This survey examines the functions, responsibilities, and duties of the Imam and the Mosque in the execution of the Accessibilities for Ontarians with Disabilities Act, 2005. Through analyzing the historical records of the Mosques in Canadian Western society, this survey explores the societal, cultural and spiritual services of the Mosque as it houses a Muslim cultural group. Every Mosque has a curate or Imam who is the spiritual representative and counselor. The Imam of a Mosque is responsible for offering day-to-day supplications, fold supplication, young person guidance, marrying rites, spiritual advising, funerals, and acts as a full-time employee of the Mosque. Muslims with seeable disablements are one of the internal minority groups within the Muslim community as they are frequently overlooked from the mainstream abled-body Muslim community as whole. Through in-depth interviews with five Imams from different cultural Mosques around the Greater Toronto Area, the principle is to look into the effectivity of the function of the Imam in the community edifice and offering plans and activities in Islamic centres to advance Torahs and policies such as Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act, 2005 ( AODA ) for suiting Muslims with seeable disablements.
First and first, my deepest gratitude to the participants of this research who made themselves available for this survey.
I am besides thankful to Professor David Lumsden for the positive encouragement and giving me the assurance to prosecute my research involvement. Throughout the treatments with Professor Lumsden, I learned the importance of scholarly relationship between the commission and the pupil. I would wish to th...
ank him for priceless advice and support. Besides, I am thankful of Professor Michael Giudice who has been back uping me throughout my academic calling. With his aid, I was able to integrate some philosophical treatment around this research.
I would wish to thank my female parent for her mundane reminder to finish this research. Besides, my thanks to the remainder of my household and particular thanks to my fianc. Without their moral and fiscal support, I do non believe I would hold completed this research.
Why this is a CDIS Major Research Paper
The nature of this Major Research Paper is to place and look into an emerging issue that requires academic consciousness every bit good as alterations to patterns of non-profit organisations for the intents of full handiness and adjustment for vulnerable groups. Through interdisciplinary lenses of disablement surveies, anthropology, doctrine, and jurisprudence and policy research, this paper unambiguously relates the subjects to explicate a conceptual model every bit good as a critical treatment. Through critical field research and in-depth interviews with five Imams from different cultural Mosques around the Greater Toronto Area, the rational is to look into the effectivity of the function of the Imam in the community edifice and offering of certain plans and activities in Islamic centres to advance Torahs and policies such as AODA for suiting Muslims with disablements. This research will be the first to analyze the execution of the AODA in non-profit organisations. With the completion of the informations aggregation of purposively selected Mosques and Imams, certain subjects and decisions from anthropology and doctrine lenses are drawn to researc
the function of the Imam and Mosque in presenting disability-related activities and execution of AODA.
The Nature of Accessibility for Ontarian with Disabilities Act
As it is rather similar to Greater Toronto s multicultural context, AODA is a similar signifier of papers that is structured to function and better criterions of life of people with disablements without any favoritism based on gender, race, or association with an cultural group. The intent of the AODA is twofold ;
- Developing, implementing and implementing handiness criterions in order to accomplish handiness for Ontarians with disablements with regard to goods, services, installations, adjustment, employment, edifices, constructions and premises on or before January 1, 2025 ; and
- Supplying for the engagement of individuals with disablements, of the Government of Ontario and of representatives of industries and of assorted sectors of the economic system in the development of the handiness criterions. 2005, c. 11, s. 1.
Historically the definition of disablement has been limited to physical conditions, nevertheless AODA has expanded its definition to capture assorted signifiers of disablement with specific conditions:
any grade of physical disablement, frailty, deformity or disfiguration that is caused by bodily hurt, birth defect or unwellness and, without restricting the generalization of the foregoing, includes diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, a encephalon hurt, any grade of palsy, amputation, deficiency of physical co-ordination, sightlessness or ocular hindrance, hearing loss or hearing hindrance, mutism or address hindrance, or physical trust on a usher Canis familiaris or other animate being or on a wheelchair or other remedial contraption or device, ( B ) a status of mental damage or a developmental disablement, ( degree Celsius ) a learning disablement, or a disfunction in one or more of the procedures involved in understanding or utilizing symbols or spoken linguistic communication, ( vitamin D ) a mental upset, or ( vitamin E ) an hurt or disablement for which benefits were claimed or received under the insurance program established under the Workplace Safety and Insurance Act, 1997 ; ( disability )
For the intent of this undertaking, the definition of disablement will be limited to physical signifiers as stated in above ( a ) . The new Integrated Accessibility Standards Regulation includes five major criterions, which include a Customer Service Standard, Transportation Standard, Information and Communications Standard, and Built Environment Standard. While all criterions are meant to be to the full implemented by 2025, to this day of the month, merely the first three criterions have been enacted, and even these are non yet wholly regulated or implemented. This survey will take to chiefly concentrate on the first three criterions and discourse some facets of Information and Communications Standards, Built Environment Standards and Employment Standards.
There are four nucleus rules of the AODA ; self-respect, independency, integrating and equal chance. Dignity refers to handling people with disablements as valued clients or members with full quality services and convenience. The rule of independency promotes free pick every bit good offers clients or members to move freely and in a manner that would outdo suit them, without any force per unit area. On the other manus, the rule of integrating allows clients and members the full
benefit of services. At the same clip, it encourages that, policies, patterns and processs are designed to be accessible to everyone including people with disablement. At last, the rule of equal chance removes barriers that prevent people with disablements to hold equal entree to services and benefits.
AODA presents an ideal for people with disablements to entree and bask services from all incorporated profit-based organisations based in Ontario such as eating houses, health care centres, retail shops etc. Part II of the act notes, This Act applies to every individual or organisation in the public and private sectors of the Province of Ontario, including the Legislative Assembly of Ontario. This includes non-profit organisations such as spiritual centres and charity based organisations. Despite the good purposes behind handiness and adjustment criterions of AODA, it will quite probably be disputing to implement such a policy all over Ontario within the proposed timeframe. However, with the aid of communities and community centres, the possibility of execution can go existent. Now specifically understanding the function of the Imam and the Mosque would assist to set up some land for look intoing the current function and state of affairs of people with disablements in the Mosque and wider Muslim communities. The end of this critical field research is to critically analyse the function of the Imam and the Mosque in following assorted types of attack for execution of assorted criterions of the AODA.
