Ap Human Geography Unit 2 Test Questions – Flashcards

question
What are the 4 regions that 2/3 of the world's inhabitants are clustered?
answer
East Asia (eastern China, Japan, Taiwan), South Asia (India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh), Southeast Asia (Indonesia), Europe
question
What is the site of these clusters like?
answer
low-lying, fertile soil, temperate climate, near an ocean or river with easy access to an ocean
question
What is a cartogram?
answer
map that just shows population
question
What types of physical environments to humans avoid?
answer
dry lands, wet lands, cold lands, high lands
question
What is ecumene?
answer
places of permanent human settlement
question
What is arithmetic density? How do you compute this number?
answer
total number of objects in an area; divide the population by the land area
question
What is physiological density? How do you compute this number?
answer
number of people supported by a unit area of arable land; divide the population by the arable land area
question
What occurs the higher the rate of physiological density?
answer
the greater the pressure that people may place on the land to produce enough food
question
What is agricultural density? How do you compute this number?
answer
ratio of the number of farmers to amount of arable land; divide the population of farmers by the arable land area
question
What does arable mean?
answer
land that can be farmed
question
How do geographers understand the relationship between population and resources in a country?
answer
examine a country's physiological an agricultural densities together
question
Why have places considered too harsh for occupancy diminished over time?
answer
people don't want to live in those places, irrigation, transportation, technology, communication
question
What are the 3 ways that geographers measure population change in a country or the world?
answer
crude birth rate, crude death rate, natural increase rate
question
How do you find natural increase rate?
answer
crude birth rate - crude death rate = natural increase rate
question
About how many people are added to the world's population annually?
answer
82 million
question
What does the rate of natural increase affect?
answer
doubling time
question
What is the total fertility rate for the world?
answer
2.5
question
Why is the infant mortality rate higher in less developed countries?
answer
they do not have the technology to give healthy births, they do not have sanitary places for women to give birth, they do not have any way to help women if they have complications, they do not have healthcare and cannot get help if they are sick
question
What is the difference between developed and developing countries?
answer
developed- higher population of older people, population decreasing; developing- higher population of younger people, population increasing
question
How is a population pyramid set up?
answer
x-axis- male percentage on left side of zero, female percentage on right side of zero; y-axis- age typically grouped in 5-year intervals, youngest displayed at bottom and oldest at top
question
What does a larger dependency ratio imply?
answer
greater financial burden on the working class
question
Why do developed countries have more females?
answer
females tend to live 7 years longer than males
question
Has a country ever reverted back to a previous stage in demographic transition?
answer
no
question
What are the 4 stages of demographic transition?
answer
1- low growth, 2- high growth, 3- moderate growth, 4- low growth
question
Describe stage 1 of demographic transition.
answer
marked by very high birth and death rates, no long-term natural increase, no country presently in stage 1
question
Describe stage 2 of demographic transition.
answer
marked by rapidly declining death rates and very high birth rates, high natural increase, Europe and North America entered stage 2 as a result of the Industrial Revolution, Africa, Asia, and Latin America entered stage 2 around 1950 as a result of medical revoltion
question
Describe stage 3 of demographic transition.
answer
marked by rapid decline in birth rates and steady decline in death rates, natural increase is moderate- gap between CBR and CDR is narrower in stage 3 countries than stage 2 countries, population grows because CBR is still greater than CDR, most European countries and North America transitioned to stage 3, during 1st half on the 20th century
question
Describe stage 4 of demographic transition.
answer
marked by very low birth and death rates- no long-term natural increase and possibly a decrease, country reaches stage 4 when population gains by CBR are diminished by losses because of CDR- condition known as zero population growth (ZPG)- demographers more precisely define ZPG as the TFR that produces no population change, population change results from immigration
question
What are 2 approaches to reducing birth rates?
answer
improving education and health care, contraception
question
What stage of demographic transition is the US in?
answer
between stages 4 and 5 because our population is starting to decrease
question
What event happened in England when it was in stage 1?
answer
Normans invaded England, Black Death
question
What event happened in England when it was in stage 2?
answer
start of Industrial Revolution
question
What is a cultural attitude in England when it was in stage 4?
answer
more people are having kids
question
The shape of a population pyramid is primarily determined by what demographic rate?
answer
crude birth rate
question
What age groups are categorized as "dependent"?
answer
0-14, 65+
question
What does the "graying" of a population refer to?
answer
older people needing income and medical care after they retire
question
What types of countries/regions are likely to have more males than females? Why?
answer
stage 2 because more males are being born
question
Name a country in stage 2, where it is, and describe how it got to that stage.
answer
Cape Verde, ten small islands in Atlantic Ocean off coast of West Africa, CDR dropped and CBR remained high
question
Name a country in stage 3, where it is, and describe how it got to that stage.
