FRQ – Flashcard

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Compare and contrast how the First World War affected two of the following regions East Asia Middle East South Asia
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Similarities: Both had rebellions/uprisings (May 4th Movement/Uprisings in India) Both had many conflicts with the British (Amritsar Massacre/Opium War) Both had major leaders who lead China and India to success (Chiang Kai-shek/Gandhi) Differences: India's uprisings were for freedom while China's uprisings were for government purposes China received the opportunity to participate in the Paris Peace Conference while India did not receive this opportunity Communism had a slight affect on China after the war while India was affected more by democracy
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Analyze the social and economic transformations that occurred in the Atlantic world as a result of new contacts among Western Europe Africa and Americas from 1492 to 1750
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Changes -Introduction of new crops to the old world such as potatoes and corn -New pack animals and cattle to the new world such as horses and pigs -transfer of diseases like syphilis and smallpox between the new and old world -Many new world people are decimated by old world diseases such as smallpox -Because of diseases many native american groups die off causing the americas to veer toward African slaves because they live longer and are stronger -Importation of African slaves goes way up due to the Amerindians dying off -Latin America began to export silver from mines because of European desire for precious metals Continuities -slaves constantly traded across the Atlantic ocean -Cash crops like sugar and tobacco traded from the Americas over the Atlantic -Citizens in the Americas were extremely angry about overseas colonization -Indians and Blacks looked down upon in society in the Americas -triangular trade between Europe Africa and Latin America persisted throughout
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Compare and contrast goals and outcomes of revolutionary process in two of the following countries, beginning with the dates specified 1910 Mexico 1911 China 1917 Russia
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Mexico and Russia: There are similarities and differences between the goals and outcomes of Mexico and Russia's revolutions. Both Russia and Mexico's revolutions were removing oppressive rule. However, the outcomes of both revolutions differ as Russia's revolution ended in converting Russia into a communist country while Mexico became a constitutional republic. Comparison(goal):Both Mexico and Russia and faced social unrest in the lower class, due to wealth gap and oppressive government and thus they both aimed to redistribute wealth. Comparison(goal): Both Mexico and Russia aimed to overthrow their respective rulers, who were causing the problems. Mexico: Diaz. Russia: The Tsar. Contrast(outcome): Mexico and Russia had different outcomes. Russia became communist while Mexico established a constitutional republic. Contrast(outcome): Russia became more isolated from the world while Mexico continued to be a participant in trade with other countries, with products such as oil. Comparison(outcome): Both succeeded in reducing wealth gaps, redistributing land and wealth from the rich to the poor. yeah bruh Contrast(outcome): Mexico went through a series of leaders mostly controlled by PNR, their revolution did not have the effects as intended until several years later. Russia's changes went into effect much faster, turning Russia into a communist nation.
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Analyze major changes and continuities in the formation of national identities in ONE of the regions listed below from 1914 to the present. Be sure to include evidence from specific countries in the region selected.
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Middle East Continuity - Islam - Sharia Law -Iraq/Iran conflict Change -Western influence -Suez Canal -mandate system -Balfour Declaration Southeast Asia Continuity -Buddhism remained a major religion -Communism -against westernization/nationalism Change -WWll fueled independence movements -decolonization -Nationalist party created -North and South Vietnam created Sub-Saharan Africa Continuity - social unrest between different ethnic people -European influence -Afrikaners depended on racist systems to maintain political superiority -African National Congress Change -independence movements/pan-African movements -conversion to Christianity and Islam -decolonization(Mau Mau Rebellion in British colonies)
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Within the period from 1450 to 1800 compare the processes (consider political, social, economic) of empire-building processes in one of the following. Ottoman Empire Expanded their bureaucracy Went from nomadic to sedentary Did not focus on trade relations gunpowder kingdom, forged in war used Islam as a tool to gain allies against Christian Europe Russian Empire created an empire through trying to push away barbarian nations Opened trade routes with Europe looked to Europe for role models promoted Christianity to create unity with Europe against the Islamic golden horde Similarities used religion as a way to gain political allies in order to establish themselves as powers came from other regions to settle the areas that would become homelands for their empires, had to deal with fear of foreigners Differences Ottomans unified in conflict with the west, Russia unified trying to become like the west Ottomans did not pursue trade relations Russia tried to forge trade bonds with Europe Ottomans expanded in expansionist war, Russian state was formed through defensive war against golden horde Russian leaders used local ways, Ottomans brought their own customs
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Compare the emergence of nation-states in the nineteenth-century Latin America with the emergence of nation-states in ONE of the following regions in the 20th century. -Sub-Saharan Africa -The Middle East