It is of import to observe that regulations and Torahs are introduced and enforced due to societal alterations which occur within the communities or at the alleged land degree. Therefore, their construction and functionality is best explained by how those communities straight interact with people with disablements. Therefore, the Imam and the Mosque play a critical function in steering the policy-makers on how to implement and mensurate the effectivity of the AODA in pattern.
Islam and Disability
In the treatment of religion and disablement, historical Islamic positions need to be briefly discussed for a better apprehension of the issue. Islamic instruction is chiefly based on the Qur an, which Muslims believe to be the actual words of Allah and Hadith is expressions and actions of the Prophet Mohammad which are narrated by his comrades and subsequently pious predecessors. These two beginnings of Islamic law are accepted by all Muslims and therefore present an acceptable base of analysis for all major Muslim subgroups. Disability in the Qur an by Maysaa S. Bazna and Tarek A. Hatab notes that the construct of flawlessness is the chief subject in the Qur an and absolute flawlessness belongs to the Divine property of God entirely. Asad argues that worlds could ne'er endeavor or even try to take at the same flawlessness.
In the Qur an, Allah says that, Verily, We created adult male in the best conformation. ( 95:5-6 ) . Now the very impression of flawlessness could be divided into physical signifier every bit good as religious signifier. Therefore, If Allah or the Prophet Mohammad defined flawlessness as Arab Muslims specifically from Makkah or Madina with particular physical properties and colour, this would intend that anyone neglecting to run into the
specified standard is imperfect. Similarly, Asad argues that everyone would hold to give up, or alteration, or suppress, their single distinction to make that specific flawlessness. However, there is non a individual phrase in the Qur an or Hadith of the Prophet Muhammad which emphasizes physical properties of flawlessness.
On the other manus, there are several poetries in the Qur an, which discuss flawlessness in the religious sense. Allah states that,
O [ people! ] Behold, We have created you all out of a male and a female, and have made you into states and folks, so that you might come to cognize one another. Verily, the noblest of you in the sight of God is the 1 who is most profoundly witting of Him. Behold, God is omniscient, all-aware
Besides, Allah provinces, And a psyche and Him Who perfected it. It is of import to indicate out that different Islamic schools of idea hold different apprehensions of flawlessness in the religious sense. Harmonizing to Shi a Islam, Imams are infallible and perfect in the religious sense. Sunni Islam, nevertheless, would reject such an political orientation. Regardless of differences of sentiment between religious orders in footings of religious sense, the significance is that Allah looks at the righteous actions and right beliefs of people instead than gender, colour, race, and organic structure. As in an reliable Hadith collected by Imam Muslim, The Prophet Mohammad said, Verily, God does non look at your organic structures or your visual aspects, but looks into your Black Marias.
Allah revealed 10 poetries of the Quran when Prophet Mohammad turned away from a unsighted adult male s inquiry sing a poetry of the Qur an piece Prophet Mohammad was in the center of carrying a tribe leader to accept Islam. Allah provinces,
( The Prophet ) frowned and turned off, ( 1 ) Because there came to him the blind adult male ( i.e. 'Abdull h bin Umm-Makt m, who came to the Prophet while he was prophesying to one or some of the Quraish heads ) ( 2 ) And how can you cognize that he might go pure ( from wickednesss ) ? ( 3 ) Or that he might have warning, and that the warning might gain him? ( 4 ) As for him who thinks himself self-sufficing, ( 5 ) To him you attend ; ( 6 ) What does it count to you if he will non go pure ( from incredulity, you are merely a Messenger, your responsibility is to convey the Message of All H ) ( 7 ) But as to him who came to you running ( 8 ) And is afraid ( of All H and His Punishment ) , ( 9 ) Of him you are inattentive and deviate your attending to another, ( 10 ) Nay, ( make non make like this ) , so it ( this Qur ' N ) is an warning.
An able-bodied and a handicapped organic structure keep a similar position in Islam. The hapless blind adult male who feared Allah had higher position than the rich able-body who has no religion in Allah.
It is a major reminder for all Muslims that Allah mentions a unsighted adult male in the Qur an and at the same clip corrects the action of Prophet Muhammad. It is a lesson to Muslim communities and particularly to the leaders of the Muslim community while interacting with people with disablements.
Although the patterns in Islamic traditions provide a brief apprehension of the function of the Mosque in a society, I attempted to look into whether the current Canadian Mosques keep similar positions. Therefore, it serves as a survey to compare and contrast whether the traditional Islamic centres perspective differs from the modern-day westernized Islamic Mosques in relation to vulnerable groups of society such as people with disablements, adult females, and kids. In my hypothesis, westernized Mosque unlike traditional Mosques - service as more than a topographic point of worship, as it has taken a signifier of a community centre managed by a Board of Directors and the Imam, by exerting and educating the remainder of the community about responsibilities and duties of citizenship through implementing Canadians Torahs and ordinances such as AODA.
Another of import subject that arises in this subject is the obligatory patterns ordered by Allah over all Muslims. In Canadian society, a few decennaries ago tribunals recognized the demand to widen the application of equality rights in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms beyond formal equality. Whereas formal equality would intend that all Torahs apply every bit to all citizens, substantial equality is designed to acknowledge the impact of the Torahs on deprived members of society and handle them substantively. In Eldridge v. BC instance, a group of Deaf patients demanded gestural linguistic communication translators for their assignments with medical practicians in infirmaries. The Supreme Court of Canada used a substantial equality attack to acknowledge that in the absence of mark linguistic communication translators, Deaf patients can non discourse their medical conditions with the physicians. As a consequence, Deaf patients would neglect to bask the full benefits of medical attention if a formal attack was used.
Interestingly, in Qur an, Allah has excused people with disablements who are unable to execute certain obligatory spiritual rites due to their disablement. For case, in respects to Jihad, Allah references, No incrimination or wickedness is at that place upon the blind, nor is there incrimination or wickedness upon the square, nor is there incrimination or wickedness upon the sick ( that they go non for contending ) . And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger ( Mohammad ) , He will acknowledge him to Gardens beneath which rivers flow ( Paradise ) ; and whosoever turns back, He will penalize him with a painful torture. These poetries allow us to demo that everyone will be judged based on their abilities to execute certain responsibilities. Bazna and Hatab ( 2005 ) note that flawlessness and imperfectness in the physical sense, have no deduction in the Islamic position of human life. In Islam, Allah Judgess a individual by their earnestness, modestness, recollection, and gratefulness of abilities that Allah has bestowed on everyone.