answer
Chile, Latin America, vigorous government family-planning policy
question
Name a country in stage 4, where it is, and describe how it got to that stage.
answer
Denmark, Europe, CBR dropped and CDR increased
question
How is the population split over the different stages?
answer
none are stage 1, overwhelming majority are stage 2 and 3, few are stage 4
question
What are the two "big breaks" in the demographic transition and their causes?
answer
sudden drop in the death rate that comes from technological innovation, sudden drop in the birth rate that comes from changing social customs
question
The first break came to Europe and North America as a result of...
answer
conjunction with the Industrial Revolution
question
The first break came to Africa, Asia, and Latin America as a result of...
answer
less internal effort by local citizens
question
What was Malthus's claim on overpopulation?
answer
the population was growing faster than the increase in food supply
question
What did Malthus's critics say about his beliefs?
answer
too pessimistic- his theory is based on idea that worlds supply of resources is fixed rather than expanding, many disagree that population increase is not a problem- larger populations could stimulate economic growth and therefore production of more food
question
What was Malthus's theory?
answer
every 25 years, population would double, but food supply would not
question
What was the relationship between Malthus's theory and reality?
answer
food production has increased over last 50 years faster than Malthus predicted, his model predicted world population to quadruple over the course of 50 years- not even in India has population growth outpaced food production
question
What is stage 5 of demographic transition?
answer
decline of population
question
Describe possible stage 5 of demographic transition.
answer
very low CBR, increasing CDR- more elderly people than young people, negative NIR, overtime, few young women in child-bearing years- contributing to ever falling CBR, several European countries already have negative NIR
question
What stage is Russia and what is it most notable for?
answer
stage 5, hosting a negative NIR for 50 years
question
What caused the burst of population growth around 8000 BC?
answer
agricultural revolution
question
Why did the human population remain in stage 1 despite the agricultural revolution?
answer
food supplies are still unpredictable, population expanded in regions with abundant harvests, when unfavorable climatic conditions resulted in low food production, CDR would soar, war and disease also took their toll
question
When and how did countries enter stage 2?
answer
after 1750 as a result of the Industrial Revolution
question
Why does the CDR and CBR decline in stage 3?
answer
CDR- introduction of new technology into the society, CBR- changes in social customs
question
Why do people decide to have less children in stage 3?
answer
delayed reaction to a decline in mortality, especially infant mortality, economic changes because many people had jobs and lived in cities, changes in lifestyle
question
How is a population pyramid generally set up?
answer
shows percentage of total population in 5-year age groups, youngest group (0-4) on the bottom, oldest on the top, length of bar represents the total percentage of people in that group, males on left, females on right
question
If most countries in Europe and North America have reached or are approaching stage 4 of the demographic transition, why aren't countries elsewhere in the world?
answer
fundamental problems prevent other countries from replicating the experience in Europe and North America
question
What did Thomas Malthus believe?
answer
world's population is going to outrun food supply, population is growing faster than the food supply, population growth would press against available resources
question
What do Neo-Malthusians believe?
answer
Malthus failed to anticipate that poor countries would have the most rapid population growth because of transfer of medical technology, world's population growth is outstripping a wide variety of resources, not just food production
question
What do critics of Malthus believe?
answer
Malthus' beliefs are pessimistic because they are based on a belief that the world's supply of resources is fixed rather than expanding, larger population growth would stimulate economic growth, therefore, more production of food
question
Where was Malthus right?
answer
many people in the world cannot afford to buy food or do not have access to food sources
question
In what way was Malthus mistaken?
answer
food production increased faster than he predicted, population did not grow as fast as he thought
question
What two strategies have proven successful to lower birth rates?
answer
improving education and health care, contraception
question
What are important facts regarding the distribution on contraceptives?
answer
more immediate results reaped than previous approach, met with greater resistance because it goes against cultural or religious beliefs of some (Roman Catholics, Muslims, Hindus)
question
What are important facts about the epidemiologic transition in stages 1 and 2?
answer
Black Plague- transmitted by fleas from rats, pandemics, cholera- epidemic, infectious and parasitic diseases, accidents and attacks by animals and other humans
question
What are important facts about the epidemiologic transition in stages 3 and 4?
answer
decrease of infectious diseases and increase in chronic disorders associated with aging-cardiovascular disease, heart attacks, and various forms of cancer, advances in technology extended life expectancy , through medicine, cancer spreads more slowly, operations fix cardiovascular problems
question
What are important facts about the epidemiologic transition in possible stage 5?
answer
old and new infectious and parasitic diseases, evolution-antibiotics and genetic engineering contribute to emergence of new strains of viruses and bacteria, poverty-tuberculosis, improved travel-cars and airplanes spread disease between different places
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question
What are the 4 regions that 2/3 of the world's inhabitants are clustered?
