pure H2O on the topographic point. The moderate soil is ‘mutawasittah ‘ . It is including blood, Pus, puke, spit, intoxicant and others. The cleaning methods are rinsing until lost any nature colour, odor and gustatory sensation before cleanse by pure H2O. The heaviest soil is ‘mughallazah ‘ . It is the soil relate to chase and pig. The cleaning methods are by wash one time by dirt H2O. Then, continue rinsing by utilizing pure H2O for six times until loss any nature colour, odor and gustatory sensation. If still non gone, reiterate the lavation method.
2.3 THE WATER MANAGEMENT IN MUSLIM COUNTRIES
In December 1998, the Workshop on Water Resources Management in the Islamic World was held in Amman, Jordan. One of the treatments is implementation attacks for H2O demand direction ( WDM ) within the context of Islam. The attacks are H2O preservation and effluent reuse.
In H2O preservation attack, they argued supply of H2O is fixed. Therefore, H2O direction is needed to guarantee the sum H2O supply is adequate with the sum of H2O used. This sentiment can be approved in verse 18 of Surah Al-Mukminun: “ And We send down H2O from the sky harmonizing to certain step, and We cause it to soak in the dirt ; and We surely are able to run out it off ( with easiness ) ” . Human can utilize H2O in moderate manner and non devour beyond the bound. If excessive exist, Allah has right to take back His approvals. The Prophet besides taught human to devour expeditiously. Harmonizing to Al-Bukhari: “ The Prophet Mohammad used to execute ablution with one mudd of H2O [ equal to 2/3 liters ] and used to take a bath with one SA ‘ up to five mudds [ equal to 2-3 1/2 liters ] . ”
Presently, this H2O preservation attack shows positive impact when the World Health Organization ( WHO ) launched a wellness instruction plan through mosques. The plan included developing imaums on proper wellness patterns, H2O preservation, H2O economy, proper sanitation and hygiene in the bar of diseases. In add-on, the imaums so gave discourses about H2O preservation during the congregational Friday supplication.
For effluent reuse attack, they argued H2O should non be wasted. Therefore, H2O should be used for good intents and utilize it in effectual and efficient manner. In verse 31 of Surah Al-A’raf: “ O Children of Adam! have on your beautiful dress at every clip and topographic point of supplication: eat and drink: But waste non by surplus, for Allah loveth non the wastrels ” . From this poetry, Allah hatred people who are uneconomical in eat and drink. Normally, single imbibing H2O every twenty-four hours in their life because thirsty. However, if some people intentionally waste the H2O, others people might non able to imbibe sufficient of H2O.
Recycling effluent is an indispensable constituent of a demand direction scheme because it conserves fresh water for the highest-value utilizations. In 1978, the Council of Leading Islamic Scholars ( CLIS ) in Saudi Arabia concluded in a particular fatwa in 1978 that treated effluent can be used even for ablution and imbibing every bit shortly as absence of wellness hazard. This fatwa was concluded based on elaborate survey by scientists and applied scientists toward waste H2O status and its short-run and long-run effects toward human wellness.
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Saudi Arabia Wastewater Treatment Plant at Riyadh and Al Hail
Both H2O preservation attack and effluent reuse attack was introduced before are classified as non-economic attack. However, in a book entitled ‘Water Management in Islam ‘ , one economic attack which called household planning was added. Basically, household planning non straight cut downing the mean H2O ingestion. However, it helps for farther decreases in overall handiness of H2O per capita. By household planning, the authorities can foretell future decrease of H2O ingestion as size of members per household smaller. When future consequence is known, it facilitates the authorities to supply systematic long-run planning in order to get the better of future jobs.
However, the job is household planning or contraceptive method is new in Islam. During Prophet Muhammad epoch, most Moslems have large household members because it did n’t hold birth control ordinances. Therefore, based on this state of affairs, a few Islamic bookmans believe that birth control is non allowable in Islam. Still, some others scholar said it is no strong grounds in Islam to back up a prohibition on household planning. Furthermore, they contend although the faith encourages holding kids, it is non obligatory. Finally, the modern-day legal experts agreed that household planning is allowable in Islam with a few conditions must be followed. First, it is merely allowable for married twosome adult male and adult female. Second, it should hold the common consent of the twosome and thirdly, the chosen method must truly governable.
As decision, three attacks stated earlier will supply some options for Islamic states to take the possible method for their H2O direction. The holistic appraisal should be implemented harmonizing to advantages and disadvantages of each attack. For H2O preservation, the advantage it is non really big cost but the disadvantage may no full committedness from society. For effluent reuse, the advantage it is able for states which does n’t hold abundant H2O beginnings but the disadvantage it covers really high cost for edifice workss and uninterrupted intervention procedure. For household planning, the advantage it is the authorities able to foretell future H2O use but the disadvantage it will cut down figure of Muslims population in that state.
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