Forming Islam in the Diaspora
While Canada is a state that welcomes
alteration for better life conditions for its citizens, it besides stands as a function theoretical account in respects to its inclusion and integrating of faiths, civilizations, and ethnicities from different parts of the universe. Since the several moving ridges of Muslim in-migration to Canada ( specifically in southern Ontario ) , there has been a despairing demand for integrating into Canadian civilization. Despite all the inclusive multicultural policies and assorted community services offered to run into the demands of new immigrants, William Saffron defines this procedure of adjustment as Diaspora. Saffron argues that the vision or myth of the new immigrants is that full credence in the host state is impossible. However, Saffron fails to detect that there is a possibility of credence through the constitution of centres that create a similar infinite as a fatherland. In fact, it was the most effectual attack introduced by cultural groups to set up non-profit organisations and community centres in efficaciously constructing their community bonds.
In Muslim communities, they are referred to as Islamic centres or Mosques. Canadian society Mosques extend their services beyond spiritual services to include societal services and houses for the Muslim cultural group as a whole including work forces, adult females, kids, and aged members of the community. Fredrik Barth argues that cultural groups create identity-based organisations to advance activities that assist them in prosecuting engagement in broad societal systems.
The Mosque and the Imam
Every Mosque is assigned with a curate or Imam who is the spiritual representative and counselor. As a full-time employee, the Imam of a Mosque is responsible for offering day-to-day supplications, fold supplication, young person guidance, and spiritual reding. Most significantly, an Imam plays a significantly alone function in bridging the spread between two coevalss: Canadian-born Muslims and non-Canadian-born Moslems who are in the procedure of incorporating into Canadian society. An Imam, as a modest modern-day rational, balances cultural traditions and spiritual values within the responsibilities and duties of a non-Islamic province. In other words, an Imam Teachs faith while esteeming the specific cultural values its community and the host province. The function of the Imam and the Mosque is more effectual in constructing the individuality of its attendants. In Omnes et Singulatim, Foucault would reason, the Imam is the shepherd and the flock is the participants in the Mosque, as the sheep would garner to be guided. One of the chief aims of the Imam and the Mosque is to set up a community where Muslims could prosecute in a assortment of societal and spiritual activities based on Islamic instructions.
This research aims to concentrate on the function of the Mosque and the Imam in suiting Muslims with disablement in spiritual and societal scenes. It attempts to look into the plans and activities of Islamic centres for Muslims with disablements. As Muslims with disablements are one of the internal minority groups within the Muslim community, they are frequently overlooked from the mainstream able-bodied Muslims. The major job is the deficiency of cognition about the demands, adjustment, entree, and most significantly the individuality of Muslims with disablements. At the same clip, there is a much stronger correlativity between
religion and disablement, as a spiritual individual understands his/her disablement in position of his/her religion. The function of the Imam and the Mosque is non merely to educate people about disablement but more significantly to jointly work with disablement groups and authorities in placing the assorted attacks in the execution of the Accessibility for Ontarians with Disability Act, 2005, within Muslim communities.
In current Canadian society, Muslim minority groups have founded several spiritual constitutions, which map as community centres. The function of the Imam varies from giving discourses to reding young person and steering community members towards success in both the secular life and after-life. Most significantly, the Imam is most productive in distributing cognition about Islam and specifically resuscitating the function of the Prophet Muhammad as the function theoretical account for every Muslim in every facet of life. In other words, the chief aim of such centres is to rectify behaviors, actions, and apprehensions of Muslims through expressions or Hadiths of the Prophet Muhammad.
Despite the ultimate sovereignty of the Imam, Canadian Mosques are structured with a formal Board of Directors who are officially elected by the Advisory Board and command every individual functionary and unofficial affair that the Mosque faces. The Board of Directors has authorization to restrict the actions of the Imam where required, to the extent that they could utilize their power to engage or fire an Imam. The Board of Directors must O.K. any event, category, or activity that takes topographic point inside the Mosque. The Board of Directors and the Imam work jointly to get at a common apprehension of the demands of the community in Canadian society.
Historically, the Prophet Muhammad cooperated with the Jews and heathens of Medina to organize the Constitution of Medina that outlined rights and duties of the Muslim, Jewish, and heathen communities to organize one community referred to as the Ummah, where each group could cover with their ain internal personal businesss through arbitration based on their belief system. To resuscitate the Sunnah which is the expressions and actions of the Prophet, it would unclutter the misconceptions about responsibilities, duty that a Muslim owes to western or non-Islamic provinces. At the same clip, it guides Muslims in their interactions with non-Muslims in footings of societal, civil and political duties.
Due to the important and of import function of these Mosques, plentifulness of Islamic centres have been established or are in the procedure of spread outing their installations to suit the turning figure of attendants. While edifice or redevelopment, these installations are required to follow with the bylaws of the Province of Ontario. Peoples with disablements are one of the most vulnerable groups whose demands are frequently disregarded. Such deficiency of consideration is now capable to alter. With the execution of the AODA, 2005, foremost, it creates an first-class chance for the Imam and the Mosque to sketch some of the possible physical obstructions that prevent people with seeable disablements from wholly take parting in the community. Second, it is of import to happen out whether AODA would assist to do Muslim centres more accessible and suiting for people with seeable disablements.
I used the purposive sampling technique to choose certain participants who are the most influential Imams, lectors and societal workers in the most Muslim-populated geographical countries in the metropolis of Toronto. Teddlie and Tashakkori define the purposive sampling technique which involves choosing certain topics or instances based on a specific intent instead than randomly. More specifically, I used the critical instance trying technique which is portion of purposive sampling but involves choosing instances that are peculiarly of import to the apprehension of the issue since it will let maximal application of information to other instances. While all selected Imams and Mosques are Orthodox or Sunni Muslims, several differences make each Mosque a alone field of survey.