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Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa Similarities: -emerged from colonial rule -leaders of the nationalist movements were well-educated and middle class -colonial rulers tried to prevent independence Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa Differences: -There was Latin American military resistance to independence within Latin America, whereas any colonial supporters in Africa let the ruling power control any resistance. -Africa used the governmental systems the colonial powers had put in place. Latin America tried to implement new government. -Latin America tried to claim independence during a period of war within their ruling powers' country. The colonial rulers of African colonies were not at war when African nation-states attempted independence. Latin America and The Middle East Similarities: -Emerged from colonial rule -Remained economically dependant on natural resources and agriculture -Both kept a large social gap between the westernized wealthy class and the poor class. Latin America and The Middle East Differences: -The rulers of colonial Latin America (Spain and Portugal) were overseas from their colonies, making it much more difficult to control the revolutions, while the countries that ruled over the Middle East were far closer, and could get there by land. -The nationalist movements in the Middle East already existed during their takeover, making the formation of nation-states faster than Latin America which had to develop nationalism over time. -a new independent nation-state in the Middle East (Israel) was purposefully created by European powers. All Latin American nation-states had to fight against colonialism in order to establish independence.
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Describe and explain continuities and changes in religious beliefs and practices in ONE of the following regions from 1450 to the present -Sub Saharan Africa -Latin America/Caribbean
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Sub Saharan Africa Changes - Christianity and Islam spread across the region due to the "age of exploration", contact with traders and merchants, and colonization from European countries. continuities- Animistic beliefs continued to prevail, and they influenced African traditions and culture. Latin America/Caribbean Changes: christianity prevailed after European colonization and replaced most polytheistic beliefs. Age of Explorations. Aztecs and Mayans no longer did human sacrifices. Continuities: Old religions mixed with the new ones, (vodou beliefs). Christianity arrived in the 1400s and is still practiced today.
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Analyze similarities and differences in methods of political control in TWO of the following empires in the Classical period: Han China (206 B.C.E. to 220 C.E.), Mauryan/Gupta India (320 B.C.E. to 550 C.E.), Imperial Rome (31 B.C.E. to 476 C.E.)
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Han China (206 B.C.E.-220 C.E.) and Rome (31 B.C.E.-476 C.E.) Similarities rulers align with gentry/equites- to reduce power of aristocrats autonomy granted to local officials- civil service and strong middle class develops in both empires highly centralized government- system of government officials Differences China- mandate of heaven- stability in gov. due to lack of power struggles between heirs; rome- power had to be earned through battle- instability within empire Confucianism in China influenced political structure and society (i.e.- filial piety)- Rome- society based on more individualistic ideals and hierarchy Rome- professional soldiers developing into an upper class- demonstrated loyalty to their general over the central government, creating political conflict; Han China- army of draftees who served for little time and decreased their ability to gain the grounds to influence politics Mauryan/Gupta India (320 B.C.E.-550 C.E.) and Imperial Rome (31 B.C.E.-476 C.E.) Similarities focused on having strong central government- split empire into provinces to improve administrative abilities used expansion to assert political control strong military to control and protect the empire rigid class systems (varnas caste system/patricians vs plebeians) Differences Rome- civil service system (based on merit) to elect for gov. positions; Mauryan India- relatives of king chosen for jobs Romanization vs isolation
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Analyze similarities and differences between the role of the states in Japan's economic development and the and the role of the state in the economic development of ONE of the following during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. China Ottoman Empire Russia
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Similarities: -Pressure from the west (trade-wise), -at war w each other(military which costs $) Differences: -China dislikes the west(communism=wealth distribution from gov), while Japan is opening up rapidly(technology, industrialization, economics); -There were two conflicting political parties in China while there was only one in Japan; -both were in need for new political formula bc both were in economic crisis, but Japan chose expansion of borders while China didn't really do much, China had political support from the US. -Japan's stock market was booming in early twentieth century because of capitalism. (not applicable to China since the Chinese market was little to undeveloped). OTTOMAN EMPIRE Similarities: -Tanzimat Reforms and Meiji Reformation -Opening up/pressure/warfare with the west (for Ottoman Empire, the war in 1829 against Greece, Britain, France, and Russia AND and Crimean War; For Japan involvement in WWII sino-japnese war) -were also both taken advantage of by the west, economically- Extraterritoriality Differences; -The Tanzimat Reform was heavily political as well (legal code, conscription aka required service in military) but for the Japanese, the Meiji Restoration meant heavy industrialization and cultural westernization -The Ottoman Empire fell before WWII, Japan was an active participant in WWII -The Ottoman Empire was in heavy debt after the Crimean War RUSSIA Similarities: -Heavy industrialization -Reformed/ Westernized (for Russia it was post Russo-Japanese when they lost to Japan) Differences: -Forced industrialization/government collected all property in Russia, in Japan there was no communism -Civil War in Russia: this affected Russia because there was a revolution and military costed $$ -Stalin's Five Year Plan was scandalously successful, causing Russia's market to boom while the rest of the world (including Japan) dropped.
