The Culture Of Intolerance And Education System Theology Religion Essay Example
The Culture Of Intolerance And Education System Theology Religion Essay Example

The Culture Of Intolerance And Education System Theology Religion Essay Example

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  • Pages: 14 (3692 words)
  • Published: October 1, 2017
  • Type: Research Paper
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Pakistan gained independence from India by implementing the two-state theory, which stressed the distinct values and civilizations of our separate states.

The theory of two states served as the basis for Pakistan's political ideology, which was greatly shaped by religious convictions. Islam played a crucial role in establishing a clear distinction between Hindus and Muslims. Analyzing the history of the subcontinent shows that Muslim rulers governed the region for a considerable time, despite their initial scarcity in numbers. Gradually, they gained prominence. However, there was a significant shift in the political scenario when colonial powers seized control during the mid-17th century, toppling the existing Muslim-led system.

The first significant displacement occurred when Muslims, who were in smaller numbers compared to Hindus, lost control over the major political order. This led to a movement against M


uslims by Hindus, which created an identity issue. The differences in identity compelled Muslims to exert force and engage in domestic politics. This concept reminds us of how Muslims were once rulers but later became a minority.

During this period, a minority group successfully initiated a motion that ultimately resulted in the granting of land. Throughout this time, Muslims demonstrated integrity and worked towards the establishment of a free state. Unity and religion were prioritized to the highest degree. Muslims aspired to create a state where they could practice Muslim law and promote peace for the entire world.

This period is characterized by the absence of intolerance and conflicts among Muslims. The previous period in Pakistan was a significant era of symbolic ideology. We successfully liberated a territory where Muslims can freely practice their religion and strive for love, prosperity, care, peace, and unity. Despit

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the diversity in languages and cultures across the five states, their hearts were united under the shield of Islam.

The prevailing political climate in Pakistan during its independence showed a lower level of intolerance among the people compared to the current situation, which is characterized by lawlessness and chaos. Currently, Pakistan has gained a reputation as an extremist, radical, and intolerant nation. Both religious and secular education coexist and have a significant influence on shaping the minds of the younger generation. It is crucial to consider scholars' perspectives on our educational curriculum and its impact on our thinking. Researchers seek to investigate the primary cause of this prevalent political climate and find ways to foster critical thinking skills in future generations while improving empirical research processes that challenge existing ideologies.

To address the current security challenges and promote progress, we are reviving the spirit of ideology in Pakistan. Ideology is a set of beliefs followed by a group of people, with a strong societal framework based on common rules and regulations. It serves as a driving force that determines the legality of actions. The ideology of Pakistan has evolved over a long history, rather than being developed overnight.

In the subcontinent under British rule, Muslims and Hindus coexisted but with Muslims as a minority facing discrimination in all areas due to their religion. Doctor Allama Muhammad Iqbal expressed this political ideology, which was then spread globally by Quaid-e-azam.

During that time, Muslims chose to boycott learning English and desired to revert back to their previous education system that relied on Urdu, Farsi, and Arabic languages. This stubborn mindset led Muslims into insignificance as they fell behind in all areas

of life, losing the prestige they once had. Prior to British rule, Muslims were the rulers of India, which greatly favored them. Hindus, on the other hand, were deprived of power, provoking desperation and creating a rift between them and Muslims.

They were large in stature and the system introduced by the British was democracy, which allowed Hindus to become the rulers of all of India after British rule. Muslims anticipated this situation and acted to protect their interests, leading to the creation of Pakistan.

Two state theory

Muslims developed the concept of a separate state before the formation of Pakistan. Pakistan is a result of the desire for a separate state, not an idea to create Pakistan. In retrospect, Muslim nationalism emerged with the advent of Islam, introducing a new philosophy to all aspects of life. It promised salvation for the world, establishing a benevolent society based on Quranic teachings, which is connected to the principle of Muslim patriotism in the Indian subcontinent with the island.

Islam was introduced to coastal parts of India through the arrival of Arab bargainers. Muhammad bin Qasim, after Mahmud of Ghazni's 17 onslaughts, conquered a portion of India and opened the door to Islam. As a rejection of immorality in Indian society, you exhibit a clear image of the teachings of Islam and have great transitions. Qutub-ud-Din established Muslim reign in India, and this was sustained by the Sultanate and Mughal dynasty. The Muslim his strong metropolis originated in India.

The way of life of the heroes in Islamic history and civilization cannot be integrated into Hinduism. To preserve the pure Islamic character and protect against external attacks, movements like Din-e-Ilahi and the

Bhakti movement were established. Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi and other leaders played a remarkable role in this. Transitions to Islam were influenced by the concepts of equality and social justice.

