Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT) – Flashcards

question
Clear Liquid Diet Purpose
answer
The diet is generally used as transition diet for patients requiring nourishment that is easily digested
question
Patients using Clear liquid diet
answer
Usually placed on this diet to either prepare them for surgery or as part of the transition back to a general diet following surgery. Although, there is very little scientific evidence supporting the use of clear liquid diets as transition after surgery
question
Clear liquid diet in different situations
answer
In gastrointestinal illness, including abdominal distention, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In preparing the bowel for surgery or a gastrointestinal procedure. To reintroduce foods following a period with no oral intake when poor tolerance, aspiration, or anastomotic leak is anticipated
question
Clear liquid diet Description
answer
The diet is comprised of foods that are liquid at room temperature and are transparent. Clear liquids such as tea, coffee, gelatin, ice water, popsicles, ice chips, stained fruit juice, nutritional supplements, meat and vegetable broth
question
Foods Omitted
answer
Milk and liquids containing milk, fruit juices containing pulp, and solid foods
question
Nutritional Adequacy: clear liquid diet
answer
A clear liquid diet is deficient in calories along with most nutrients and is not intended for long term use
question
Average clear liquid diet
answer
Calories: 500-600, Protein: 5-10g, Fat: minimal, Carbohydrate: 120-130g. A patient should only be placed on a clear liquid diet for about 3-5 days
question
Full liquid diet purpose
answer
Short term use as a transition step between the clear liquid diet and solid foods following gastrointestinal surgery
question
Full liquid diet description
answer
The full liquid diet included the foods allowed on the clear liquid diet with the addition of milk and small amounts of fiber
question
Additional foods during full liquid diet
answer
Juices with pulp, plain ice cream, frozen yogurt and sherbet, popsicles, gelatin, and nutritional supplements
question
Nutrition Adequacy: full liquid diet
answer
Adequate in energy, protein, fat, minerals, and vitamins. May be inadequate in fiber
question
Dysphagia Diets defined
answer
Defined as difficulty in swallowing. Is an impairment in one or all stages of swallowing, resulting in the reduced ability to obtain adequate nutrition by mouth and/or reduced safety during oral feeding
question
Dysphagia Diets without effective treatment
answer
Malnutrition, aspiration pneumonia, dehydration, unintended weight loss
question
Who Dysphagia Affects
answer
Can be a medical and feeding issue at any age; however, it is more likely seen in older individuals. May result from neurological disorders, degenerative diseases, cancers, or post intubation trauma
question
Nutrition Intervention
answer
Provide appropriate nutritional intake and fluids to maintain weight or produce weight gain if losses have occurred. Progress the meal plan to include a wider variety of foods as the patient's swallowing function improves. Provide foods that stimulate the swallow reflex. Support eating independence. Improve any nutrient deficits. Diet is comprised of food that is thick, soft, pureed, etc. and beverages that prevent chocking and aspiration
question
Liquids and their consistency
answer
A speech therapist can preform a swallow study to determine appropriate texture and liquid consistency. The 4 liquid consistency is as followed: thin, nectar-like, honey-like, spoon-thick/pudding thick
question
Levels of Dysphagia Diet
answer
Level 1: pureed foods, Level 2: Mechanically Altered Foods, Level 3: Advanced
question
Dysphagia level 1 purpose
answer
Provide foods that can be tolerated and safely swallowed
question
Dysphagia level 1
answer
Foods should be blended, whipped, and/or mashed until they reach a "pudding-like" texture. All foods should be smooth and free of lumps. Liquids should be thickened to pudding consistency or to recommended consistency per speech therapy speech or medical provider. Soups should be pureed and then strained to remove chunks or lumps. Then the soup should be thickened to recommend consistency using thickener, flour, or cornstarch