The most of import differentiation is that each Mosque represents a specific cultural group preponderantly such as Somali, Pakistan, Indian, Arab, and Guyanese. Since every Mosque represents an cultural group, the cultural differences every bit good the community needs differ. In add-on, some of the Mosques are well-established community centres with 1000s of regular attendants ; others are much smaller in size every bit good as figure of participants. Said Rageah, Abdool Hamid, Hamid Slimi, Imam X, and Yusuf Badat are selected participants who are the representatives of the each Mosque and were requested for qualitative interviews to supply rich information about their function as an Imam in relation to Muslims with seeable disablements. In add-on, I investigated their function in supplying services, such as educational, guidance, and other community services about disablement to the remainder of the community.
I limited the range of this research to five imaums merely to supply a footing for happening emerging or related subjects in a new country of disablement surveies and faith. The consequences will be used as a foundation for future research.
Through in-depth interviews with five Imams from assorted cultural communities, I gathered general information about the Islamic centres bylaws, Board of Directors, societal and spiritual events, community support along with the function of the Imam in educating and animating the remainder of the community. More specifically, it would let an probe of how the Prophet Mohammad treated people with disablements and whether the current Islamic centres are following a similar attack.
The continuance of each interview was 30 proceedingss to one hr depending on the agenda and comfort degree of the participant. In add-on, the scene for the interviews was the participants offices in their community Mosques. Participants were required to hold obtained higher instruction in spiritual surveies with eloquence in English so that the interviews are knowledge based and informations are collected entirely based on the participants point of view.
Instruments and Procedures
Through the induction of semi-structured inquiries, interviews were chiefly insouciant conversation or storytelling about Islamic apprehension of disablement every bit good their day-to-day interaction with people with seeable disablements. I did non expect any hazards or uncomfortableness in the research and did non, later, experience any. This signifier of informations aggregation added to the strength of the research and highlighted its importance as, ( 1 ) the interviews were conducted from the Imam s position and ( 2 ) it was the first survey
on execution of the AODA in Islamic centres.
In footings of methodological analysis, I chose the qualitative constructivist methodological analysis attack to roll up informations in analyzing how disablement is defined in spiritual texts and the Imam s point of view on handiness and adjustments of Muslims with seeable disablements. Teddlie and Tashakkori define qualitative methods as techniques associated with the assemblage, analysis, reading, and presentation of narrative information Bonnie O Day and Mary Killeen s article Research on the Lifes of Persons with Disabilities: The Emerging Importance of Qualitative Research Methodologies argues that qualitative methods allow research workers to take a value-free stance. In add-on, the qualitative research workers take the distance between the research worker and the participants instead than taking an nonsubjective stance. Further, a qualitative method allows the research worker to be an active scholar as they narrate narratives from the participants points of position.
Therefore, this descriptive anthropology carried out interviews with the Imams ( who are the representatives of the Mosques ) to understand the important function of the Imam and the Mosque in general, and to find the specific issues and recommendations with regard to AODA in adjustment and handiness for Muslims with seeable disablements. In add-on, this research outlines some of the plans and services offered by the Mosques to implement the AODA in their organisations.
For the interviews, it was required to roll up a series of open-ended and close-ended inquiries that would transport out the flow of the interview. The questionnaire was formulated around four classs: ( 1 ) Imam s personal information, ( 2 ) Mosque-related information, ( 3 ) disability-related experience, and ( 4 ) cognition and consciousness about AODA. Initially, more than 50 inquiries were carefully reduced to 25. With the completion of all necessary paperss and blessing of moralss, a pilot survey was conducted to prove whether the inquiries helped to roll up the intended information for the intent of this survey.
Imam Qari Enamullah, from a little Mosque called Eslah Islamic Association, was approached and was requested to take part in the pilot survey. Imam Enamullah offered his support and an assignment for an interview was set. Based on the research timeline, every portion of the research had a specific deadline along with certain processs that are outlined in most methodological analysis text editions. Therefore, as an immature research worker, I expected everything to be on clip without any trouble or job. However, the pilot survey identified several restrictions and jobs with the methodological analysis of the research. As a consequence, it delayed the whole procedure of the research. For case, I learned merely how hard it is for a public figure moving as an Imam to abandon public assemblages, meetings, supplications, talks and his categories to do clip for an interview, despite their willingness to take portion in the interview.
I visited the Imam on three separate occasions until I got the opportunity to carry on the interview. I find methodology the most of import subdivision of a research paper, nevertheless throughout the procedure of the research, the research worker adopts a new method of research that is
more practical and effectual. Therefore, I found the methodological analysis subdivision really effectual prior to the fieldwork in footings of participant enlisting, research processs and instruments, and how to transport out a qualitative interview.
The Five Cases
Said Rageah serves as Imam at the Abu Huraira Center located in Toronto. He is Somalia Borns but raised in Saudi Arabia. In the 1980s, he moved to North America where he has accomplished a great trade for his age. As a adolescent, he established Masjid Huda in Montreal so subsequently moved to the United States and founded Masjid Aya in Maryland. Sheikh Said is the laminitis of Oasis magazine, IQ ( Quranic institute ) , Muslim Basketball Association, Leadership cantonment for Muslim young person, MSI of Calgary, Orphan Matter, Muslim Student Loan Foundation, and Co-Founder and president of Journey of Faith.
He is known as Sheikh Said, as he stands as one of the most influential Imams of North America. He received his B.A. from the University of Toronto and Masterss in Shari a from the Institute of Islamic and Arabic Sciences in Fairfax, Virginia. Despite his formal instruction, Sheikh Said has attained the spiritual cognition and authorization in much more traditional ways with some of the major Islamic bookmans of his clip. Sheikh Said s primary end in Mosque was to make activities for young person and adult females. Due to tonss of traffic at his Mosque and his place, the interview with Sheikh Said helped to roll up rich informations particular to the Somali community.
In footings of experience with people with disablements, Sheikh Said Rageah has limited but rather an effectual, participatory, and suiting experience. Sheikh Said discussed the engagement of a immature miss with physical disablement in his Mosque. The parents of the immature miss had bad experiences with a old Mosque that was closer to their place. As the parents attended and participated in activities offered by Mosque A, Sheikh Said noted that, the parents of the small miss really bought a belongings closer to our centre because they thought we were really suiting. As the interview was over, we headed out to the supplication hall where Sheikh Said pointed out the male parent of the kid with disablement, as being one of the regular attendants of the mosque. This demonstrates his effectivity as an Imam as he knows the names of households, and demands of his flock. When I asked Sheikh Said on the signifier of adjustment, he replied that, We merely allowed her ma to remain with her for the continuance of the category plus we were ne'er bothered if the small miss made any muss or perturbation in the category or the Mosque.