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9. Analyze changes and continuities in long-distance migrations in the period from 1700 to 1900. Be sure to include specific examples from at least TWO different world regions.
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Immigrants go to new places seeking better work opportunities. Poor conditions cause people to move out of their country in hopes of living a better life such as the Potato Famine in Ireland. Nativism is present in countries that host many different kinds of immigrants such as the United States and immigrants are subjugated to discrimination . Immigrants come to new countries and syncretize their culture with the culture of their new community like the Jews in Argentina. Diseases were constantly being brought over to the Americas by European and East Asian immigrants. Changes: The slave trade ends, causing slavery to transfer to indentured servitude. Indentured servants from India and East Asia go to the Americas. Imperialism inspired migrations such as the British movement to South Africa. Freed slaves after the American Civil War wanted to return to their homeland. Britain sends convicts to Australia where they worked on labor tasks and more Europeans are sent after the discovery of gold. World Historical Context: Nativism in the United States against Chinese immigration creates the Chinese Exclusion Act in which there are regulations set on how many Chinese people immigrate to the United States.
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Analyze similarities and differences in the rise of 2 of the following empires:
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West African Sudanic Empire (Mali, Ghana, Songhai): -Trade facilitates rise in Mali (economic) -gold trade and (in Mali's case) pilgrimage lead to great spread of influence, gaining the work of many acclaimed architects and artists swayed by such extravagance (economic, artistic, intelligence) Aztecs: -Took advantage of Toltec collapse to spread into their territory, previously having been nomads (geographic, political) -took key land via military conquest and united large groups around Lake Texcoco -twin capitals (political) -tributary system for conquered peoples (political, economic) -religious emphasis, anthropomorphic gods, heavy sacrifice (religous) Mongols -formerly nomads before conquests begin (geographic) -rise heavily based upon military prowess and ability to conquer (political) -used fear liberally in conquests, destroying entire villages to scare others into surrender (political) -Silk road used to facilitate and control trade with West (economic) tributary system for conquered peoples, very tolerant with surrendered territories -Religious freedom within the empire -Oppressed Chinese within Yuan Dynasty (political, social) Similarities: Mongols vs. Aztecs: Nomads soon before expansion, military based rise, control of regional trade, tributary system, cultural diffusion into conquered lands Mongols vs. Africa: Heavy power over regional trade Aztecs vs. Africa: Trade of precious metals, cultural diffusion into new areas Differences: Mongols vs. Aztecs: Aztecs built around more direct political rule Mongols vs. Africa: Cultural influence differs (conquests and fear/power persuasion vs. trade and wealth persuasion) Aztecs vs. Africa: Capital systems, difference between religious influence
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Describe and analyze the cultural, economic, and political impact of Islam in ONE of the following regions between 1000 c.e. and 1750 c.e. Be sure to discuss continuities as well as changes
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West Africa Islam caused trade in west africa to increase dramatically. Timbuktu became a major trading point. Persian Rugs, textiles, coffee, gunpowder Islam became the official religion of the Mali Empire and Mansa Musa went on a pilgrimage to Mecca to show its great wealth. Islam led to the centralized politics and the creation of sudanic states like songhai, ghana, and mali Lower class people were converting to Islam because of its egalitarian beliefs CONTINUITIES Many aspects of religion and gender roles in Africa remained unchanged. South Asia Pagan Peoples' beliefs remained unchanged because they did not want to change their polytheistic views. CHANGE Europe Europe went from an unspecialized labor economy to a specialized labor economy in order to increase manufacturing and trade. Islam cause Europe to establish important trade routes to include more muslim merchants in trade. This enabled Europe to receive more luxury goods and established credit and banking. Moors in Europe from north africa cause racial mixing primarily in spain and portugal. Islamic Golden Age-artists, engineers, scholars, poets, philosophers, geographers and traders in the Islamic world contributed to agriculture, the arts, economics, industry, law, literature,navigation, philosophy, sciences, sociology, and technology, both by preserving earlier traditions and by adding inventions and innovations of their own. CONTINUITIES Wars: 1093-Crusades, 1492-Muslim expulsion from the Iberian Peninsula,. 1529-Ottoman siege of Vienna, 1571-Battle of Lepanto (against Spain) There was a constant spread of Islam, ideas, trade throughout Europe CHANGE South Asia Islam triggered a partition between India and Bangladesh and Pakistan Muslim population grew rapidly with the rise of the Mughal Empire. Sufi Missionaries helped spread Islam As Delhi-based Kings lost power, many Muslim kingdoms rose like Bengal, Kashmir, Malwa. CONTINUITIES Even with the introduction of Islam, Hindu continued to be practiced and later, in India, Hindus made up the majority. Trade between South Asia remained prominent and vital to the exchange of goods.
