This term paper was titled Ethical motives from Islamic Perspective which is including a morale and akhlaq. This paper was conducted because of to give consciousness about the of import of moralss in Islamic position. Suitable with the documents aim 's whereas to give some of information and cognition from an Islamic position about the moralss which is in moral and akhlaq facet. The paper is sufficient to give the reader a feel for its possible to promote farther research in the country of deciding ethical issues, specifically for those who are naming for cosmopolitan ethical theories to avoid moral imperialism. The Islamic position of the moralss construct should be refers based on the Holy Qur'an from the God and Ahadith of Prophet Muhammad. The moralss concept it must be by and large and non excessively bias for others. The findings of this paper, it can be as a treatment, it is because the Islamic Work Ethics has economic every bit good as moral and akhlaq dimensions.
Keyword: Islamic position, moralss, Islamic Work Ethics, moral and akhlaq
This paper was discuss about the moralss concept from the Islamic position, so it should be build an maxim system that dependably reflects the Islamic position of moralss. The maxim system here is means by a proposition that either non proved or demonstrated but considered undeniable, or capable to a determination, so, the truth is assumed and became the starting point for concluded to the truth to another.This is an indispensable first measure in finding the regulations of economic behavior...
in an Islamic society. The Islamic position of life procedures is uniquenot merely for its prevailing accent on ethical norms, but besides because of its being `` complete '' . However, to turn it into an operational tool of scientific analysis, an ethical doctrine must be reduced to a set of maxims, which is regard to Islamically valid regulations of societal and economic behavior.
1.1 The Concept of Ethics, Moral and Akhlaq
The construct of moralss, moral and akhlaq it can be in assorted point of position from many resources of our readings. Ethical behaviour is an order based on a value system of a peculiar society. More moralss associated with scientific discipline or doctrine, because it is the criterion of good and bad it is human mind. When compared with the ethical motives, the moralss more theoretical while the moral is the practical. Moral more local or particular nature and the ethical is more to general.
There is many term that usage by philosophers in order to give a significance of akhlaq. But, we can reason it, akhlaq is much related with the moral and moralss so much so hold a sentiment that stated akhlak is mean by moral and moralss. Put merely on that, Akhlaq is refers to the nature habits that owned on each persons. It is includes behaviour or nature owned by natural as feeling cranky, speedy to express joy, crossness and so on. Besides includes in this definition, a individual belonging wonts through preparation, instruction, subject and fittingness to be a flesh and blood character and good acquaintance to person. In add-on, akhla
is more refers to our natural wonts.
A piece ago, in the western tradition, ethical motives surveies has long been exists and spread out before the birth of Islam and it known as 'ethics ' or 'moral ' cognition. In facet of etymology, the term of 'ethics ' and 'moral ' have a same significance and besides refers to the same field of survey.
In briefly, 'moral ' is derived from the Latin word, meanwhile the word 'ethics ' is derived from the Grecian word. The both of term are related with the practical activities associating to behavior, imposts, life styles, ways of thought, freedom and the inclination of a individual in prosecuting in an activity. On the other manus, the term of akhlaq was presented by the Muslim that based on the al-Quran and al-Sunah. On Islamic position, the moralss and moral was different from the point of construct, aims and resources, it is called as Akhlaq.
1.2 Current related issues
Ethical motives is normally defined by a written codification of moralss. In the Middle East non many organisations and professions have written codifications of moralss ( Mudawanat Alsuluk ) and misdemeanor is the norm instead than exclusion ( AMAN, 2006 ) . Behaviors that conform to those written codifications of moralss are considered ethical and whatever violates the written criterions is considered unethical.
From that state of affairs, it can be merely, people are non excessively concern about all this affair, when they talk about moralss, they normally do non remind about the moral and akhlaq. This is because, they are set their head, the term of moralss merely use in the concern or information engineering such as computing machine handiness. As a Muslim, they should besides believe about that moral and akhlaq.
In add-on, the new codification moralss was create, which is the Islamic Work Ethics ( IWE ) . This doctrine was create to orientation that forms and influences the engagement and engagement of trusters in the workplace. It implies that work is a virtuousness in visible radiation of a individual 's demands, and is a necessity for set uping equilibrium in one 's single and societal life ( Nasr, 1984 ) . IWE views work as a agency to further self-interest economically, socially and psychologically, to prolong societal prestigiousness, to progress social public assistance and reaffirm religion. The construct has its beginning in the Quran and the expressions and pattern of the Prophet Mohammed.