In theory and pattern, adjustment could be outlined in footings of tolerance, credence, and acknowledgment of the vulnerable groups of society. To accept or acknowledge would take to the following phase, which is engagement. Mosque A offers multiple services and installations, including a bookshop. Sheikh Said has appointed a immature adolescent with a hearing disablement to be in charge of the bookshop, which offers Islamic books, vesture, Mosque A publications, DVDs and CDs production, as
good day of the months and drinks. Confering certain duties and responsibilities to individuals with disablements establishes an inclusive image for the Mosque as a religion based organisation welcoming, practicing and even accomplishing beyond some of the aims of AODA criterions.
Sheikh Said frequently discusses the subject of disablement on a personal degree as portion of reding but he hesitates to raise the subject in congregational supplications as he does non desire them [ people with disablements ] to experience inferior or singled out amongst others. However, in one of the centre s conferences called Death but Alive, I pointed out that most of the greatest bookmans had some type of physical disablement for illustration, Atab Ibn Abi Rabah, bookman of eighth century. Sheikh Said frequently highlights the ocular damages and different types of physical disablement as they are more seeable in his centre. It shows that as an Imam of the centre, he acts based on the demands and demands of the community. His voluntary engagement for suiting people with disablements is non based on any coercion or duty to any regulations or Torahs. Therefore, when I asked about his positions on AODA, he asked me, what is it about? This was an first-class point to get down a treatment approximately AODA as he showed a wonder for farther information about the act.
He emphasized educating the community about AODA for the intents of execution. Furthermore, he suggested educating his community through a seminar in his centre offered by an AODA representative to discourse the subject of disablement in much bigger range. This shows that the function of an Imam is limited to the services offered by the Mosque or centre. As Sheikh Said acknowledgd that it would be an first-class thought [ to ask for person to talk about AODA ] since we don t know much about the subject [ disabilities ] , people who are adept in this are [ to be ] invited to learn the people and us how to cover with people with disablements. Despite the fact that they are the gatekeepers of the community, their function as the Imam does non necessitate them to educate the community on every subject. Therefore, there are certain spreads that could be easy filled through the intercession of other non-profit organisations or authorities based plans to educate the community about new Torahs and policies. It is about making out to different communities and sharing cognition for a better and inclusive society.
Mosque A is situated in a little infinite above a convenience shop, which was targeted for supplying community services every bit good Islamic cognition for the troubled young persons to link with the community. As the Muslim population grew in the country, the demand for a centre became more demanding and necessary. The centre was established on 1.56 estates of land, which now offers 46 events, plans, seminars, category, and conferences throughout the twelvemonth. As Sh. Rageah stated in the interview that, 42 of the events are offered to the young person. Most of the events are on a regular day-to-day footing in multiple linguistic communications. Mosque A
s vision is:
greater than merely constructing a centre without a spirit, but to make full the centre with people from every race and every cultural group as [ the centre ] continues to spread out we look frontward to a centre that will include a supplication hall, a school, a secondary school, a multimedia and IT section, disposal offices, a multipurpose hall, and much, Inshallah ( God Willing ) .
Abu Huraira Center
Dr. Hamid Slimi is the Founder and Resident of the Sayeda Khadija Center. He holds two maestro 's grades in Islamic surveies and jurisprudence, every bit good as PhD in Islamic jurisprudence from the U.K. Furthermore, Dr. Slimi is the Founder and President of the Faith of Life Network, the current Chairman of the Canadian Council of Imams, Lecturer at the Islamic Institute of Toronto, Consultant on National and International issues related to faith and spiritualty and Television Host and manufacturer of Faith of Life Television shows and docudramas. Dr. Slimi offers a alone function comparable to the other Imams in this survey as he is really much involved in assorted interfaith communities and in his effort to set up his vision of Faith of Life Network.
Dr. Hamid Slimi desired to be a professor or justice in his state, Morocco. Due to the demand of an Imam, a spiritual and societal counselor in the Muslim community of North America, he accepted the offer of an Imam in the Islamic Center of North America in 1997. Dr. Slimi is trained as Imam through larning from experient bookmans and edifice accomplishments on offering guidance. He added that, there was a natural constituent every bit good a preparation constituent such as secular scientific disciplines and direction. Currently, Dr. Slimi serves as an Imam of Mosque B where Caribbean and South Asiatic ethnicities are the bulk. He is known for his work and ongoing communicating with other religion groups. Dr. Slimi mentioned that the purpose behind the Faith of Life Network is to make a web among people of religion. In add-on, Dr. Slimi has been offering assorted plans for people with disablements.
In footings of experiences with people with disablements, on April 6th 2012, the centre held a seminar for 40 young persons with hearing disablements. Furthermore, on International Day of People with Disabilities, he dedicates his Friday fold discourse to subjects of disablement. Many of his plans are co-hosted by the Canadian Association of Muslims with Disabilities. In footings of adjustment, Dr. Slimi has allowed parents to attach to their kids with autism during their summer school. When I asked him about AODA, he said that, Equally long as the act intends to suit vulnerable people of the community ; we will decidedly follow with it. It is like the Golden regulation ; one should make for others as one would make for oneself. Compare to the remainder of the Imams, Dr. Slimi showed much better cognition about AODA and its different criterions. In fact, he has offered a Television show co-hosted with Rabia Khadir, the president of the Canadian Association of Muslims with Disabilities, where he discussed the aim and
the deductions of AODA in the Muslim community.