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Analyze continuities and changes in trade networks between Africa and Eurasia from circa 300 C.E. to 1450 C.E.
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Continuities: 1. Existing trade routes flourished and promoted the growth of new trading cities -Silk Roads -Novgorod -Baghdad -Mediterranean Sea trade routes -Venice -Indian Ocean trade routes -Swahili city-states -Hangzhou -Calicut -Melaka 2. There was continued diffusion of crops and diseases throughout the Eastern Hemisphere along the trade routes. -Bananas in Africa -New rice in East Asia -The spread of cotton, sugar, and citrus throughout Dar al-Islam and the Mediterranean basin Changes: 1. With the organization of large-scale empires at the beginning of the period, the volume of long-distance trade increased dramatically. Much of this trade resulted from the demand for raw materials and luxury goods. -Eurasian Silk Roads -Trans-Saharan caravan routes -Indian Ocean sea lanes -Mediterranean sea lanes 2. The growth of interregional trade in luxury goods: -Silk and cotton textiles -Porcelain -Spices -Precious metals and gems -Slaves -Exotic Animals 3. Increased cross-cultural interactions also resulted in the diffusion of scientific and technological traditionals. -The influence of Greek and Indian mathematics on Muslim scholars -The return of Greek science and philosophy to Western Europe via Muslim al-Andalus in Iberia -The spread of printing and gunpowder technologies from East Asia into the Islamic empires and Western Europe 4. Commercial growth was facilitated by state practices, trading organizations, and the state-sponsored commercial infrastructures like the Grand Canal in China. -Minting coins -Use of paper money -Hanseatic League
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ANALYZE HOW POLITICAL TRANSFORMATIONS CONTRIBUTED TO CONTINUITIES AND CHANGES IN THE CULTURES OF THE MEDITERRANEAN DURING THE PERIOD CIRCA 200 CE TO 1000 CE
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CHANGES: Rome: Roman Principate -> feudalism -Roman principate: one ruler over society -With the fall of the Roman Empire, feudalism emerged -feudalism: monarchs give land to loyal followers (vassals) *the change*: roman principate had one sole ruler who administered land to people, while during the feudalistic society there were multiple monarchs giving land to people Eastern Europe: Byzantines: Berbers -byzantine emperor: Justinian 2 makes an alliance with an Umayyad Caliphate and reestablishes territory in Cyprus (this is an example of the relationships rulers held during the Byzantine Empire) -byzantine empire: the army only used in times of war to avoid them gaining political power -main focus during byzantine empire was on the emperor for ruling: he held many relationships with foreign lands to gain protection -emperor used Eastern Orthodoxy to legitimize rulership: used bureaucracy (to administer and supervise territory) -berbers: "nomads"- fragmented society -Byzantines invaded berbers and put influence on society *the change*: the byzantine empire remained a unified society, while the berbers switched from a unified state to a fragmented place Islamic Caliphates: Umayyad and Abbasid -Umayyad: Arabic becomes the official language and Islam becomes the principal religion of the lands unified under one empire -Shift of power to Abbasid: political power is shifted to Iraq *the change*: The Umayyad is conquered by Abbasid, which leads to a more fragmented Africa. CONTINUITIES: Christianity and Islam -present throughout the Mediterranean states -religion is constantly diffusing through the Mediterranean NOTE: (*this can also be seen as change due to the fact that the influence of religion changed from Christianity to Islam*) trade -boats/ roads taken across the Mediterranean Sea to different states *(jewelry, clothes, ect) remain a constant throughout the trading routes along the Mediterranean Sea*
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Compare and contrast the political and economic effects of Mongol rule on TWO of the following regions Middle East China India