question
Cooking tips for Dysphagia
answer
Add small amounts of gravy, sauce, water, milk, vegetables or fruit juice to food items before you puree them. This will allow you to reach that pudding consistency faster but remember to add a small amount
question
Dysphagia Level 2 purpose
answer
Provide foods that can be tolerated and safely swallowed. Foods should be blended, chopped, grinding and or mashed until the food is easy to chew and swallow. All foods in large chunks or hard to chew or that are sticky should be avoided. Liquids should be thickened to pudding consistency or to recommended consistency per speech therapy speech or medical provider recommendations. Soups should be pureed and then strained to remove chunks or lumps. Then soup should be thickened to the recommended consistency using thickener, flour, or cornstarch
question
Dysphagia Level 2 Cooking tips
answer
Equipment that could be used to prepare a dysphagia level 2 is blender, food processor, food chopper, grinder, and/or potato masher. Add gravies or sauces to moisten foods and to add flavor. Cooked vegetables should be tender enough to be easily mashed with a fork
question
Dysphagia Level 3 Purpose
answer
Provide foods that are nearly regular textures and safely swallowed. Very hard, sticky, and crunchy foods should be avoided. Should be moist and bite size. Dysphagia level 3 is a transition to a regular diet
question
Blenderized Diet
answer
Has foods and liquids that have been thinned in a blender or food processor and strainer. These foods and liquids can be eaten using a cup, straw, syringe or spoon
question
Blenderized Diet uses
answer
Used for both chewing and swallowing difficulties
question
Foods and beverages on the blenderized diet
answer
All liquids can be used to blenderize or thin foods. The best liquids to use are those that add flavor and have added vitamins and minerals
question
Basic guidelines for the blenderized diet
answer
Cut foods into smaller pieces before placing them into the blender. After blenderizing, the foods should be strained to remove chunks of food, seeds or fibers. Blend equal amounts of solid and liquid foods together. Blending fruits or vegetables may require less liquids. The right thickness and temperature of blended foods may be different for each person on this diet. Try to use blenderized foods right away so they will not spoil. Possibly try a meal pattern that follows eating a small, frequent meal to prevent fatigue from eating large quantities at one time.
question
General recommendations fro the blenderized diet
answer
Breads, cereal, rice, pasta. Meat and meat substitutes. Desserts such as smoothies or pudding. Fats like melted butter or cream cheese. Other liquids such as tomato paste or smooth yogurt
question
Fiber restricted diet purpose
answer
To address acute gastrointestinal issues by reducing the frequency and volume of stools. This will lessen gastrointestinal tract irritation and helps it heal
question
Fiber restricted diet description
answer
Conditions that may require a low fiber nutrition therapy includes: Crohn's disease, Diverticulitis, Ulcerative colitis, and radiation therapy to the pelvis and lower bowel
question
Modification to the fiber restricted diet
answer
Limit fiber intake per day and to select foods low in fiber. Contains less than 13g of fiber/day. Well cooked vegetables and canned fruits. Legumes, beans, seeds, nuts, raw fruit/vegetables, whole grains, and other high fiber foods should be eliminated
question
Nutritional Adequacy for fiber restricted diet
answer
Adequate in all nutrients
question
Related Physiology
answer
Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease
question
Diverticulosis
answer
Diverticulosis is the presence of sac like pouches involving the mucosal layer of the colon due to excessive muscular contractions related to attempts to pass small and hard stools
question
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
answer
An autoimmune, chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. Ulcerative colitis - inflammatory disease affects the innermost lining of the large intestine and rectum. Symptoms include abdominal pain/cramping.