British Muslim leaders played a crucial role in the industrial and scientific development, as well as the policy of modern warfare. The War of Independence (1857) resulted in a tragic defeat for Indian Muslims who were blamed for rebelling against the British. Despite this, Muslims actively contributed to maintaining peace and order. This event significantly shaped their identity and nurtured their sense of patriotism. Additionally, Muslim scholars have made efforts to reform the education system within Islamic jurisprudence and encourage its practical implementation in Muslim society.

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (1817-1898) is a well-known figure recognized for his involvement in the Ali-Garh movement and society. He emphasized the importance of education as a way for Muslim aristocracy to improve their social standing during the colonial period. Over the last sixty years, Pakistan has been actively educating its population about national unity and integration. This ideology played a significant role in constructing a sense of national identity, serving as the sole means for the Pakistani government to foster both love for Pakistan and animosity towards others.

The education policy aimed to promote patriotism by teaching the state's beliefs, encouraging national participation and helping achieve political goals. Education in Pakistan has seen recent efforts to improve but still lags behind on a national scale. Similar to the United States, the education system in Pakistan has different entities with specific roles and responsibilities. Oversight of curriculum and research funding is the responsibility of provincial and central governments at all levels. Currently, federal

government jurisdiction covers curriculum specification while textbook development remains at the provincial level.

In 2010, Torahs underwent graphic amendments to include provincial level courses of study in order to enhance the quality of education at all government levels. The provision of books containing high-quality information is crucial for promoting critical thinking nationwide. Unfortunately, Pakistan's current educational system suffers from outdated and insufficient content in its books, revealing poor management that has led to a substantial division within the system.

The main role of a province is to ensure the well-being of its people by providing education, healthcare, and security. Various studies conducted between 1960 and 1993 have shown that the education system was inadequate, prompting authorities to recognize the need for standardization. [6] In recent times, the government has implemented reforms and made it compulsory for all children in Pakistan to receive free basic education. The government is also working with foreign countries like the UK to improve educational standards and establish a new education policy.

The government's failure in providing education
Education policy has been the central concern in Pakistan, with recent advancements being observed. Primary level enrollment has notably increased by 10 percent. While this is a commendable achievement, only 54 percent of the population nationwide possesses writing skills (Latif, 2001). At present, there are 47 million illiterate young individuals in Pakistan, and their numbers continue to grow.

If the illiterate population is increasing in Pakistan, it indicates that Pakistan stands out among a few states experiencing this situation. In contrast to neighboring provinces like India, Iran, and Bangladesh, where their illiterate population is declining, ours unfortunately continues to grow. Pakistan holds the third position worldwide

with a significant count of children lacking access to education or awareness about schools. The condition for girls in Pakistan is particularly dire as only one-fourth of females attend primary school, and enrollment drops by 30 percent after completing fifth grade.

Pakistan became a nation in South Asia with noticeable differences in education levels between urban and rural areas. The majority of the population, under 17 years old, presents both potential and urgency for a comprehensive education system that can nurture peaceful and well-educated citizens. Nonetheless, politicians' lack of determination to prioritize education for disadvantaged children remains one of the main causes behind declining educational standards.

The lack of education is connected to a hostile and volatile environment. This failure can be attributed to an overemphasis on military expenditures and a disregard for investing in education. Ultimately, this prompts the question of which entity should be held accountable for the deficiency in education: the government or parents.

New research on schools in Punjab, Pakistan has uncovered the dedication of parents to provide their children with excellent education and their willingness to make necessary investments. This highlights the importance of education and exposes the overall backwardness of the state. Additionally, a significant factor impacting Pakistan's education system is the difference between private and public sectors, which poses a major challenge due to varying educational materials taught in these institutions.

While the state's educational curriculum is outdated, private degree programs regularly update their material and incorporate new advancements and international techniques. However, the cost of private education in Pakistan is comparable to international standards, making it unaffordable for most individuals. As a result, high-quality education becomes accessible only to wealthy people

while underprivileged individuals are denied this opportunity. This inequality generates animosity among people and exposes issues with governance and an education system that favors the rich.

The growing divide in classifications is leading to discomfort and intolerance. While religious teaching establishments are not the primary issue, there is significant focus on Madrassas in Pakistan, as they are thought to be instructing students with aggressive ideologies. The country is uncertain about whether children should receive a religious or secular education due to its failure in providing fundamental education for its population. Consequently, parents desire to educate their children; however, either the expenses of education are excessive or the government's educational system is insufficient. This leaves parents with limited choices and they consequently opt for religious schools.