Dr. Slimi strongly suggested that it is the duty of the authorities to educate people about AODA. At the terminal of the interview, Dr. Slimi stated ;
Islamic jurisprudence focuses on benefiting and bettering the life style of people, the environment, and all living existences, in order to raise the criterions of the quality of life. It took decennaries and centuries for us as human existences to make this degree of thought and consciousness because we have done really good so far at bettering the agencies and ways of our society to be published. Then we start confronting on inside informations as demands become more obvious in our mundane lives. This would include our transit, safety and security, entree and adjustment. ( Slimi 2012 )
In 2009, Mosque B became the official place of the Faith of Life Network which is a registered non-profit organisation. The Faith of Life Network purposes to advance positive values of Islam for Muslims and non-Muslims and edifice communities through shared spiritual observation, quality instruction plans, common support and networking, and service to humanity. During the interview, when I asked Dr. Slimi inquiries related to the centre as a Mosque, he responded that, Mosque B is non a Mosque and it is a centre which Mosque is portion of it. The centre offers Friday congregational supplications, Ramadan supplications, Ramadan Dinners, interfaith plans, categories, youth leading plans, and marital services. With the new installation, there is a community multi-use hall, a secondary school, young person & A ; senior citizens plans, kids and grownup categories, and a library. The aim of the centre is to To fit Canada 's Muslims for respectful and helpful outreach, span edifice, and duologue with our fellow citizens: finding common land through shared service while admiting the value of every individual 's humanity and spiritualty. ( Mosque B 2012 ) In footings of community support, Dr. Slimi has successfully achieved his end of raising one million dollars for the Brampton Civic Hospital. Here is the snapshot of the installation:
Sayeda Khadija Center
Abdool Hamid serves as an Islamic Counselor with the Islamic Social Services and Resource Association ( Toronto ) . He was born in Guyana, South America and he has received his B.A. in Islamic Studies ( Major in Hadith Studies ) from the University of Al-Madina, Saudi Arabia. Abdool Hamid is presently a occupant bookman at the Islamic Institute of Toronto and a regular lector at several outstanding Mosques in and around Toronto. Sheikh Abdool Hamid offers several services in Mosque C such as learning classs on Arabic linguistic communication, scientific disciplines of the Quran and Hadiths, the Jurisprudence of Worship, life of the Prophet and his comrade, simplifying the jurisprudence of heritage, and Quran memorisation. Sheikh Abdool Hamid serves as a religious usher in particular Hajj services for a group of more than 75 Hujjaj every twelvemonth to Makkah offered by Mosque C. In add-on to all the services that he offers in Mosque C, Sheikh Abdool Hamid serves as a parttime Imam in Masjid Toronto, where he holds hebdomadal seminars and survey circles.
to other studied Imams, Sheikh Abdool Hamid became an Imam as an Islamic organisation needed a qualified Imam for their community, and he said that the demand still exists. In Islamic tradition, Sh. Abdool Hamid notes that, there are no specific courses theoretically or practically to develop one as an Imam. In order for one to go an Imam, one needs to larn Arabic linguistic communication, Islam and its assorted scientific disciplines. As a parttime Imam in Masjid Toronto, Sh. Abdool Hamid started short talk Sessionss every Mondays and Wednesdays, which has shown to be rather effectual for the community. As a consequence, he notes, more people have been coming frontward for reding.
In Mosque C, he holds a young person plan for high school and university pupils. The aim is to let the young person to portion their positions and sentiments sing spiritual affairs and societal issues without experiencing shy or inhibited. Sh. Abdool Hamid differentiates his Mosques from the remainder of the GTA Mosques by reasoning that, we don t merely preach but we pattern the in-between way attack [ as ] adult females have more say than some other Mosques as their board presently holds two adult females board executives. In fact, rank of adult females in the Board of Directors represents the engagement of adult females in a mostly male-dominated religions based organisation. In add-on, adult females s representation as an important and decision-making organic structure mean the Mosque s inclination in altering positions and, non merely suiting but delegating an of import function in the community for the vulnerable groups of society. Sh. Abdool Hamid stated that,
In forepart of Allah, we are all equal before him. Throughout the history of Islam, people with disablements were treated normal. Their disablements were non to do them different. A unsighted adult male took the leading of Madina several times [ As Prophet Muhammad left for different wars ] . The Muhdan ( the individual who calls for supplication ) was a unsighted adult male, who could non see the Sun to find the right clip of the supplication. Peoples with disablements should be encouraged to take part. The organisations should supply services for them. It is the general society that differentiates between able and disable organic structure. In Islam, they are treated normal and there is no mark of pathetic or sorrow. Peoples with disablements need aid but the act should non be out of commiseration or feeling sorrow.
With old ages of experience with people with disablements, Sh. Abdool Hamid offers categories for people with hearing disablements twice a month. The figure of participants was about 25 regular attendants. Furthermore, the categories surround the rudimentss of Islam, article of religion, and particular negotiations on some current issues. Similar to the young person plan in Mosque C, Sh. Abdool Hamid allows the participants to portion their positions and input. During the continuance of the plan, a mark linguistic communication translator is in topographic point to suit the participants. Sh. Abdool Hamid urges that there is important demand for plans similar to this as there are so many things that they
[ people with hearing disablements ] don T know or confessions that require elucidation for them. This plan attracts people from Oakville, Mississauga and Toronto. With his experiences with people with hearing disablements, Sh. Abdool Hamid s talks frequently highlight subjects related to people with hearing, ocular and physical disablements. When I asked him about usher Canis familiariss come ining inside the Mosque, he responded that Canis familiaris is non an evil animal but animal of God that serve good. In other words, he replied to the construction of my inquiry, as at the beginning of the survey, Canis familiariss were assumed evil in Mosques. As a affair of fact, none of the studied centres see any restriction in suiting guide Canis familiariss.
To run into the demands and duties of AODA, his Mosque has assigned designated countries, created entryway and issue inclines, and disability washrooms. Sh. Abdool Hamid notes that since AODA is a jurisprudence, it guarantees and safeguard the rights of people with disablements. The best attack to implement the AODA is to educate the community in congregational supplications to back up the good cause. He emphasized that, it is non a demand but the rights of people with disablements, [ and ] if they ( people ) understand this, they will back up it steadfastly. In his concluding comments, he argued that it is non like we don t know Mosque C and Masjid Toronto have done a concrete occupation in suiting people with disablements. He said that, Deaf people in our plan come in the Masjid and thank me for the event. When I saw the degree of participant and engagement, I was amazed. They need to make a small spot of aid. Organizations should take it earnestly.