answer
East Asia (eastern China, Japan, Taiwan), South Asia (India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh), Southeast Asia (Indonesia), Europe
question
What is the site of these clusters like?
answer
low-lying, fertile soil, temperate climate, near an ocean or river with easy access to an ocean
question
What is a cartogram?
answer
map that just shows population
question
What types of physical environments to humans avoid?
answer
dry lands, wet lands, cold lands, high lands
question
What is ecumene?
answer
places of permanent human settlement
question
What is arithmetic density? How do you compute this number?
answer
total number of objects in an area; divide the population by the land area
question
What is physiological density? How do you compute this number?
answer
number of people supported by a unit area of arable land; divide the population by the arable land area
question
What occurs the higher the rate of physiological density?
answer
the greater the pressure that people may place on the land to produce enough food
question
What is agricultural density? How do you compute this number?
answer
ratio of the number of farmers to amount of arable land; divide the population of farmers by the arable land area
question
What does arable mean?
answer
land that can be farmed
question
How do geographers understand the relationship between population and resources in a country?
answer
examine a country's physiological an agricultural densities together
question
Why have places considered too harsh for occupancy diminished over time?
answer
people don't want to live in those places, irrigation, transportation, technology, communication
question
What are the 3 ways that geographers measure population change in a country or the world?
answer
crude birth rate, crude death rate, natural increase rate
question
How do you find natural increase rate?
answer
crude birth rate - crude death rate = natural increase rate
question
About how many people are added to the world's population annually?
answer
82 million
question
What does the rate of natural increase affect?
answer
doubling time
question
What is the total fertility rate for the world?
answer
2.5
question
Why is the infant mortality rate higher in less developed countries?
answer
they do not have the technology to give healthy births, they do not have sanitary places for women to give birth, they do not have any way to help women if they have complications, they do not have healthcare and cannot get help if they are sick
question
What is the difference between developed and developing countries?
answer
developed- higher population of older people, population decreasing; developing- higher population of younger people, population increasing
question
How is a population pyramid set up?
answer
x-axis- male percentage on left side of zero, female percentage on right side of zero; y-axis- age typically grouped in 5-year intervals, youngest displayed at bottom and oldest at top
question
What does a larger dependency ratio imply?
answer
greater financial burden on the working class
question
Why do developed countries have more females?
answer
females tend to live 7 years longer than males
question
Has a country ever reverted back to a previous stage in demographic transition?
answer
no
question
What are the 4 stages of demographic transition?
answer
1- low growth, 2- high growth, 3- moderate growth, 4- low growth
question
Describe stage 1 of demographic transition.
answer
marked by very high birth and death rates, no long-term natural increase, no country presently in stage 1
question
Describe stage 2 of demographic transition.
answer
marked by rapidly declining death rates and very high birth rates, high natural increase, Europe and North America entered stage 2 as a result of the Industrial Revolution, Africa, Asia, and Latin America entered stage 2 around 1950 as a result of medical revoltion
question
Describe stage 3 of demographic transition.
answer
marked by rapid decline in birth rates and steady decline in death rates, natural increase is moderate- gap between CBR and CDR is narrower in stage 3 countries than stage 2 countries, population grows because CBR is still greater than CDR, most European countries and North America transitioned to stage 3, during 1st half on the 20th century
question
Describe stage 4 of demographic transition.
answer
marked by very low birth and death rates- no long-term natural increase and possibly a decrease, country reaches stage 4 when population gains by CBR are diminished by losses because of CDR- condition known as zero population growth (ZPG)- demographers more precisely define ZPG as the TFR that produces no population change, population change results from immigration
question
What are 2 approaches to reducing birth rates?
answer
improving education and health care, contraception
question
What stage of demographic transition is the US in?
answer
between stages 4 and 5 because our population is starting to decrease
question
What event happened in England when it was in stage 1?
answer
Normans invaded England, Black Death
question
What event happened in England when it was in stage 2?
answer
start of Industrial Revolution
question
What is a cultural attitude in England when it was in stage 4?
answer
more people are having kids
question
The shape of a population pyramid is primarily determined by what demographic rate?
answer
crude birth rate
question
What age groups are categorized as "dependent"?
answer
0-14, 65+
question
What does the "graying" of a population refer to?
answer
older people needing income and medical care after they retire
question
What types of countries/regions are likely to have more males than females? Why?
answer
stage 2 because more males are being born
question
Name a country in stage 2, where it is, and describe how it got to that stage.
answer
Cape Verde, ten small islands in Atlantic Ocean off coast of West Africa, CDR dropped and CBR remained high
question
Name a country in stage 3, where it is, and describe how it got to that stage.