The U.S 9/11 committee has released a report stating that millions of children are attending religious schools due to authorities' poor planning, and this number is on the rise. The global perception of Madrassas is now highly specific, portraying them as institutions that produce combative individuals. However, careful examination reveals that only a few Madrassas are actually involved in such activities. These particular institutions gained notoriety for training Taliban leaders during the Soviet-Afghan war. Therefore, it is incorrect to assume that all religious schools are involved in cultivating individuals who are inclined to harm others. However, there remains a concerning aspect; a small number of Madrassas do engage in terrorist activities and employ these schools to train new recruits for aggressive acts, including suicide bombings.

While studying Islam, it is crucial to acknowledge that suicide attacks are prohibited. Consequently, the directive to engage in acts of violence against innocent individuals serves specific political

objectives. There is a prevailing belief that students recruited from particular schools are more inclined towards violence, and Pakistan has traditionally exploited this ideology against India. Additionally, the divide between religious sects like Sunni and Shia holds considerable importance in Pakistan, as each has its distinct variances.

These schools in Pakistan are believed to teach content that reflects the sectarian struggles in the country. However, there is no evidence that most Pakistanis send their children for religious education. The exact numbers are unknown, so we only have allegations to rely on. Despite claims of significant growth in religious schools at a global level, with an increasing number of religious centers in Pakistan, there is no concrete proof. For instance, a report by the Crisis Group in 2002 stated that one-third of Pakistani students receive education in these centers.

The number of students attending religious schools is relatively low compared to government schools in the world. According to a research conducted by the World Bank, only one percent of students in Pakistan attend Madrassas, which contradicts the study published by the crisis group in 2005. This study clearly demonstrated that there are very few students receiving education in religious schools.

The Ministry of Education in Pakistan conducted a search on the number of students enrolled in religious schools. In their 2008 study, they discovered that only 1.6 million students are actually in religious schools, which accounts for approximately four percent of the total number of students enrolled in schools other than religious ones. Therefore, the number of students enrolled in religious schools is slightly higher in Baluchistan and Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa.

When Pakistan gained independence, there were only 300 spiritual schools.

These numbers did not increase until the 1980s, but that changed in 1979 when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. At that time, the United States had a policy of integrating Russia and communism, while Afghanistan had strained relations with Pakistan. Pakistan saw an opportunity to improve relations with the United States and there were no conflicting interests between the two countries.

During that time, General Zia made the decision to participate in a holy war against the Russians in Afghanistan. Instead of directly invading Afghanistan, Pakistan and America used religious activists as a tool to combat the Russians. This policy led to the conversion of religious schools into training grounds for Jihad in Afghanistan. The Mullahs of that time were teaching subjects that they believed would be more effective in winning a war. There was a wealth of literature available on Jihad, and the concept of central authority or Imir ul Momineen was being revived. This period saw an increase in the number of religious schools at the national level. However, the current situation shows a much greater increase in the number of private schools compared to religious schools.

Demand for balanced instruction

What benefits do pupils acquire after graduating from spiritual schools? One major concern is unemployment. No one wants their children to be unemployed. Islam is a religion that promotes peace and love for all, and the fundamental concept of Islam is to learn and promote these values. Therefore, many parents are against sending their children to schools where they will ultimately gain nothing. Numerous studies have shown that parents who send their children to spiritual schools also ensure they receive scientific education.

Madrassas produce miniature figures of activists.

Despite the fact that not all religious schools are involved in radical activities, the statement does not entirely hold true. It has been evident through studies that regions close to Afghanistan, such as FATA, have been instrumental in producing extremists against Shias. With the increase in the number of religious schools along the Pakistan-Afghanistan border during the Afghan war, individuals were trained to fight in Afghanistan. Therefore, the current conflict in South and North Waziristan, as well as the insurgency, can be attributed to the teachings of these religious schools.

There are a large number of Deobandi Madrassas that are associated with violence. Several studies by experts indicate that Lashkar-e-Tayyaba not only recruits activists from religious schools, but also from colleges and universities. These findings suggest that while there may not be deep connections between extremist groups and religious schools, there are some existing links. The methods of training for conducting bomb or suicide attacks differ depending on the target area. Less training is required for attacks in Afghanistan compared to those in Kashmir. The content of education, whether it is religious or provided by the government, is more important than the means of obtaining it.