In finishing this term paper, the secondary literatures are used to enable in depth apprehension of moralss from the Islamic position with the moral and akhlaq construct. The secondary resources which is from readings on a book and the web pages, so the major instrument that has been used is literature reappraisal. Based on the reading, this subject has many mentions in a Malay authorship, but there is no job on that, after read in Malay and understand the content, the term paper authorship has been continued.
By reexamining the literature, all the information will be paraphrased based on the apprehension. The mention to literature reappraisal that has been used is article diary about the Islamic moralss that can
be obtained from the on-line diary databases entree.
Another method applied for completing this term paper is data aggregation from the web page and it is merely for back up information if there any deficiency of informations aggregation. Approach that had been used in finishing this term paper is understands from the readings and reexamining from the stuffs obtained and understand it.
DEFINITIONS AND CONCEPTS OF ETHICS FROM ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE: MORAL AND AKHLAQ
There are assorted definitions of moralss, moral and akhlaq. The assorted definitions are produced from assorted reading stuffs, such as book and article diary, so there is many sentiments from the philosophers. Ethich from Islamic position are more concern to the faith behaviour, codification and moralss.
Islam is supposed to be a complete manner of life. A Muslim is bound by Islamic regulations and hence is obliged to follow the instructions as prescribed in the Quran and Hadiths. Islam is a faith based upon the resignation to God ( Allah ) . The really name of the faith, al-Islam in Arabic, means entry and peace, for it is in subjecting to God 's will that human existences gain peace in their lives in this universe and in the afterlife. Islam is considered to be a comprehensive faith and its ethical system is considered to be one of the major ethical systems. Recognize about the importance of set uping an ethical system in the all Fieldss, particularly at our present clip which is witnessing an of all time increasing ethical jobs, several specializer organisations have prepared codifications of moralss to be complied with by members of those organisations.
By by and large, in Islam, moralss have two dimensions ; first moralss toward Allah, the Godhead. A Muslim has to believe in Allah and has to idolize Him. The 2nd is moralss toward others ; a Muslim concern individual has to cover ethically with others by keeping good intervention and good relationship. This paper is of critical importance because people do non cognize sometimes what is ethical unless they study moralss. Ethical motives provide an indispensable foundation for concern minutess ( Cherrington and Cherrington, 1995, p. 1 ) . They are indispensable for organisational effectivity and are necessary for interpersonal dealingss.
3.1 Definition and Concept of Ethical motives
Ethical motives is defined as a subdivision of doctrine that deals withmoral behaviour. Morality refers to whether something is right or incorrect, good or bad. Although morality is a complex construct, it can be defined in footings of both agencies and terminals. Means is the procedure which occurs, while Ends refers to the effects ( Cherrington and Cherrington, 1995, p. 2 ) . Ethical motives may besides be defined as:
[ . . . ] a systematic enquiry into the beliefs we have and the direction we make about what is morally right or incorrect and morally good or evil. It is an enquiry that attempts to reply the undermentioned inquiries: What kinds of behavior are morally right or incorrect? And what things are good and what things are evil?
( Cherrington and Cherrington, 1995, p. 2 )
Ethical motives is besides defined as the codification of moral rules that sets
criterions of good or bad, or right or incorrect behaviour ( Schemerhorn, 2008, p. 32 ) . Ethical behaviour is what is accepted as good and right as opposed to `` bad '' or incorrect in the context of the regulating moral codification.
Muslim moralss is defined as the codification of moral rules that are prescribed by the Quran and Sunnah ( Hadith or expressions of Prophet Mohammad ) . Muslim moralss is based on rational methods every bit good as disclosure. Revelation provides the truth which rational methods lead to understanding and grasp of truth. Hence, Islamic moralss is based on tawheed, or unity rule, which determines the alone relationship between God and adult male ; adult male and adult male ; and adult male and his environment ( Alhabshi, 1993, p. 83 ) . Within the Islamic civilization, the term that is largely associated with moralss is referred to in the Holy Qur'an as Khouloq ( Beekun, 2004, p. 2 ) . Allah in the Quran has described Prophet Mohammad as a Prophet of good moralss.
3.2 Definition and Concept of Moral
Harmonizing to Peter Baelz ( 1977 ) , ethical motives and moralss frequently have the same significance. However, is really utile if we could separate between the both of them, even though we frequently failed to do such a difference. While the N. Capaldi, E. Kelly and L.E. Navia ( 1981 ) stated that. In signifier of etymology, the English words 'ethical ' and 'moral ' is precisely same. Because of that, the survey of moralss and moral really merely one and it is a same.