answer
Chile, Latin America, vigorous government family-planning policy
question
Name a country in stage 4, where it is, and describe how it got to that stage.
answer
Denmark, Europe, CBR dropped and CDR increased
question
How is the population split over the different stages?
answer
none are stage 1, overwhelming majority are stage 2 and 3, few are stage 4
question
What are the two "big breaks" in the demographic transition and their causes?
answer
sudden drop in the death rate that comes from technological innovation, sudden drop in the birth rate that comes from changing social customs
question
The first break came to Europe and North America as a result of...
answer
conjunction with the Industrial Revolution
question
The first break came to Africa, Asia, and Latin America as a result of...
answer
less internal effort by local citizens
question
What was Malthus's claim on overpopulation?
answer
the population was growing faster than the increase in food supply
question
What did Malthus's critics say about his beliefs?
answer
too pessimistic- his theory is based on idea that worlds supply of resources is fixed rather than expanding, many disagree that population increase is not a problem- larger populations could stimulate economic growth and therefore production of more food
question
What was Malthus's theory?
answer
every 25 years, population would double, but food supply would not
question
What was the relationship between Malthus's theory and reality?
answer
food production has increased over last 50 years faster than Malthus predicted, his model predicted world population to quadruple over the course of 50 years- not even in India has population growth outpaced food production
question
What is stage 5 of demographic transition?
answer
decline of population
question
Describe possible stage 5 of demographic transition.
answer
very low CBR, increasing CDR- more elderly people than young people, negative NIR, overtime, few young women in child-bearing years- contributing to ever falling CBR, several European countries already have negative NIR
question
What stage is Russia and what is it most notable for?
answer
stage 5, hosting a negative NIR for 50 years
question
What caused the burst of population growth around 8000 BC?
answer
agricultural revolution
question
Why did the human population remain in stage 1 despite the agricultural revolution?
answer
food supplies are still unpredictable, population expanded in regions with abundant harvests, when unfavorable climatic conditions resulted in low food production, CDR would soar, war and disease also took their toll
question
When and how did countries enter stage 2?
answer
after 1750 as a result of the Industrial Revolution
question
Why does the CDR and CBR decline in stage 3?
answer
CDR- introduction of new technology into the society, CBR- changes in social customs
question
Why do people decide to have less children in stage 3?
answer
delayed reaction to a decline in mortality, especially infant mortality, economic changes because many people had jobs and lived in cities, changes in lifestyle
question
How is a population pyramid generally set up?
answer
shows percentage of total population in 5-year age groups, youngest group (0-4) on the bottom, oldest on the top, length of bar represents the total percentage of people in that group, males on left, females on right
question
If most countries in Europe and North America have reached or are approaching stage 4 of the demographic transition, why aren't countries elsewhere in the world?
answer
fundamental problems prevent other countries from replicating the experience in Europe and North America
question
What did Thomas Malthus believe?
answer
world's population is going to outrun food supply, population is growing faster than the food supply, population growth would press against available resources
question
What do Neo-Malthusians believe?
answer
Malthus failed to anticipate that poor countries would have the most rapid population growth because of transfer of medical technology, world's population growth is outstripping a wide variety of resources, not just food production
question
What do critics of Malthus believe?
answer
Malthus' beliefs are pessimistic because they are based on a belief that the world's supply of resources is fixed rather than expanding, larger population growth would stimulate economic growth, therefore, more production of food
question
Where was Malthus right?
answer
many people in the world cannot afford to buy food or do not have access to food sources
question
In what way was Malthus mistaken?
answer
food production increased faster than he predicted, population did not grow as fast as he thought
question
What two strategies have proven successful to lower birth rates?
answer
improving education and health care, contraception
question
What are important facts regarding the distribution on contraceptives?
answer
more immediate results reaped than previous approach, met with greater resistance because it goes against cultural or religious beliefs of some (Roman Catholics, Muslims, Hindus)
question
What are important facts about the epidemiologic transition in stages 1 and 2?
answer
Black Plague- transmitted by fleas from rats, pandemics, cholera- epidemic, infectious and parasitic diseases, accidents and attacks by animals and other humans
question
What are important facts about the epidemiologic transition in stages 3 and 4?
answer
decrease of infectious diseases and increase in chronic disorders associated with aging-cardiovascular disease, heart attacks, and various forms of cancer, advances in technology extended life expectancy , through medicine, cancer spreads more slowly, operations fix cardiovascular problems
question
What are important facts about the epidemiologic transition in possible stage 5?
answer
old and new infectious and parasitic diseases, evolution-antibiotics and genetic engineering contribute to emergence of new strains of viruses and bacteria, poverty-tuberculosis, improved travel-cars and airplanes spread disease between different places
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