question
Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Medical Nutrition Therapy Physiology
answer
May not digest food and absorb foods consumed. May need more or some vitamin and minerals due to decreased absorption
question
Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Medical Nutrition Therapy Guidelines
answer
Eat small meals or snacks every 3-4 hours. When there are symptoms, stick to a fiber restricted diet. When diarrhea decreases start adding small amounts of whole grain foods and high fiber fruits and vegetables. Incorporate high fiber foods one at a time. Drink enough fluids to prevent dehydration. Take a multivitamin
question
Diverticulitis
answer
Occurs when the sac like pouches become inflamed or infected. Part of treatment includes nutrition therapy focused on fiber intake and probiotic/ prebiotic supplementation
question
Crohn's Disease
answer
May affect any portion of the gastrointestinal tract, from mouth to anus, but typically affects the ileum which is part of the small intestine. Recommend avoiding foods that aggravate bowl problems
question
High fiber diet purpose
answer
Aid in gastric motility reduce cholesterol and blood glucose levels. Fiber and fluid may help a person feel less bloated and prevent/alleviate constipation or diarrhea. The diet is used for the prevention and treatment of a variety of conditions including diverticular disease, Crohn's, irritable bowel syndrome, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, cancer, constipation and obesity
question
High fiber diet description
answer
Increases fiber slowly over the course of a few days to weeks. When fiber is first introduced into an individuals diet some individuals may experience bloating, cramping, or gas. In order to help combat these symptoms it is recommended to increase your intake of no or low calorie beverages. Slowly increase the amount of fiber to 25 to 38g per day
question
Soluble fiber
answer
Attracts water to form a gel like material which slow down digestion. Aids in lowering blood cholesterol and glucose levels
question
Insoluble fiber
answer
Promotes the movement of material through the digestive systems and increases stool bulk. Aids individuals with constipation and/or irregular bowel movements
question
Foods to include in the high fiber diet
answer
Whole grain breads and cereals. Look for choices with 100% whole grain, rye, oats, or bran as the first or second ingredient. Brown or wild rice. Variety of grains including barley, oats, faro, kamut, and guinoa.
question
Lactose intolerance diet
answer
A condition in which an individual is unable to fully digest lactose. This occurs due to the small intestine not producing enough lactase, an enzyme that breaks down lactose into glucose and galactose. Without the enzyme lactase, lactose wouldn't be broken down and absorbed
question
Nutrition Prescription for lactose intolerance
answer
Restrict or eliminate lactose containing foods or beverages. Diet modification varies due to individual tolerance. Most individuals with lactose intolerance can consume some lactose, about 12g or 1 cup. It is important to know the sources of lactose and individual tolerance levels to avoid symptoms for occurring. Lactose enzymes are available in drop or pill form. Individuals that completely eliminate dairy products may need to take calcium and vitamin d
question
Sources of lactose
answer
Mainly found in dairy food. May be present in other foods or medication as an ingredient. Hidden sources of lactose can be breads, some creamed vegetables, canned or packaged mixes, processed meats, mixed drinks and some dessert items
question
Fat restricticed diet purpose
answer
Utilized to relieve fat digestion or absorption issues associated with a disease process
question
Fat restricted diet description
answer
A fat restricted diet is often limited to 30-45g of fat per day but varies depending on the severity of the specific disease.
question
Pancreatitis
answer
The inflammation of the pancreas due to digestive enzymes being activated while inside the pancreas.
question
Pancreatitis causes
answer
Hyperteiglycerdemia (elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood), chronic alcohol abuse, gallstones, cystic fibrosis
question
Nutritional Deficiencies of pancreatitis
answer
Increased malabsorption risk of fat, which can lead to vitamin A, D, E and K deficiencies
question
Treatments for pancreatitis
answer
Initiate a low fat diet I'm order to minimize pancreas enzymes production. Pancreatic enzymes may be prescribed to ensure fat digestion and absorption. Eliminate alcohol
question
Celiac disease
answer
