Cell Structure Flashcards, test questions and answers
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What is Cell Structure?
Cell structure is the basic framework of a living cell, which contains various organelles and other components that give the cell its distinctive form and function. It is also referred to as a cellular architecture or cell architecture. All cells are made up of two main parts, the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The nucleus contains genetic material (DNA), while the cytoplasm contains a variety of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, minerals, and other organic molecules that carry out metabolic activities within the cell.The most important components in cellular structure are membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), lysosomes, peroxisomes and vacuoles. Each organelle has its own unique purpose and function within the cell. Mitochondria provide energy for cellular processes through aerobic respiration; Golgi apparatus packages proteins for secretion outside of the cell; ER synthesizes lipids; lysosomes break down macromolecules like proteins into smaller molecules; peroxisomes detoxify substances; and vacuoles store waste materials or serve as storage spaces inside a plant or animal cells. The internal organization of cells is usually determined by their specialized functions in an organism’s body. Cells may contain structures such as cilia (hair-like appendages) to help them move around in their environment; contractile filaments to enable muscle contraction; chloroplasts that allow photosynthesis in plants; or flagella used by some bacteria for locomotion. In addition to these specialized structures there may be one or more layers of protein filaments known as microfilaments forming part of the cytoskeleton which helps maintain shape and stability in some kinds of cells including muscle cells.