RJ 1st Semester Biology Study Guide

Flashcard maker : Clarence Louder
Animal cells maintain their shape by…
cytoskeleton
What is true about all living cells?
they grow and divide to make more cells
Tay-Sachs disease is a disorder in which lipids are not properly digested. Which of these organelles is not functioning properly in people with Tay-Sachs?
lysosomes
What are the main components of the cell theory?
– cells can only come from other cells
– all living things are made of cells
– cells are the basic unit of life
Researchers have discovered a toxin that stops the cell form producing energy. Cells exposed to this toxin cannot carry out many of their normal cellular processes. Which of these cell organelles are most directly affected by this toxin?
mitochondria
Consider the following organelles: Nucleus, ribosome, Er. Which description best explains the relationship among these cell structures in making a protein?
DNA in nucleus codes for protein –> protein is assembled in ribosomes and moves to the ER –> protein folds into its active shape
If you observe cell under a microscope that has mitochondria and Golgi bodies then you know that…
it MUST be a eukaryote
What applies to a human cheek cell?
animal and eukaryote
What is an example of bacteria?
prokaryote
What is true about prokaryotes?
they have ribosomes, they are usually single celled, they have DNA
What is a prokaryote?
a bacteria
What is a eukaryote?
human or plant cell
What is the function of vesicles?
to transport water salt, and molecules to the cell membrane
To view cells under the high power of a compound microscope, a student places a slide of the cells on the stage and moves the stage clips over to secure the slide. She then moves the high power objective into place and focusses on the slide with the coarse adjustment. Two steps in this procedure are incorrect. For this procedure to be correct, she should have focused under…
low power using coarse and fine adjustments and then under high power using only the fine adjustment
Which objective out of 5x and 10x, 5x and 20x, 10x and 40x, and 10x and 50x would the greatest number of onion cells be seen under the microscope?
5x and 10x
A microscope is supplied with 10x and 15x eyepieces, and with 10x and 44x objectives. What is the maximum magnification that can be obtained from this microscope?
660x