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Mongols: Genghis Khan - unified Mongols Kublai Khan - Khanates (independent of any sort of leadership from homeland in Mongol) Not one of culture, but territory and conquest Didn't absorb culture of those they conquered Brought the world together China Kublai Khan ruled dismissed Confucian scholars, forbade marriage between Mongols and Chinese Chinese not allowed to learn the Mongol language MONGOLIZE Middle East Genghis Khan captured Baghdad (center of culture, learning) - Il Khan Sunni Islam Rashid Al Din Buddhism No navy Weren't as harsh on the Persian government, allowed them to handle tax collectivization and distribution - maintaining government Mongols destroyed Persian irrigation system, economic delice Mongols made it safer and easier for merchants to trade along routes such as the Silk Road, helped maintain economic stability and cultural diffusion Russia Golden Horde Treated as a VASSAL STATE didn't unify or culturally develop as quickly as European neighbors World trade, cultural awareness and diffusion grew Transmission of Black Death in 14th century SIMILARITIES: Unified China and Russia Silk Road trade DIFFERENCES: Chinese not allowed to learn language Dismissed Confucian scholars Russia seen as a vassal state Comparison: Both China and Russia were politically subordinate to Mongol Rule Both China and Russia benefited from the Silk Road trade Extracted taxes from the peasants Facilitated the Black Plague Contrast Russian government was not occupied by the Golden Horde, while China's government was greatly influenced by the Mongols Mongols exercised toleration for the Russians, while being culturally and socially indifferent to the Chinese Russian princes extracted taxes while foreigners or Mongols bureaucrats controlled politically and economically
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question
Compare and contrast how the First World War affected two of the following regions East Asia Middle East South Asia
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Similarities: Both had rebellions/uprisings (May 4th Movement/Uprisings in India) Both had many conflicts with the British (Amritsar Massacre/Opium War) Both had major leaders who lead China and India to success (Chiang Kai-shek/Gandhi) Differences: India's uprisings were for freedom while China's uprisings were for government purposes China received the opportunity to participate in the Paris Peace Conference while India did not receive this opportunity Communism had a slight affect on China after the war while India was affected more by democracy
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Analyze the social and economic transformations that occurred in the Atlantic world as a result of new contacts among Western Europe Africa and Americas from 1492 to 1750
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Changes -Introduction of new crops to the old world such as potatoes and corn -New pack animals and cattle to the new world such as horses and pigs -transfer of diseases like syphilis and smallpox between the new and old world -Many new world people are decimated by old world diseases such as smallpox -Because of diseases many native american groups die off causing the americas to veer toward African slaves because they live longer and are stronger -Importation of African slaves goes way up due to the Amerindians dying off -Latin America began to export silver from mines because of European desire for precious metals Continuities -slaves constantly traded across the Atlantic ocean -Cash crops like sugar and tobacco traded from the Americas over the Atlantic -Citizens in the Americas were extremely angry about overseas colonization -Indians and Blacks looked down upon in society in the Americas -triangular trade between Europe Africa and Latin America persisted throughout
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Compare and contrast goals and outcomes of revolutionary process in two of the following countries, beginning with the dates specified 1910 Mexico 1911 China 1917 Russia
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Mexico and Russia: There are similarities and differences between the goals and outcomes of Mexico and Russia's revolutions. Both Russia and Mexico's revolutions were removing oppressive rule. However, the outcomes of both revolutions differ as Russia's revolution ended in converting Russia into a communist country while Mexico became a constitutional republic. Comparison(goal):Both Mexico and Russia and faced social unrest in the lower class, due to wealth gap and oppressive government and thus they both aimed to redistribute wealth. Comparison(goal): Both Mexico and Russia aimed to overthrow their respective rulers, who were causing the problems. Mexico: Diaz. Russia: The Tsar. Contrast(outcome): Mexico and Russia had different outcomes. Russia became communist while Mexico established a constitutional republic. Contrast(outcome): Russia became more isolated from the world while Mexico continued to be a participant in trade with other countries, with products such as oil. Comparison(outcome): Both succeeded in reducing wealth gaps, redistributing land and wealth from the rich to the poor. yeah bruh Contrast(outcome): Mexico went through a series of leaders mostly controlled by PNR, their revolution did not have the effects as intended until several years later. Russia's changes went into effect much faster, turning Russia into a communist nation.