Small intestine inflammatory disorder that results from an autoimmune response to ingested gluten. This is a sensitivity to the protein Gluten found in wheat, barley, and rye. When these grains are consumed, they trigger an inflammatory response against the small intestine mucosa which ultimately flattens the villi and inhibit absorption of nutrients and water
question
Untreated Celiac disease
answer
The inflammatory response can cause scar tissue and render sections of the GI Tract / gut with minimal to no absorptive function. Ultimately a person with celiac disease can suffer long term consequences from malabsorption of nutrients
question
High calorie/ protein diet purpose and guidelines
answer
Recommended for individuals that have recently lost weight or have an increase calories and protein requirements. Used for patients under high physical and/or metabolic stresses
question
Benefits of consuming a high calorie/high protein diet
answer
More energy, weight gain or prevent weight loss, healing, increase resistance to infections, faster recover from surgery or illness
question
Dietary Guidelines for a high calorie/protein diet
answer
Eat smaller, more frequent meals rather than increasing the size of each meal. Eat on a time schedule. Never skip meals and always plan snacks between meals. Increase intake of foods highly concentrated in calories but which include high percentages of protein, vitamins and minerals
question
High protein foods
answer
Meat, milk, tofu, peanut butter, cheese, eggs, sirloin, tuna, pork tenderloin, nuts and seeds
question
High calorie foods
answer
Dried fruits, juices, sauces, butter, cream cheese, sour cream, mayo, and oils
question
Things to avoid on a high calorie/protein diet
answer
Light (lite) or diet foods and beverages that fill up the stomach but do not have calories or protein such as plain coffee, tea, and diet soda
question
Tips to eat more calories and protein
answer
Aim for at least 6 meals and snacks each day. Extra meals and snacks can help you get enough calories and protein. Nutritional supplement drinks to get more calories each day. Snacks such as milk shakes, smoothies, pudding, ice cream, or custard
question
Dietary Fat
answer
Fats provide a lot of calories in just a few bites. A tablespoon of oil, butter, or margarine has about 100 calories. Add butter, margarine, or oil to bread, potatoes, vegetables, and soups. Use mayonnaise, salad dressing, and peanut butter freely
question
High Calorie drinks
answer
Choose drinks such as whole milk, juice, or soft drinks made with sugar. Plain water, tea, and coffee have no calories and should be chosen less often
question
Calorie and protein boosters
answer
Milk: add powered milk to whole milk, sauces, and gravies. Cook oatmeal in milk instead of water. Use milk fortified with powered milk when making canned soups and puddings. Cheese: add to sauces, casseroles, pastas, vegetables. Meat: add to soups and casseroles. Eggs: Chopped hard boiled eggs can be added to salads. Snacks: ice cream, cheese, cheese, fruited yogurt. Desserts: top puddings, pies, fruits, gelatin
question
Sodium Restricted Diets purpose
answer
To limit the amount of sodium consumed by a sodium sensitive individual to prevent accumulation of fluid an/or promote loss of excess fluid from edema or ascites along with managing hypertension
question
Sodium restricted diet used in management with
answer
Essential hypertension, cardiovascular disease, severe cardiac failure, impaired liver function, renal disease, chronic renal failure
question
No added salt (NAS)
answer
Least restrictive of the sodium restrictions. Table salt should not be used and should be limited in cooking. High sodium foods should be limited. Provides about 4000mg of sodium daily
question
3000 mg Sodium
answer
Restricts foods and beverages that have been highly processed which include but not limited to fast foods, soy sauce, salty snack foods, canned/pickled foods, luncheon meats, smoked, salted, and kosher meats. Up to 1/4 teaspoon of salt can be used for cooking
question
2000 mg Sodium
answer
Eliminates processed and prepared foods and beverages that are high in sodium. Salt should not be used in cooking or at the table. Salt free prepared foods should only be used. Milk and milk products should be limited to 16 ounces per day
question
1000 mg Sodium
answer
Eliminates processed and prepared foods and beverages that are high in sodium. Milk and milk products should be limited to 16 ounces per day. Low sodium or sodium free versions of food items should be selected
question
General Guidelines of sodium
answer
