Ap Human Geography Unit 2 Test Questions
What are the 4 regions that 2/3 of the world’s inhabitants are clustered?
East Asia (eastern China, Japan, Taiwan), South Asia (India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh), Southeast Asia (Indonesia), Europe
What is the site of these clusters like?
low-lying, fertile soil, temperate climate, near an ocean or river with easy access to an ocean
What is a cartogram?
map that just shows population
What types of physical environments to humans avoid?
dry lands, wet lands, cold lands, high lands
What is ecumene?
places of permanent human settlement
What is arithmetic density? How do you compute this number?
total number of objects in an area; divide the population by the land area
What is physiological density? How do you compute this number?
number of people supported by a unit area of arable land; divide the population by the arable land area
What occurs the higher the rate of physiological density?
the greater the pressure that people may place on the land to produce enough food
What is agricultural density? How do you compute this number?
ratio of the number of farmers to amount of arable land; divide the population of farmers by the arable land area
What does arable mean?
land that can be farmed
How do geographers understand the relationship between population and resources in a country?
examine a country’s physiological an agricultural densities together
Why have places considered too harsh for occupancy diminished over time?
people don’t want to live in those places, irrigation, transportation, technology, communication
What are the 3 ways that geographers measure population change in a country or the world?
crude birth rate, crude death rate, natural increase rate
How do you find natural increase rate?
crude birth rate – crude death rate = natural increase rate
About how many people are added to the world’s population annually?
What does the rate of natural increase affect?
What is the total fertility rate for the world?
Why is the infant mortality rate higher in less developed countries?
they do not have the technology to give healthy births, they do not have sanitary places for women to give birth, they do not have any way to help women if they have complications, they do not have healthcare and cannot get help if they are sick
What is the difference between developed and developing countries?
developed- higher population of older people, population decreasing; developing- higher population of younger people, population increasing
How is a population pyramid set up?
x-axis- male percentage on left side of zero, female percentage on right side of zero; y-axis- age typically grouped in 5-year intervals, youngest displayed at bottom and oldest at top
What does a larger dependency ratio imply?
greater financial burden on the working class
Why do developed countries have more females?
females tend to live 7 years longer than males
Has a country ever reverted back to a previous stage in demographic transition?
What are the 4 stages of demographic transition?
1- low growth, 2- high growth, 3- moderate growth, 4- low growth
Describe stage 1 of demographic transition.
marked by very high birth and death rates, no long-term natural increase, no country presently in stage 1
Describe stage 2 of demographic transition.
marked by rapidly declining death rates and very high birth rates, high natural increase, Europe and North America entered stage 2 as a result of the Industrial Revolution, Africa, Asia, and Latin America entered stage 2 around 1950 as a result of medical revoltion
Describe stage 3 of demographic transition.
marked by rapid decline in birth rates and steady decline in death rates, natural increase is moderate- gap between CBR and CDR is narrower in stage 3 countries than stage 2 countries, population grows because CBR is still greater than CDR, most European countries and North America transitioned to stage 3, during 1st half on the 20th century
Describe stage 4 of demographic transition.
marked by very low birth and death rates- no long-term natural increase and possibly a decrease, country reaches stage 4 when population gains by CBR are diminished by losses because of CDR- condition known as zero population growth (ZPG)- demographers more precisely define ZPG as the TFR that produces no population change, population change results from immigration
What are 2 approaches to reducing birth rates?
improving education and health care, contraception
What stage of demographic transition is the US in?
between stages 4 and 5 because our population is starting to decrease
What event happened in England when it was in stage 1?
Normans invaded England, Black Death
What event happened in England when it was in stage 2?
start of Industrial Revolution
What is a cultural attitude in England when it was in stage 4?
more people are having kids
The shape of a population pyramid is primarily determined by what demographic rate?
crude birth rate
What age groups are categorized as “dependent”?
What does the “graying” of a population refer to?
older people needing income and medical care after they retire
What types of countries/regions are likely to have more males than females? Why?
stage 2 because more males are being born
Name a country in stage 2, where it is, and describe how it got to that stage.
Cape Verde, ten small islands in Atlantic Ocean off coast of West Africa, CDR dropped and CBR remained high
Name a country in stage 3, where it is, and describe how it got to that stage.
Chile, Latin America, vigorous government family-planning policy
Name a country in stage 4, where it is, and describe how it got to that stage.