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Analyze major changes and continuities in the formation of national identities in ONE of the regions listed below from 1914 to the present. Be sure to include evidence from specific countries in the region selected.
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Middle East Continuity - Islam - Sharia Law -Iraq/Iran conflict Change -Western influence -Suez Canal -mandate system -Balfour Declaration Southeast Asia Continuity -Buddhism remained a major religion -Communism -against westernization/nationalism Change -WWll fueled independence movements -decolonization -Nationalist party created -North and South Vietnam created Sub-Saharan Africa Continuity - social unrest between different ethnic people -European influence -Afrikaners depended on racist systems to maintain political superiority -African National Congress Change -independence movements/pan-African movements -conversion to Christianity and Islam -decolonization(Mau Mau Rebellion in British colonies)
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Within the period from 1450 to 1800 compare the processes (consider political, social, economic) of empire-building processes in one of the following. Ottoman Empire Expanded their bureaucracy Went from nomadic to sedentary Did not focus on trade relations gunpowder kingdom, forged in war used Islam as a tool to gain allies against Christian Europe Russian Empire created an empire through trying to push away barbarian nations Opened trade routes with Europe looked to Europe for role models promoted Christianity to create unity with Europe against the Islamic golden horde Similarities used religion as a way to gain political allies in order to establish themselves as powers came from other regions to settle the areas that would become homelands for their empires, had to deal with fear of foreigners Differences Ottomans unified in conflict with the west, Russia unified trying to become like the west Ottomans did not pursue trade relations Russia tried to forge trade bonds with Europe Ottomans expanded in expansionist war, Russian state was formed through defensive war against golden horde Russian leaders used local ways, Ottomans brought their own customs
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Compare the emergence of nation-states in the nineteenth-century Latin America with the emergence of nation-states in ONE of the following regions in the 20th century. -Sub-Saharan Africa -The Middle East
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Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa Similarities: -emerged from colonial rule -leaders of the nationalist movements were well-educated and middle class -colonial rulers tried to prevent independence Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa Differences: -There was Latin American military resistance to independence within Latin America, whereas any colonial supporters in Africa let the ruling power control any resistance. -Africa used the governmental systems the colonial powers had put in place. Latin America tried to implement new government. -Latin America tried to claim independence during a period of war within their ruling powers' country. The colonial rulers of African colonies were not at war when African nation-states attempted independence. Latin America and The Middle East Similarities: -Emerged from colonial rule -Remained economically dependant on natural resources and agriculture -Both kept a large social gap between the westernized wealthy class and the poor class. Latin America and The Middle East Differences: -The rulers of colonial Latin America (Spain and Portugal) were overseas from their colonies, making it much more difficult to control the revolutions, while the countries that ruled over the Middle East were far closer, and could get there by land. -The nationalist movements in the Middle East already existed during their takeover, making the formation of nation-states faster than Latin America which had to develop nationalism over time. -a new independent nation-state in the Middle East (Israel) was purposefully created by European powers. All Latin American nation-states had to fight against colonialism in order to establish independence.
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Describe and explain continuities and changes in religious beliefs and practices in ONE of the following regions from 1450 to the present -Sub Saharan Africa -Latin America/Caribbean
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Sub Saharan Africa Changes - Christianity and Islam spread across the region due to the "age of exploration", contact with traders and merchants, and colonization from European countries. continuities- Animistic beliefs continued to prevail, and they influenced African traditions and culture. Latin America/Caribbean Changes: christianity prevailed after European colonization and replaced most polytheistic beliefs. Age of Explorations. Aztecs and Mayans no longer did human sacrifices. Continuities: Old religions mixed with the new ones, (vodou beliefs). Christianity arrived in the 1400s and is still practiced today.