Salt substitute should only be used when prescribed by a physician. Salt substitute is usually potassium chloride, which can be an issue for patients on potassium sparing medications. An individual can use herbs and spices to flavor foods. Examples include but not limited to onions, garlic, salt free seasonings such as Mr. Dash
question
Sodium intake recommended from The American Heart Association (AHA)
answer
Americans should eat less that 1500mg of sodium per day. The American Heart Association selected this recommendation based the US Centers for disease control and prevention data that was released in 2009. The data showed that nearly 70% of Americans are made up of the groups to whom 1500mg a day of sodium is recommended. This is contrasting recommendations for less than 2300mg/day as stated by the dietary guidelines. It would be appropriate to recommend less than 2300mg/day and educate patients about the 1500mg/day recommendations from AHA
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question
Clear Liquid Diet Purpose
answer
The diet is generally used as transition diet for patients requiring nourishment that is easily digested
question
Patients using Clear liquid diet
answer
Usually placed on this diet to either prepare them for surgery or as part of the transition back to a general diet following surgery. Although, there is very little scientific evidence supporting the use of clear liquid diets as transition after surgery
question
Clear liquid diet in different situations
answer
In gastrointestinal illness, including abdominal distention, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In preparing the bowel for surgery or a gastrointestinal procedure. To reintroduce foods following a period with no oral intake when poor tolerance, aspiration, or anastomotic leak is anticipated
question
Clear liquid diet Description
answer
The diet is comprised of foods that are liquid at room temperature and are transparent. Clear liquids such as tea, coffee, gelatin, ice water, popsicles, ice chips, stained fruit juice, nutritional supplements, meat and vegetable broth
question
Foods Omitted
answer
Milk and liquids containing milk, fruit juices containing pulp, and solid foods
question
Nutritional Adequacy: clear liquid diet
answer
A clear liquid diet is deficient in calories along with most nutrients and is not intended for long term use
question
Average clear liquid diet
answer
Calories: 500-600, Protein: 5-10g, Fat: minimal, Carbohydrate: 120-130g. A patient should only be placed on a clear liquid diet for about 3-5 days
question
Full liquid diet purpose
answer
Short term use as a transition step between the clear liquid diet and solid foods following gastrointestinal surgery
question
Full liquid diet description
answer
The full liquid diet included the foods allowed on the clear liquid diet with the addition of milk and small amounts of fiber
question
Additional foods during full liquid diet
answer
Juices with pulp, plain ice cream, frozen yogurt and sherbet, popsicles, gelatin, and nutritional supplements
question
Nutrition Adequacy: full liquid diet
answer
Adequate in energy, protein, fat, minerals, and vitamins. May be inadequate in fiber
question
Dysphagia Diets defined
answer
Defined as difficulty in swallowing. Is an impairment in one or all stages of swallowing, resulting in the reduced ability to obtain adequate nutrition by mouth and/or reduced safety during oral feeding
question
Dysphagia Diets without effective treatment
answer
Malnutrition, aspiration pneumonia, dehydration, unintended weight loss
question
Who Dysphagia Affects
answer
Can be a medical and feeding issue at any age; however, it is more likely seen in older individuals. May result from neurological disorders, degenerative diseases, cancers, or post intubation trauma
question
Nutrition Intervention
answer
Provide appropriate nutritional intake and fluids to maintain weight or produce weight gain if losses have occurred. Progress the meal plan to include a wider variety of foods as the patient's swallowing function improves. Provide foods that stimulate the swallow reflex. Support eating independence. Improve any nutrient deficits. Diet is comprised of food that is thick, soft, pureed, etc. and beverages that prevent chocking and aspiration
question
Liquids and their consistency
answer
A speech therapist can preform a swallow study to determine appropriate texture and liquid consistency. The 4 liquid consistency is as followed: thin, nectar-like, honey-like, spoon-thick/pudding thick
question
Levels of Dysphagia Diet
answer
Level 1: pureed foods, Level 2: Mechanically Altered Foods, Level 3: Advanced
question
Dysphagia level 1 purpose
answer
Provide foods that can be tolerated and safely swallowed