Denmark, Europe, CBR dropped and CDR increased
How is the population split over the different stages?
none are stage 1, overwhelming majority are stage 2 and 3, few are stage 4
What are the two “big breaks” in the demographic transition and their causes?
sudden drop in the death rate that comes from technological innovation, sudden drop in the birth rate that comes from changing social customs
The first break came to Europe and North America as a result of…
conjunction with the Industrial Revolution
The first break came to Africa, Asia, and Latin America as a result of…
less internal effort by local citizens
What was Malthus’s claim on overpopulation?
the population was growing faster than the increase in food supply
What did Malthus’s critics say about his beliefs?
too pessimistic- his theory is based on idea that worlds supply of resources is fixed rather than expanding, many disagree that population increase is not a problem- larger populations could stimulate economic growth and therefore production of more food
What was Malthus’s theory?
every 25 years, population would double, but food supply would not
What was the relationship between Malthus’s theory and reality?
food production has increased over last 50 years faster than Malthus predicted, his model predicted world population to quadruple over the course of 50 years- not even in India has population growth outpaced food production
What is stage 5 of demographic transition?
decline of population
Describe possible stage 5 of demographic transition.
very low CBR, increasing CDR- more elderly people than young people, negative NIR, overtime, few young women in child-bearing years- contributing to ever falling CBR, several European countries already have negative NIR
What stage is Russia and what is it most notable for?
stage 5, hosting a negative NIR for 50 years
What caused the burst of population growth around 8000 BC?
Why did the human population remain in stage 1 despite the agricultural revolution?
food supplies are still unpredictable, population expanded in regions with abundant harvests, when unfavorable climatic conditions resulted in low food production, CDR would soar, war and disease also took their toll
When and how did countries enter stage 2?
after 1750 as a result of the Industrial Revolution
Why does the CDR and CBR decline in stage 3?
CDR- introduction of new technology into the society, CBR- changes in social customs
Why do people decide
to have less children in stage 3?
to have less children in stage 3?
delayed reaction to a decline in mortality, especially infant mortality, economic changes because many people had jobs and lived in cities, changes in lifestyle
How is a population pyramid generally set up?
shows percentage of total population in 5-year age groups, youngest group (0-4) on the bottom, oldest on the top, length of bar represents the total percentage of people in that group, males on left, females on right
If most countries in Europe and North America have reached or are approaching stage 4 of the demographic transition, why aren’t countries elsewhere in the world?
fundamental problems prevent other countries from replicating the experience in Europe and North America
What did Thomas Malthus believe?
world’s population is going to outrun food supply, population is growing faster than the food supply, population growth would press against available resources
What do Neo-Malthusians believe?
Malthus failed to anticipate that poor countries would have the most rapid population growth because of transfer of medical technology, world’s population growth is outstripping a wide variety of resources, not just food production
What do critics of Malthus believe?
Malthus’ beliefs are pessimistic because they are based on a belief that the world’s supply of resources is fixed rather than expanding, larger population growth would stimulate economic growth, therefore, more production of food
Where was Malthus right?
many people in the world cannot afford to buy food or do not have access to food sources
In what way was Malthus mistaken?
food production increased faster than he predicted, population did not grow as fast as he thought
What two strategies have proven successful to lower birth rates?
improving education and health care, contraception
What are important facts regarding the distribution on contraceptives?
more immediate results reaped than previous approach, met with greater resistance because it goes against cultural or religious beliefs of some (Roman Catholics, Muslims, Hindus)
What are important facts about the epidemiologic transition in stages 1 and 2?
Black Plague- transmitted by fleas from rats, pandemics, cholera- epidemic, infectious and parasitic diseases, accidents and attacks by animals and other humans
What are important facts about the epidemiologic transition in stages 3 and 4?
decrease of infectious diseases and increase in chronic disorders associated with aging-cardiovascular disease, heart attacks, and various forms of cancer, advances in technology extended life expectancy , through medicine, cancer spreads more slowly, operations fix cardiovascular problems
What are important facts about the epidemiologic transition in possible stage 5?
old and new infectious and parasitic diseases, evolution-antibiotics and genetic engineering contribute to emergence of new strains of viruses and bacteria, poverty-tuberculosis, improved travel-cars and airplanes spread disease between different places