Established in 1996, Islamic Institute of Toronto is a non-profit federally registered Islamic educational institute. The chief aims are as follows:
- Strengthen entree to Islamic instruction
- Promote scholarly research
- Facilitate community outreach and interaction with other spiritual organisations and community groups
- Consolidate the societal cloth of the Community
- Sustain Islamic work by promoting and edifice gifts
As one of the first Islamic institutes of Toronto, Mosque C s mission is to foster and set up Islam as a life world in the lives of Muslims and to heighten the Islamic individuality in the society at big. Its end is to advance common apprehension and civic duty through instruction. Mosque C is eight estates of land, which has late finished all the building work. The edifice includes a full-time simple school, a Mosque for all the regular and Friday supplications, a secondary school used for athleticss every bit good as other particular community events, a bookshop and a little library.
Islamic Institute of Toronto
The regulating organic structure of the institute consists of seven Board of Directors, of which five are male and two are female. This is something alone compared to other Mosques where adult females are non given the chance to move as managers of an Islamic centre.
The bulk of other Islamic centres have been much more accommodative in including adult females in the organisation compared to the yesteryear. The displacement in
political orientations and revising the traditional Islamic cognition has helped the Muslim community to acknowledge the importance of the function of adult females in the formation of a household and edifice up a community. Therefore, with such a vision, others have accommodated adult females through forming the adult females s commission besides called sister s commission, where a group of adult females hold regular meetings and discourse some critical alterations that are necessary in spiritual, societal, or any other facet of the Mosque. Their suggestions and concerns are so proposed to the Board of Directors in order to be reviewed, approved, and implemented based on deliberate budget and resources granted by the board.
Yusuf Badat is the Imam and the Director of Religious Affairs of Islamic Foundation of Toronto located in Scarborough. He has been functioning the Muslim community as an Imam since 1999. Sheikh Yusuf is a Toronto Born Imam, graduated with a maestro s grade from the University of South Africa, where he advanced his cognition of Islamic scientific disciplines under great bookmans for 10 old ages. When I asked him, why did he go an Imam? He replied that as a Toronto Born Muslim, he experienced trouble in linking with older coevals Imams chiefly due to their deficiency of cognition about Canadian society and young person demands. Therefore, he found it of import to analyze overseas to achieve the cognition of Islam and learn Islamic cognition to the younger coevals with consideration of cultural sensitivenesss. Indeed, he has accomplished his end. Young person from different parts of the Greater Toronto Area go to his survey circles and particularly Friday fold because Sheikh Yusuf connects with them really good. Mosque D outlines the place of Sheikh Yusuf as an Imam, Khateeb, Counsellor, Teacher, and Director of Religious Affairs. His responsibilities include Friday Sermons and other regular supplications, Reding work forces and adult females on household and spiritual issues, supplying advice to the community based on faith, executing Funeral services, taking Eid supplications and particular Ramadan supplications, learning Islamic categories, and keeping seminars and workshops.
Sheikh Yusuf became an Imam as his involvements lied in learning the community and assisting people. Due to the coevals spread, Sheikh Yusuf could non associate himself to Imams of older coevalss. There was the demand for a immature Imam to pass on and make younger coevalss. He is trained as an Imam through analyzing Islam for ten old ages. After functioning Masjid Saliheen, he moved to Mosque D where he revised the course of study of full-time twenty-four hours school, started a figure of plans for young person, monthly seminars, and hebdomadal Sunday categories. Sheikh Yusuf stated that, It used to be really hard to near the Imam, but now I am available most of the times to speak with households. The well-established community around his Mosque is a mix of South Asian, Pakistani, Indian, and Guyanese.
Based on the demand of the community, the Mosque has established another installation used as a full-time Islamic school. With the turning community, during Friday fold supplication, there are about 2500 go toing the supplication from different parts
of Scarborough every bit good Markham City. I have attached a snapshot of the mosque to acquire a better apprehension of the installation.
Islamic Foundation of Toronto
To suit people with physical disablements in such a crowd, Sheikh Yusuf has designated specific infinite for people with wheelchairs in fold supplication. Furthermore, there are designated infinites inside the Mosque but outside supplication hall, where people with ocular damage could suit their guide Canis familiariss while they are executing any supplication or go toing an event. Sheikh Yusuf stated that, we should non look at people with disablements otherwise to do them experience inferior and something lacking. For the intents of plans for people with disablements, the Mosque offers a few survey circles to learn Quran for people with disablements and twice a twelvemonth talk on subject of disablement more specifically on rational disablements.
During the interview, Sheikh Yusuf shared his positions about some of the possible alterations to run into the demands of AODA as he stated that, it is good as it demands the community to suit people with disablements [ and ] in term of direction, it is non that we do or we don t want but we are limited in resources. Like any other Mosque, Mosque D welcomes alteration but still needs the authorities s support and financess to transport out the alterations. Establishing on the point of Sheikh Yusuf, a farther research on authorities and external support of different religions based organisation would significantly assist to mensurate the demands, demands, resources and allotment, and how the centre maps on regular footing. Most significantly, authoritiess will hold a strategy of who deserves the most.
Sheikh Yusuf suggest a possible attack to implement AODA ; ( 1 ) educate the disposal, ( 2 ) educate the community, ( 3 ) support from the authorities, and ( 4 ) monitoring and provision. This is an reasonable attack yet chiefly because if the authorities educates the community without converting and educating the disposal, as a consequence, the disposal will non be comfy back uping the execution or even educating the community. AODA is a regulated act that entails inspectors and punishments to implement the act. However, the disposal must see a greater cause of AODA to accept and acknowledge the echt intent to do Ontario more accessible and free of barriers than merely because it is jurisprudence or an act.
Imam X is a mufti and presently serves as an Imam in Mosque E which is one of the most populated mosques in Toronto. Imam X has studied Islamic Jurisprudence for 11 old ages at Islamic University of South Africa. Upon his completion of his higher instruction as a legal expert, Imam X has been functioning the Muslim community since 2003. Despite Imam X is a part-time of Mosque E, but Imam X plays an of import function as extremely spiritual figure, to whom people consult in assorted facets of Islamic cognition and patterns. Furthermore, Imam X offers several spiritual and societal plans and services for the community aiming the young person on how to spiritually sublimate one from evil workss. As a consequence,
Imam X helps the young person to construct a character that is in conformity with tradition of Prophet Muhammad. At the same clip, he educates on how to equilibrate spiritual patterns in conformity with Canadian societal values. Imam X work triggers 1000s of Muslim young persons and households presently shacking in Southern Toronto Area, which adds to more than 90 % of community. The community is over-populated with South Asiatic Muslims. Mosque E is one of the most populated and ever crowded mosque in metropolis of Toronto.