The moral issues are practical issues, but non all belong to the practical issues in the field of moralss. It is because, moral more specifically analyze the good and bad, right wrong and how single should move in a peculiar state of affairs. Therefore, moral was refers to subjects knowledge that look into the assorted about the human behavioral. Such as the sentiment that written by J.L. Mackie ( 1971 ) :
aˆ¦moral and moralss can analyse the one time action whether that is right or incorrect ; it is can supply a clear line of differentiation about Acts of the Apostless and of an internal temperament, whether good or bad ; or at least, be able to develop a cognition of moralss guidelines that can be adopted to do assorted moral of judgements.
3.2 Definition and Concept of Akhlaq
Harmonizing to Mohd. Nasir Omar, ( 2010 ) on his book, Akhlaq is refers to the nature, wonts, imposts, acquaintance, values aˆ‹aˆ‹and life style of the person or group of persons. In fact, belief system or faith by a individual besides frequently included under the definition of akhlaq by many research workers. It is because of faith greatly influenced the thought and life style of the person ( Ibn Manzur t.t II: 1244-1248 and Jamil Saliba 1971, I: 49 ) .
While harmonizing to Ibn Miskawayh ( 1966 ) , akhlaq is refers to the state of affairs that forms in a human and it is map as a executive power that was directed that persons by making
all his wonts. Many philosopher was agreed with that statement that akhlaq related with the temperament that create in a individual ( al-nafs/soul ) of a human. Religious dimension of the state of affairs is really of import because it is the cause of all Acts of the Apostless done by worlds.
Therefore, akhlaq is does non mention to the act of good or bad done by a individual, but to person religious dimension pressing to make an act, whether good or bad. Akhlaq is located in the inside of homo 's psyche and in the interim, the act are refers to the outside is made aˆ‹aˆ‹from morality. Hence, a good lesson will of class realize that good workss and frailty versa.
Principles OF ISLAMIC BUSINESS ETHICS
Harmonizing to Hanafy and Salam ( 1995 ) , classified ethical rules of Islam into six classs, which is: truthfulness, trust, earnestness, brotherhood, scientific discipline and cognition and justness.
Principles of Islamic Business Ethical motives
Science and cognition
Principles of Islamic Business Ethical motives
Diagram 1: Principles of Islamic Business Ethical motives
In order to acquire a pleasance from the Almighty, as a Muslim, it is should be followed this six rule of Islamic moralss by making all the concern or activities in their day-to-day life.
Truthfulness: Truthfulness is a basic ethical value of Islam and the significance of Islam itself is, in a manner, the other name of truth. There is no range for cheating, stating prevarications, cursing excessively much, and supplying false advertisement in the Islamic model of concern.
Trust: Trust is another cardinal ethical rule of Islam and the kernel of the trust is the sense of acountability, which is the sense of holding to look before Allah S.W.T and to account for one 's action. All the activities were conducted good in no instance injury or damage the society or the environment.
Earnestness: Islam attaches great importance to the earnestness of purposes and actions in every walk of life. For illustration such as ethical codification consequences in more efficiency every bit good as a high rate of productiveness. Sincerity besides discourages use or development of others for personal grounds.
Brotherhood: Islam declares all human existences are brothers to each other wihout the differentiations of race, coloring material, folk, caste and linguistic communication of an single or group. Everyone is entitled to an ethically right behaviour irrespective of differentiations of caste, credo, race, or district.
SCIENCE AND KNOWLEDGE: Islam makes it obligatory for Muslims to seek cognition and obtain excellence in public presentation. Research and development is extremely encouraged in Islam. It such concern about scientific discipline and cognition in the Islamic codification of moralss has been extremely fruitful for Islamic civilization in the yesteryear.
Justice: Justice is doubtless a requirement of concern and trade as it encompasses the full whole series of human life. The whole existence is based on the construct of justness and balance.justice here means that every one should be treated as he or she deserves, without any undue force per unit area or favoritism.
CHALLENGES IN ENCOURAGING ISLAMIC ETHICAL BEHAVIORS AMONG INFORMATION / INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PERSONNEL
Muslims ' unethical behaviour is influenced by several factors, such as phase of formal development,
personal values and personality, household influence, equal influenceand so on.
The challenges in Encouraging Islamic Ethical Behaviors Among Information / Information Technology Personnel
Phase of moral development
The moonstruck, the slumberer and the kid before pubescence non responsible for their behaviour.