Problem in Pakistan is the content which contains hatred for others. Now we have a clear expression that only a few Madrassas have such activities in which they are directly related to producing activists, while most of them are simply learning how to live life according to Islam. So this is not the only factor responsible for creating terrorism; we also have other factors involved.

Relation of combativeness and intolerance with education

Pakistan's failure to provide

standard education to its citizens made it easy for extremist groups to dominate.

According to statistics, there is evidence suggesting that countries with lower levels of education are more likely to be involved in conflicts. Eight percent of countries with low primary education have experienced conflicts. Additionally, over 50 percent or about one third of children in these countries are not enrolled in schools. Therefore, this study demonstrates the significant role education plays in fostering combativeness. The UN has released a report stating that recent attacks on educational facilities in Pakistan have risen.

There have been over 300 schools destroyed by hawkish forces in Swat, along with numerous other attacks on schools. Therefore, the notion that spiritual schools are the only factor in producing activists is incorrect. There are other important factors to consider before drawing final conclusions. Education may be a significant factor in creating activists, but there are also other important related factors.

Poverty and intolerance

If people do not have money, it will undoubtedly deprive them of basic life needs, making them intolerant.

There has been research which indicates that states with low per capita income are more likely to engage in civil unrest. Examining the statistics for Pakistan, we can observe that poverty and unemployment rates are increasing globally. This allows rebels to influence more individuals to join their cause.

Low education leads to more conflicts.

We observe a significant amount of poverty worldwide, but it is not the sole cause of conflict. Recent studies have found that countries with higher levels of education are less prone to experiencing conflicts. Education in a country enables its people to establish consensus and engage in rational thinking.

Increasing the enrollment of

students in schools reduces the level of conflict within the country. As a result, states with education are more accepting, vigilant, and cautious.

Education contributes to an increase in conflict in Pakistan

There are five main ways in Pakistan that demonstrate how education can promote extremism. These mechanisms, whether individually or collectively, explain how education can encourage violence or conflict.

The education system is centered on political bias, catering to a specific group of individuals. Unfortunately, the process of learning is inadequate and lacks the necessary skill development required for individuals. This leads to the creation of a narrow-minded perspective, influenced by materials that are rooted in myth and fiction. Consequently, the education system produces graduates with limited marketable skills.

It refers to the lack of practical skilled learning. If the education system is not based on equality, it will exacerbate social tensions and create divisions among people.

Key consequences

The world is constantly changing, and a new era of technology and public service has begun. The days are gone when ruling people through force and aggression was possible. Now is the time to engage in a competition for public service and the well-being of people. This can be achieved through education, which can bring the entire population together.

Research workers have concluded that there are several consequences. One consequence is the increasing demand for children's education in Pakistan. However, the government is unable to provide sufficient facilities to meet this demand. As a result, many children are forced to work due to unemployment and a lack of food security. Additionally, many parents cannot afford the expenses of education. This failure is attributed to the government. Another consequence is the increase

in the number of religious schools. However, these schools alone cannot bridge the literacy gap. Moreover, it is a misconception that religious schools are the main cause of conflict in Pakistan. It is not true that the majority of the education system in Pakistan is based on religion. Only a small number of Madrassas are involved in radicalizing people.

We assert that poverty is a primary factor that can lead to conflicts and individuals with anger issues. However, many scholars have proven that education plays a crucial role in generating activist or violent ideologies in people. The poor education system includes materials that promote hatred towards others, as seen in Pakistani books that contain content fostering negative thinking. Inadequate cognitive teachings make individuals more susceptible to engaging in anti-government activities performed by others.


Literature and various studies have made it clear that intolerance among the people of Pakistan has increased over time, with education playing a key role in this phenomenon. Our education system is so weak that it has failed to promote an ideology acceptable to everyone. We have dedicated a lot of time to seizing opportunities from others, such as during the Soviet-Afghan war when we assisted Americans in establishing religious schools that served as militant camps.

During Zia's government, the educational system faced significant pressure and underwent curriculum changes that made the books more Islamic. These changes were used as a tool against their rivals, but they ultimately laid the foundation for a generation that believes in baseless myths. The content in these books is contributing to the aggression of this new generation towards certain elements, promoting anti-West and anti-India sentiments. Additionally, certain religious schools

are fueling intolerance in the minds and hearts of people.

Education in Pakistan is divided along ethnic lines, causing a rift in the entire state. In order to create a successful Pakistan, it is imperative that we completely revive our education system. This transformation should be rooted in equality, where the content of educational materials is free from any form of bias.

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