To foreground some of the achievements of Imam X, he established Path to Piety series that includes scope of seminars, classs, and one-year conference that attracts more than 4,000 attendants from different parts of GTA. In add-on, Imam X holds Fridays dark session with young person. During the session, Imam X chooses a current societal job and enlightens the young person about the issues with Islamic lenses. Furthermore, Imam X has established a module of Islamic Studies and Jurisprudence.
Imam X stated that, Islam has tonss of regard for Madoor. In footings of legal expert positions, there are specific chapter discoursing the duty of Madoor in footings of fasting, day-to-day supplications and other spiritual duties. In footings of plans for people with disablements, Imam X noted that, this masjid specifically does non hold any plans nevertheless, I do discourse the subject of disablement when I am turn toing the people on different Islamic opinions. Despite the tonss of traffic, this mosque fails to supply any disablement related class, seminar, or any specific adjustment that would do this mosque more accessible. In footings of AODA, Imam X stated that, it depends on community, some mosques are situated in good locations, but other mosques are non in such good location to hold the community support. This mosque should ease AODA as it is in good location. Furthermore, Imam X suggested that there should be a survey done how mosques around GTA to place ailments and compare the budgets in order to better understand how to implement AODA. He gave an illustration that, if a individual with disablements comes to the mosque one time a twelvemonth, so it would non be in involvement of the musjid. While oppugning about the expectancy of conveying a alteration, Imam X stated, The board is the 1 who should make up one's mind. In other words, I learned that Imam X s authorization is limited to spiritual facet and board is the important organic structure the tally all different facet of the mosque. Imam X stated on several occasions that Board will implement but our occupation is to ease or it will be the board [ to ask for person speak about AODA ] , Imams don t get involved in managerial facet. In my apprehension, the ground that the Imam X wished to stay anon. in this survey was to do certain that this interview will non negatively influence in his relationship with the board. Despite his place is the highest spiritual authorization in the musjid nevertheless his authorization is limited to reding and reding. As a affair of fact, this
interview discussed on of the chief hypothesis on how the mosque are transforming to a secularized centres where board has ultimate sovernigty over the mosque. Imam X stated, In the South Asian community, the board has separated from the imaum. The board members are non good acquainted with Islamic law. There are the 1s who have invested money in the mosque as a consequence, they elected themselves and they run the show. The cons are that the concerns come to the imaums, the general congregants, the imaums are more cognizant of the community than the board. The demands of the community may non be heard. Simply because the imaums are more accessible, non the board.
Mosque Accessibility Chart based on Interviews
Centers Sign Language Capability Accessible Washroom Entrance/Exit Ramp Number of Parking Spaces Quran on Braille Space for Wheelchair Direction Sign
Mosque A No Yes Yes 3 Parking infinites No Yes Yes
Mosque D Yes merely in chief events Yes Yes 8 Parking infinites Yes, 5 transcripts Yes Yes
Mosque B Yes, in major events Yes Yes 6 parking infinites No Yes Yes
Mosque C Yes, merely in chief events Yes Yes 4 parking infinites No Yes yes
Islamic Society of Toronto No Yes Yes No Yes Yes
Critical Disability Studies is an interdisciplinary field and promotes interdisciplinary lenses to understand and near societal issues from multiple subjects. In this survey, the interdisciplinary lenses of anthropology and doctrine of jurisprudence have significantly contributed to the subjects and decisions of this paper. Throughout the research, there are two sets of decisions, the bulk of treatment is from an anthropological point of view followed by a brief treatment from a doctrine of jurisprudence position.
The decisions from both subjects are similar in nature but both initiate two different treatments and decisions in which 1 is related to the ethnographic survey of the function of the imaum and the Mosque in their community centres, and the other briefly examines the theoretical and philosophical attack to AODA. In the first subdivision, I will make a critical analysis and discourse the findings and emerging subjects from an anthropologist position. Then, I will build the philosophical treatment on how AODA ought to be understood and implemented. At the terminal, I will set up a relation between the two subjects in an original signifier of interdisciplinary attack to make evidences for farther research.
Anthropological Lenss and Findingss
Throughout the interview with Imams every bit good as informations based on Mosques web sites, one-year studies, and Mosques bulletin, it significantly adds in sketching the function of the Imam and the Mosque in Canadian society. While comparing and contrasting the studied Mosques, I find it necessary to stress some of the similarities that are alone characteristics, vision, nonsubjective, and mission statements, which are really frequently less celebrated in Mosques in Islamic provinces. These subjects would non merely assist to better understand the function of the Mosques and the Imam but besides help in comparison and contrasting some of the of import literature and patterns of these centres that would in bend aid to originate a new aim among all the Mosques, working toward much more inclusive centres and society to
suit vulnerable groups of society.
Da Washington Center or Community Center
Da Washington is an Arabic word, and refers to prophesying Islam. In Islamic provinces, there are several functions of the Mosque but one of the basic intents of a Mosque is to offer a cardinal topographic point for worship, which includes day-to-day supplications and fold assemblages. On the other manus, a Mosque in a non-Islamic province harmonizing to a bulk of Islamic bookmans advances its services to proclaim the message of Islam and invite non-Muslims to Islam. The events, plans, and categories should concentrate on non-Muslim participants and attendants to cover with misconceptions every bit good discuss spiritual affairs among different interfaith communities. Mosques are Muslim constitutions that allow non-Muslims to research and larn about Islamic political orientation, scientific disciplines, doctrine and merely the significance of life based on Islamic instructions.
Mosques in Canadian society have the first-class chance to ask for non-Muslims to information Sessionss and seminars in order to construct communicating with other communities. In add-on, Western academe deficiencies knowledge on the place of Islamic centres and bookmans on some of the modern-day issues, including subjects of handiness and adjustment for the vulnerable groups of society.
Based on this survey, the current patterns of the GTA Mosques vary from the traditional Mosques, which I find of import to turn to to better understand the operation of Mosques. The chief participants and attendants of GTA Mosques are Muslims and the plans and events target the Muslim population. None of the studied Mosques offer any survey circles or seminars for non-Muslims sing Muslim instruction on a day-to-day footing. Mosques in non-Islamic province are to be more accessible to non-Muslims to pattern one of the chief intents of the Mosque in non-Islamic province.
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