Personal value and personality
One who stresses honestness will act otherwise from those who do non esteem others ' rights. The venue of control besides affects single ethical behaviour ( Robbins and Coulter, 2005, p. 112 ) .
The place is the topographic point to get down being a good Muslim. Children are likely to be ethical if they see their parents and other members of the household systematically adhere to high criterions. In Islam, it is easier for a parent to learn his childs what is right ( halal ) and what is incorrect ( haram ) than to learn them regulations and rules of good behavior and behaviour.
Childs are influenced by actions of their equals with whom they interact. Islam urges people to be really selective of equals as they have really large influence on comrades. This coincides with the Arabic adage `` Birds of a plume flock together '' or `` A individual is known by the company he keeps '' .
Cardinal events like taking portion in Alhajj ( pilgrim's journey to Mecca ) for illustration has a positive impact on Individual behaviour. As the Qur'an provinces: `` Whoever goes to Hajj comes back from his journey inexperienced person and pure and white as of the twenty-four hours of birth '' .
It is the state of affairs that sometimes makes one behave unethically, as the lone manner out. For illustration, a secretary may lie when replying a phone as the lone manner to turn away a client. She may merely lie by stating that the director is non in the office while he is in fact in. On many occasions, the research worker has observed many Muslim secretaries quit their occupations merely to avoid being forced to state such prevarications. However, lying is acceptable in Islam under three conditions: foremost, in wars ; 2nd, to work out struggles between people ; 3rd, hubby lying to his married woman or frailty versa for the interest of acquiring closer to each other and salvaging the matrimony, e.g. stating `` I love you '' while it is the opposite ( Hadith ) , or `` you are the most beautiful adult female in the universe '' . All this is meant to beef up the ties between twosomes.
Peoples try to hide unethical behaviour and ever warrant their actions as being ethical in order to delight members of society. In Muslim civilizations, society topographic points a heavy force per unit area on persons to pattern wasta, so a director may hold to divert from the regulations and ordinances of the concern in order to delight a cousin, a friend or a neighbour. On one manus, wasta is considered as ethical and legal, e.g. in work outing struggles, while on the other manus, it can be viewed as illegal and unacceptable when it is used to overrule established Torahs and traditions, e.g.
in obtaining favours like occupations.
In Muslim civilizations, a concern individual is more concerned about what others might believe of his determination than what he thinks himself.
Table 1: The challenges in Encouraging Islamic Ethical Behaviors Among Information / Information Technology Personnel
( Beginning: Abuznaid, 1990 )
GUIDELINES TO ADDRESS THE CHALLENGES IN ENCOURAGING ISLAMIC ETHICAL BEHAVIORS AMONG INFORMATION / INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PERSONNEL
In Islam, Allah emphasizes the undermentioned ethical guidelines as being outlined in the Holy Qur'an. These guidelines govern the Islamic codification of moralss associating to a individual 's day-to-day life and concern traffics. Moslems are required at all times to act islamically because Allah himself is watching their patterns. In response to these challenges, several guidelines are proposed as follows:
Be patient. Muslim concern people should non acquire angry and should non be irritated ( Holy Quran, XXV:63 ) and ( Holy Qur'an, III:134 ) .
Be just and merely. A Muslim concern individual has to be just and merely in all his traffics. He has to be just with his employees ; he has to give just rewards and has to be just and sort with animate beings when butchering them ( Holy Quran, II:278-279 ) .
Be low. Bing low is the antonym of being chesty. Bing low is a great feature of Muslims. Business people should be low and down to Earth ( Holy Qur'an, XXVI:215 ) .
Be complacent. Being complacent is another feature of a Muslim. Muslim concern people should be satisfied with what Allah has allocated them. To Muslims complacence is non the enemy of advancement as the West views it.
Be generous. Bing generous is the antonym of being ungenerous. Alkareem is in fact one of Allah 's brilliant names intending being generous. Alkaram ( generousness ) is another feature of the Muslim concern people. They should be generous in giving money and goods to the needy. Islam urges people to give legal alms or obligatory charity ( Az-Zakat ) . Az-Zakat is an regulation prescribed by Islamic jurisprudence. Social duty is another of import rule in direction patterns. Sadaqat ( contributions ) , non obligatory, are really much urged in the Holy Qur'an ( Holy Qur'an, LVI:77 ) and ( Holy Qur'an, XLIV:17,26 ) .