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Analyze similarities and differences in methods of political control in TWO of the following empires in the Classical period: Han China (206 B.C.E. to 220 C.E.), Mauryan/Gupta India (320 B.C.E. to 550 C.E.), Imperial Rome (31 B.C.E. to 476 C.E.)
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Han China (206 B.C.E.-220 C.E.) and Rome (31 B.C.E.-476 C.E.) Similarities rulers align with gentry/equites- to reduce power of aristocrats autonomy granted to local officials- civil service and strong middle class develops in both empires highly centralized government- system of government officials Differences China- mandate of heaven- stability in gov. due to lack of power struggles between heirs; rome- power had to be earned through battle- instability within empire Confucianism in China influenced political structure and society (i.e.- filial piety)- Rome- society based on more individualistic ideals and hierarchy Rome- professional soldiers developing into an upper class- demonstrated loyalty to their general over the central government, creating political conflict; Han China- army of draftees who served for little time and decreased their ability to gain the grounds to influence politics Mauryan/Gupta India (320 B.C.E.-550 C.E.) and Imperial Rome (31 B.C.E.-476 C.E.) Similarities focused on having strong central government- split empire into provinces to improve administrative abilities used expansion to assert political control strong military to control and protect the empire rigid class systems (varnas caste system/patricians vs plebeians) Differences Rome- civil service system (based on merit) to elect for gov. positions; Mauryan India- relatives of king chosen for jobs Romanization vs isolation
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Analyze similarities and differences between the role of the states in Japan's economic development and the and the role of the state in the economic development of ONE of the following during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. China Ottoman Empire Russia
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Similarities: -Pressure from the west (trade-wise), -at war w each other(military which costs $) Differences: -China dislikes the west(communism=wealth distribution from gov), while Japan is opening up rapidly(technology, industrialization, economics); -There were two conflicting political parties in China while there was only one in Japan; -both were in need for new political formula bc both were in economic crisis, but Japan chose expansion of borders while China didn't really do much, China had political support from the US. -Japan's stock market was booming in early twentieth century because of capitalism. (not applicable to China since the Chinese market was little to undeveloped). OTTOMAN EMPIRE Similarities: -Tanzimat Reforms and Meiji Reformation -Opening up/pressure/warfare with the west (for Ottoman Empire, the war in 1829 against Greece, Britain, France, and Russia AND and Crimean War; For Japan involvement in WWII sino-japnese war) -were also both taken advantage of by the west, economically- Extraterritoriality Differences; -The Tanzimat Reform was heavily political as well (legal code, conscription aka required service in military) but for the Japanese, the Meiji Restoration meant heavy industrialization and cultural westernization -The Ottoman Empire fell before WWII, Japan was an active participant in WWII -The Ottoman Empire was in heavy debt after the Crimean War RUSSIA Similarities: -Heavy industrialization -Reformed/ Westernized (for Russia it was post Russo-Japanese when they lost to Japan) Differences: -Forced industrialization/government collected all property in Russia, in Japan there was no communism -Civil War in Russia: this affected Russia because there was a revolution and military costed $$ -Stalin's Five Year Plan was scandalously successful, causing Russia's market to boom while the rest of the world (including Japan) dropped.
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9. Analyze changes and continuities in long-distance migrations in the period from 1700 to 1900. Be sure to include specific examples from at least TWO different world regions.
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Immigrants go to new places seeking better work opportunities. Poor conditions cause people to move out of their country in hopes of living a better life such as the Potato Famine in Ireland. Nativism is present in countries that host many different kinds of immigrants such as the United States and immigrants are subjugated to discrimination . Immigrants come to new countries and syncretize their culture with the culture of their new community like the Jews in Argentina. Diseases were constantly being brought over to the Americas by European and East Asian immigrants. Changes: The slave trade ends, causing slavery to transfer to indentured servitude. Indentured servants from India and East Asia go to the Americas. Imperialism inspired migrations such as the British movement to South Africa. Freed slaves after the American Civil War wanted to return to their homeland. Britain sends convicts to Australia where they worked on labor tasks and more Europeans are sent after the discovery of gold. World Historical Context: Nativism in the United States against Chinese immigration creates the Chinese Exclusion Act in which there are regulations set on how many Chinese people immigrate to the United States.