question
Dysphagia level 1
answer
Foods should be blended, whipped, and/or mashed until they reach a "pudding-like" texture. All foods should be smooth and free of lumps. Liquids should be thickened to pudding consistency or to recommended consistency per speech therapy speech or medical provider. Soups should be pureed and then strained to remove chunks or lumps. Then the soup should be thickened to recommend consistency using thickener, flour, or cornstarch
question
Cooking tips for Dysphagia
answer
Add small amounts of gravy, sauce, water, milk, vegetables or fruit juice to food items before you puree them. This will allow you to reach that pudding consistency faster but remember to add a small amount
question
Dysphagia Level 2 purpose
answer
Provide foods that can be tolerated and safely swallowed. Foods should be blended, chopped, grinding and or mashed until the food is easy to chew and swallow. All foods in large chunks or hard to chew or that are sticky should be avoided. Liquids should be thickened to pudding consistency or to recommended consistency per speech therapy speech or medical provider recommendations. Soups should be pureed and then strained to remove chunks or lumps. Then soup should be thickened to the recommended consistency using thickener, flour, or cornstarch
question
Dysphagia Level 2 Cooking tips
answer
Equipment that could be used to prepare a dysphagia level 2 is blender, food processor, food chopper, grinder, and/or potato masher. Add gravies or sauces to moisten foods and to add flavor. Cooked vegetables should be tender enough to be easily mashed with a fork
question
Dysphagia Level 3 Purpose
answer
Provide foods that are nearly regular textures and safely swallowed. Very hard, sticky, and crunchy foods should be avoided. Should be moist and bite size. Dysphagia level 3 is a transition to a regular diet
question
Blenderized Diet
answer
Has foods and liquids that have been thinned in a blender or food processor and strainer. These foods and liquids can be eaten using a cup, straw, syringe or spoon
question
Blenderized Diet uses
answer
Used for both chewing and swallowing difficulties
question
Foods and beverages on the blenderized diet
answer
All liquids can be used to blenderize or thin foods. The best liquids to use are those that add flavor and have added vitamins and minerals
question
Basic guidelines for the blenderized diet
answer
Cut foods into smaller pieces before placing them into the blender. After blenderizing, the foods should be strained to remove chunks of food, seeds or fibers. Blend equal amounts of solid and liquid foods together. Blending fruits or vegetables may require less liquids. The right thickness and temperature of blended foods may be different for each person on this diet. Try to use blenderized foods right away so they will not spoil. Possibly try a meal pattern that follows eating a small, frequent meal to prevent fatigue from eating large quantities at one time.
question
General recommendations fro the blenderized diet
answer
Breads, cereal, rice, pasta. Meat and meat substitutes. Desserts such as smoothies or pudding. Fats like melted butter or cream cheese. Other liquids such as tomato paste or smooth yogurt
question
Fiber restricted diet purpose
answer
To address acute gastrointestinal issues by reducing the frequency and volume of stools. This will lessen gastrointestinal tract irritation and helps it heal
question
Fiber restricted diet description
answer
Conditions that may require a low fiber nutrition therapy includes: Crohn's disease, Diverticulitis, Ulcerative colitis, and radiation therapy to the pelvis and lower bowel
question
Modification to the fiber restricted diet
answer
Limit fiber intake per day and to select foods low in fiber. Contains less than 13g of fiber/day. Well cooked vegetables and canned fruits. Legumes, beans, seeds, nuts, raw fruit/vegetables, whole grains, and other high fiber foods should be eliminated
question
Nutritional Adequacy for fiber restricted diet
answer
Adequate in all nutrients
question
Related Physiology
answer
Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease
question
Diverticulosis
answer
Diverticulosis is the presence of sac like pouches involving the mucosal layer of the colon due to excessive muscular contractions related to attempts to pass small and hard stools
question
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
answer
An autoimmune, chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. Ulcerative colitis - inflammatory disease affects the innermost lining of the large intestine and rectum. Symptoms include abdominal pain/cramping.