Be dignified. A concern individual in Islam should non indulge in investings that are non Halal. Halal is the antonym of Haram. Halal is ethical while haram is unethical. Examples of haram net incomes for a Muslim include trading in intoxicant,
Be trusting ( Al Amaneh ) . Bing trusting agencies giving rights to others. For illustration, if you borrow some money from person, you are supposed to return it at the in agreement clip at no involvement. A good loan with no involvement is an illustration of Islamic fiscal traffics ( Alkird Al hasan ) ( Holy Qur'an, XL32 ) and ( Holy Qur'an, IV:58 ) .
Be friendly. Moslems should be friendly and united at all times. No favoritism exists among Muslims, irrespective of nationality, gender or colour. The lone difference between Muslims should be on the footing of piousness ( Holy Qur'an, XLIX: 10, 13 ) .
Be just. Equity is the antonym of unfairness.
A Muslim director should be just. In Islam people should be treated reasonably and with equity.
Make non be involved in fraud. A Muslim concern individual should handle others the same manner he himself would wish to be treated ( Holy Qur'an, Sixteen: 90, IV: 58 ) .
Do non corrupt. The pattern of all sorts of payoffs is out in Islam ( Holy Qur'an, II: 188 ) . However, there should be distinction between sadakat ( contributions ) , gifts, and payoffs. Gifts are encouraged in Islam because they help derive friendly relationship. The prophesier encourages the usage of gifts stating `` Give more gifts so you be better liked '' ( Hadith ) . Bribes on the other manus are unethical. Bribes are used to act upon determinations. There are two sorts of payoffs: the `` lubrication '' payoff and the `` white mail '' payoff. The white mail payoff by and large involves an luxuriant system for hiding the usage of big amounts of corporate hard currency. This type of payoff is used to purchase influence in high topographic points ( Abuznaid, 1990, p. 319 ) .
From these cardinal guidelines rules of moralss, we can reason that Islam is a faith of high-moral criterions. Muslim concern people are urged in Al Qur'an and Al Sunnah to follow certain rules and guidelines.
( Beginning: Abuznaid, 2009 )
As stated above, the chief intent of this term paper is to discourse the significance of moralss from an Islamic position. The research has defined Islamic direction moralss as those guidelines and rules that are prescribed by the Holy Qur'an and Sunnah ( Hadith ) . The paper has give account on the major determiners of single ethical behaviour in Islam and pinpointed based on the moral and akhlaq. Besides that, the paper has outlined some of the ethical rules which is the rules of Islamic concern moralss. This paper has besides discussed the challenges in promoting Islamic ethical behaviours among information / information engineering forces. It farther helps non-Muslim people become more cognizant of direction moralss in an Islamic environment by giving them a better apprehension of the topic, therefore doing it easier for them to transport out all the activities in an Muslim civilization. However, it must be stated that there is non one united signifier of applied Islamic instructions among different Muslim states. It is widely known that Middle Eastern states have become more active in the planetary market topographic point by applied their moralss. Furthermore, this paper has outlined major commonalties between Islam and other faiths on the topic of moralss from the Islamic position. Although this paper has presented the construct of moralss from Islamic position, hope all the Muslim are together applied all the moralss that are based on the al-Quran and al-Sunah to be an first-class worlds. Therefore, it is the responsibility of all research workers interested in this issue to develop this cognition. May Allah gives counsel in this new enterprise.
Dr Muhammad Sharif Chaundry. ( 2006 ) . Social and Moral Code of Islam. Batu Caves, Selangor: Masterpiece Publication Sdn. Bhd.
Khaliq Ahmad. ( 2007 ) .
Management from Islamic Perspective: Principles and Practices. Kuala Lumpur: International Islamic University Malaysia Press.
Mohd Nasir Omar. ( 2010 ) . Falsafah Akhlak. Bangi, Selangor: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
Syed Nawab Haider Naqvi. ( 1990 ) . Etika dan Ekonomi: Satu Sintesis Islam. Kuala Lumpur: Berita Publishing Sdn. Bhd.
8.2 Article Journal
Muhammad Arham. ( 2010 ) . Islamic Perspective on Marketing. The Journal of Islamic Marketing, Vol. 1 Iodine: 2 pp, 149-164.
Salam Abdallah. ( 2010 ) . Muslim Ethical motives: An Exposotion for Deciding ICT Ethical Dilemmas. The Journal of Information, Communication & A ; Ethical motives in Society, Vol. 8 Iodine: 3 pp, 289-301.
Samir Ahmad Abuznaid. ( 2009 ) . Business Ethics in Islam: The Glowering Gap in Practice. The International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, Vol. 2 Iodine: 4 pp, 278-288.
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