44 x 15 = 220 + 440 = 660

Compare and contrast prokaryote and eukaryote cells? Be sure to give examples.
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have many differences and similarities. For example, prokaryotic cells are bacteria, while eukaryotic cells are humans and animals. Prokaryotic cells also have a nucleus, while eukaryotic cells do not. A similarity between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells is what organelles they have. both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have ribosomes, DNA, cytoplasm and a cell membrane
What is true about about photosynthesis and respiration?
the reactants of one are the products of the other
Photosynthesis is to chloroplast as cellular respiration is to…
mitochondria
What would happen to a plant if it was kept in the dark constantly?
it would die because plants needs sunlight to produce their food
If carbon dioxide is removed from a plant’s environment, what would you expect to happen to the plant’s production of high energy sugars?
fewer sugars will be produced
A student is collecting the gas given off from a plant in bright sunlight at a temperature of 27 degree Celsius (room temperature). The gas being collected is probably…
oxygen
The leaves of a plant appear green because chlorophyll…
reflects green light
Cellular respiration releases energy by breaking down…
food molecules
The two main types of fermentation are…
alcoholic and lactic acid
Two species of bacteria produce different respiratory products. species A always produces ATP, C02 and H2). Species B always produces ATP, ethyl alcohol, and CO2. Which conclusion can be drawn from this information?
only species A and aerobic
How does the amount of energy produced by aerobic respiration compare to the amount of energy produced by anaerobic respiration (fermentation)?
it is much greater
Unlike photosynthesis, cellular respiration occurs in…
all living cells
Plants gather the sun’s energy with light absorbing molecules called…
pigments
The main function of Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle is to provide…
ATP
Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in cellular respiration?
Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, electron transport
In terms of ATP production, which process results in the most stored energy?
aerobic respiration
Which of these would lead to a lower rate of photosynthesis in a plant?
a decrease in the amount of carbon dioxide in the air
Two test tubes were filled with a solution of bromthymol blue indicator (BTB). A student exhaled through a straw into each tube, and the BTB turned yellow. An aquatic green plant was placed into each tube, and the tubes were corked. One tube was placed in the dark, and one was placed in the light. The yellow solution in the sunlight turned blue, while the one in the dark remained yellow. Remember that BTB is an indicator that turns yellow in the presence of acid, and carbon dioxide dissolves in water to make a weak acid. Which statement best explains why the solution in the tube placed in the sunlight turned a blue color?
oxygen was produced by photosynthesis
Euglenas are single celled organisms that live in ponds. All euglenas have chloroplasts and can make their own food. They can also take in food from the environment. Euglenas can be classified as…
autotrophs and heterotrophs
What are the four major groups of macromolecules found in living organisms?
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
What does chloroplasts produce?
glucose and oxygen (C6 H12 O6)
Compare the ATP available to cells when oxygen is present verses when it is absent? How might this hep explain why brain and heart function are so quickly affected when a person cannot breathe?
The ATP available to cells when oxygen is present is much more than when it is absent. The ATP available when oxygen is present is about 36-38, while when it is absent it is about 2, Without a high amount of ATP you cannot breath will, which is a reason why brain and heart functions become quickly affected. ATP is a chemical that affects organelles, so without a high amount of it (no oxygen), it can cause problems to your heart and brain.
About 25 of the 92 natural elements are known to be essential to life. Which four of these 25 elements make up approximately 96% of living matter?
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen
What does mitochondria produce?
ATP
Enzymes are…
proteins
True or False: Protons are shared or transferred in a bond.
False
True or False: An ion is formed if an electron is lost or gained.
True
True or False: Synthesis reactions make things in your body.
True
The orbits surrounding the nucleus of an atom contain…
electrons
The element found in al organic compounds is…
carbon
Which of the following organic compound’s function is to build muscle?
proteins
The monomer for a carbohydrate is…
a monosaccharide
Why would it be impossible to live without nucleic acid?
you would have no genetic information
Lactase is an enzyme that breaks down…
lactose
Which is an example of on organic substance?
C6h1206 (glucose and)
Which term best describes a solution with a pH of 5?
acidic
Which types of compounds are NOT classified as carbohydrates?
lipids
There are many different enzymes located in the cytoplasm of a single cell. how is a specific enzyme able to catalyze a reaction?
an enzyme binds with a specific substrate (reactant) for the reaction catalyzed
Some snake venoms are harmful because they contain enzymes that destroy blood cells or damage tissues. The damage caused by the snake bit could best be slowed by…
applying ice to the bite area
Many aquatic birds secrete waxy organic substances that repel water. The birds use these substances to coat their feathers. An analysis of these substances would reveal that they are composed mostly of…
lipids
If scientists search other planets for possible life, they are likely to focus on the presence of molecules containing which of the following elements?
carbon
Bears eat all summer to store energy for their winter hibernation. Which of these are their main energy source?
lipids NOT protein
Which of the following categories of organic molecules is correctly paired with one of its functions?
proteins – provide structure in the skin, hair, and nails
Which of the following best describes an atom?
a core of protons and neutrons surrounded by neutrons
Atoms can be considered the basic building blocks of matter. Different bonds are formed. What kind of bond is water?
covalent and polar
What is a characteristic of an enzyme?
it regulates the rate of a specific chemical reaction
Hydrolysis
Water molecules that are polar stick to each other. This is know was…
surface tension
You can float a paper clip on top of water if you very carefully place it flat on the water surface because of the molecular skin created by the interaction of air molecules with the top layer of water molecules on the surface. True or False
False
Water’s unique properties make it an incredibly versatile tool. What properties of water make it so special? Please provide at least two unique properties of water and an example of how each are demonstrated in the natural world.
One unique property of water is adhesion. An example of adhesion is when you draw a dot on a paper towel and place it in water. What will happen is the water will take the color of the dot and pull it up the paper towel. Another unique property of water is its surface tension. Surface tension allows certain things to stay above water. An example of this is when something like a hallowed out log if floating on a river.
Humans can develop a condition known as acidosis a variety of health problems, including kidney damage or impaired respiratory lung function. The pH of human blood is usually 7.4, but patients with acidosis exhibit a blood pH of 7.2. Although this drop in pH from 7.4 to 7.2 may seem small, when the math is worked out, it represents a 60% increase in the hydrogen ion concentration in the blood stream. To combat this, your body has a buffering system known as the bicarbonate system. Describe how this buffer probably works. What is the point of a buffer? how does this contribute to your body’s desire for homeostasis (stable internal environment)?
This buffer probably works by finding ad attaching to a substrate in bicarbonate system. Next the substrate will attach to the active site. Energy is then used. The point of this buffer is to control the pH level in your body so it does not change the hydrogen ion concentration in your blood stream. This contributes to the body’s desire for homeostasis because maintain its stable internal environment. If it is not maintained then it means everything is thrown off, such as the pH. If things are thrown off then health problems such as the one above happen
Which process will most likely lead to the scientific acceptance of a hypothesis?
duplicating the results of an expirament
While Anna was testing a circuit, she dropped a light bulb. What is the safest thing Anna can do?
tell her teacher that she broke the bulb
A scientific explanation should include a demonstration if the relationships between…
logic, evidence, and current knowledge
The position of galaxies in the universe was once hypothesized to be constant, but evidence gathered by Edwin Hubble indicated that many galaxies are actually racing away from Earth at high speeds. Which statement is best supported by this discovery?
Science is a body of knowledge that is subject to change based on data
In science we make predictions and test those predictions. Which of the following names this step?
hypothesis
Dependent variable
Independent variable

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