question
Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Medical Nutrition Therapy Physiology
answer
May not digest food and absorb foods consumed. May need more or some vitamin and minerals due to decreased absorption
question
Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Medical Nutrition Therapy Guidelines
answer
Eat small meals or snacks every 3-4 hours. When there are symptoms, stick to a fiber restricted diet. When diarrhea decreases start adding small amounts of whole grain foods and high fiber fruits and vegetables. Incorporate high fiber foods one at a time. Drink enough fluids to prevent dehydration. Take a multivitamin
question
Diverticulitis
answer
Occurs when the sac like pouches become inflamed or infected. Part of treatment includes nutrition therapy focused on fiber intake and probiotic/ prebiotic supplementation
question
Crohn's Disease
answer
May affect any portion of the gastrointestinal tract, from mouth to anus, but typically affects the ileum which is part of the small intestine. Recommend avoiding foods that aggravate bowl problems
question
High fiber diet purpose
answer
Aid in gastric motility reduce cholesterol and blood glucose levels. Fiber and fluid may help a person feel less bloated and prevent/alleviate constipation or diarrhea. The diet is used for the prevention and treatment of a variety of conditions including diverticular disease, Crohn's, irritable bowel syndrome, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, cancer, constipation and obesity
question
High fiber diet description
answer
Increases fiber slowly over the course of a few days to weeks. When fiber is first introduced into an individuals diet some individuals may experience bloating, cramping, or gas. In order to help combat these symptoms it is recommended to increase your intake of no or low calorie beverages. Slowly increase the amount of fiber to 25 to 38g per day
question
Soluble fiber
answer
Attracts water to form a gel like material which slow down digestion. Aids in lowering blood cholesterol and glucose levels
question
Insoluble fiber
answer
Promotes the movement of material through the digestive systems and increases stool bulk. Aids individuals with constipation and/or irregular bowel movements
question
Foods to include in the high fiber diet
answer
Whole grain breads and cereals. Look for choices with 100% whole grain, rye, oats, or bran as the first or second ingredient. Brown or wild rice. Variety of grains including barley, oats, faro, kamut, and guinoa.
question
Lactose intolerance diet
answer
A condition in which an individual is unable to fully digest lactose. This occurs due to the small intestine not producing enough lactase, an enzyme that breaks down lactose into glucose and galactose. Without the enzyme lactase, lactose wouldn't be broken down and absorbed
question
Nutrition Prescription for lactose intolerance
answer
Restrict or eliminate lactose containing foods or beverages. Diet modification varies due to individual tolerance. Most individuals with lactose intolerance can consume some lactose, about 12g or 1 cup. It is important to know the sources of lactose and individual tolerance levels to avoid symptoms for occurring. Lactose enzymes are available in drop or pill form. Individuals that completely eliminate dairy products may need to take calcium and vitamin d
question
Sources of lactose
answer
Mainly found in dairy food. May be present in other foods or medication as an ingredient. Hidden sources of lactose can be breads, some creamed vegetables, canned or packaged mixes, processed meats, mixed drinks and some dessert items
question
Fat restricticed diet purpose
answer
Utilized to relieve fat digestion or absorption issues associated with a disease process
question
Fat restricted diet description
answer
A fat restricted diet is often limited to 30-45g of fat per day but varies depending on the severity of the specific disease.
question
Pancreatitis
answer
The inflammation of the pancreas due to digestive enzymes being activated while inside the pancreas.
question
Pancreatitis causes
answer
Hyperteiglycerdemia (elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood), chronic alcohol abuse, gallstones, cystic fibrosis
question
Nutritional Deficiencies of pancreatitis
answer
Increased malabsorption risk of fat, which can lead to vitamin A, D, E and K deficiencies
question
Treatments for pancreatitis
answer
Initiate a low fat diet I'm order to minimize pancreas enzymes production. Pancreatic enzymes may be prescribed to ensure fat digestion and absorption. Eliminate alcohol
question
Celiac disease
answer
Small intestine inflammatory disorder that results from an autoimmune response to ingested gluten. This is a sensitivity to the protein Gluten found in wheat, barley, and rye. When these grains are consumed, they trigger an inflammatory response against the small intestine mucosa which ultimately flattens the villi and inhibit absorption of nutrients and water
question
Untreated Celiac disease
answer
The inflammatory response can cause scar tissue and render sections of the GI Tract / gut with minimal to no absorptive function. Ultimately a person with celiac disease can suffer long term consequences from malabsorption of nutrients
question
High calorie/ protein diet purpose and guidelines
answer
Recommended for individuals that have recently lost weight or have an increase calories and protein requirements. Used for patients under high physical and/or metabolic stresses
question
Benefits of consuming a high calorie/high protein diet
answer
More energy, weight gain or prevent weight loss, healing, increase resistance to infections, faster recover from surgery or illness
question
Dietary Guidelines for a high calorie/protein diet
answer
Eat smaller, more frequent meals rather than increasing the size of each meal. Eat on a time schedule. Never skip meals and always plan snacks between meals. Increase intake of foods highly concentrated in calories but which include high percentages of protein, vitamins and minerals
question
High protein foods
answer
Meat, milk, tofu, peanut butter, cheese, eggs, sirloin, tuna, pork tenderloin, nuts and seeds
question
High calorie foods
answer
Dried fruits, juices, sauces, butter, cream cheese, sour cream, mayo, and oils
question
Things to avoid on a high calorie/protein diet
answer
Light (lite) or diet foods and beverages that fill up the stomach but do not have calories or protein such as plain coffee, tea, and diet soda
question
Tips to eat more calories and protein
answer
Aim for at least 6 meals and snacks each day. Extra meals and snacks can help you get enough calories and protein. Nutritional supplement drinks to get more calories each day. Snacks such as milk shakes, smoothies, pudding, ice cream, or custard
question
Dietary Fat
answer
Fats provide a lot of calories in just a few bites. A tablespoon of oil, butter, or margarine has about 100 calories. Add butter, margarine, or oil to bread, potatoes, vegetables, and soups. Use mayonnaise, salad dressing, and peanut butter freely
question
High Calorie drinks
answer
Choose drinks such as whole milk, juice, or soft drinks made with sugar. Plain water, tea, and coffee have no calories and should be chosen less often
question
Calorie and protein boosters
answer
Milk: add powered milk to whole milk, sauces, and gravies. Cook oatmeal in milk instead of water. Use milk fortified with powered milk when making canned soups and puddings. Cheese: add to sauces, casseroles, pastas, vegetables. Meat: add to soups and casseroles. Eggs: Chopped hard boiled eggs can be added to salads. Snacks: ice cream, cheese, cheese, fruited yogurt. Desserts: top puddings, pies, fruits, gelatin
question
Sodium Restricted Diets purpose
answer
To limit the amount of sodium consumed by a sodium sensitive individual to prevent accumulation of fluid an/or promote loss of excess fluid from edema or ascites along with managing hypertension
question
Sodium restricted diet used in management with
answer
Essential hypertension, cardiovascular disease, severe cardiac failure, impaired liver function, renal disease, chronic renal failure
question
No added salt (NAS)
answer
Least restrictive of the sodium restrictions. Table salt should not be used and should be limited in cooking. High sodium foods should be limited. Provides about 4000mg of sodium daily
question
3000 mg Sodium
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Restricts foods and beverages that have been highly processed which include but not limited to fast foods, soy sauce, salty snack foods, canned/pickled foods, luncheon meats, smoked, salted, and kosher meats. Up to 1/4 teaspoon of salt can be used for cooking
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2000 mg Sodium
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Eliminates processed and prepared foods and beverages that are high in sodium. Salt should not be used in cooking or at the table. Salt free prepared foods should only be used. Milk and milk products should be limited to 16 ounces per day
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1000 mg Sodium
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Eliminates processed and prepared foods and beverages that are high in sodium. Milk and milk products should be limited to 16 ounces per day. Low sodium or sodium free versions of food items should be selected
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General Guidelines of sodium
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Salt substitute should only be used when prescribed by a physician. Salt substitute is usually potassium chloride, which can be an issue for patients on potassium sparing medications. An individual can use herbs and spices to flavor foods. Examples include but not limited to onions, garlic, salt free seasonings such as Mr. Dash
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Sodium intake recommended from The American Heart Association (AHA)
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Americans should eat less that 1500mg of sodium per day. The American Heart Association selected this recommendation based the US Centers for disease control and prevention data that was released in 2009. The data showed that nearly 70% of Americans are made up of the groups to whom 1500mg a day of sodium is recommended. This is contrasting recommendations for less than 2300mg/day as stated by the dietary guidelines. It would be appropriate to recommend less than 2300mg/day and educate patients about the 1500mg/day recommendations from AHA