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Analyze similarities and differences in the rise of 2 of the following empires:
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West African Sudanic Empire (Mali, Ghana, Songhai): -Trade facilitates rise in Mali (economic) -gold trade and (in Mali's case) pilgrimage lead to great spread of influence, gaining the work of many acclaimed architects and artists swayed by such extravagance (economic, artistic, intelligence) Aztecs: -Took advantage of Toltec collapse to spread into their territory, previously having been nomads (geographic, political) -took key land via military conquest and united large groups around Lake Texcoco -twin capitals (political) -tributary system for conquered peoples (political, economic) -religious emphasis, anthropomorphic gods, heavy sacrifice (religous) Mongols -formerly nomads before conquests begin (geographic) -rise heavily based upon military prowess and ability to conquer (political) -used fear liberally in conquests, destroying entire villages to scare others into surrender (political) -Silk road used to facilitate and control trade with West (economic) tributary system for conquered peoples, very tolerant with surrendered territories -Religious freedom within the empire -Oppressed Chinese within Yuan Dynasty (political, social) Similarities: Mongols vs. Aztecs: Nomads soon before expansion, military based rise, control of regional trade, tributary system, cultural diffusion into conquered lands Mongols vs. Africa: Heavy power over regional trade Aztecs vs. Africa: Trade of precious metals, cultural diffusion into new areas Differences: Mongols vs. Aztecs: Aztecs built around more direct political rule Mongols vs. Africa: Cultural influence differs (conquests and fear/power persuasion vs. trade and wealth persuasion) Aztecs vs. Africa: Capital systems, difference between religious influence
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Describe and analyze the cultural, economic, and political impact of Islam in ONE of the following regions between 1000 c.e. and 1750 c.e. Be sure to discuss continuities as well as changes
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West Africa Islam caused trade in west africa to increase dramatically. Timbuktu became a major trading point. Persian Rugs, textiles, coffee, gunpowder Islam became the official religion of the Mali Empire and Mansa Musa went on a pilgrimage to Mecca to show its great wealth. Islam led to the centralized politics and the creation of sudanic states like songhai, ghana, and mali Lower class people were converting to Islam because of its egalitarian beliefs CONTINUITIES Many aspects of religion and gender roles in Africa remained unchanged. South Asia Pagan Peoples' beliefs remained unchanged because they did not want to change their polytheistic views. CHANGE Europe Europe went from an unspecialized labor economy to a specialized labor economy in order to increase manufacturing and trade. Islam cause Europe to establish important trade routes to include more muslim merchants in trade. This enabled Europe to receive more luxury goods and established credit and banking. Moors in Europe from north africa cause racial mixing primarily in spain and portugal. Islamic Golden Age-artists, engineers, scholars, poets, philosophers, geographers and traders in the Islamic world contributed to agriculture, the arts, economics, industry, law, literature,navigation, philosophy, sciences, sociology, and technology, both by preserving earlier traditions and by adding inventions and innovations of their own. CONTINUITIES Wars: 1093-Crusades, 1492-Muslim expulsion from the Iberian Peninsula,. 1529-Ottoman siege of Vienna, 1571-Battle of Lepanto (against Spain) There was a constant spread of Islam, ideas, trade throughout Europe CHANGE South Asia Islam triggered a partition between India and Bangladesh and Pakistan Muslim population grew rapidly with the rise of the Mughal Empire. Sufi Missionaries helped spread Islam As Delhi-based Kings lost power, many Muslim kingdoms rose like Bengal, Kashmir, Malwa. CONTINUITIES Even with the introduction of Islam, Hindu continued to be practiced and later, in India, Hindus made up the majority. Trade between South Asia remained prominent and vital to the exchange of goods.
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Analyze continuities and changes in trade networks between Africa and Eurasia from circa 300 C.E. to 1450 C.E.
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Continuities: 1. Existing trade routes flourished and promoted the growth of new trading cities -Silk Roads -Novgorod -Baghdad -Mediterranean Sea trade routes -Venice -Indian Ocean trade routes -Swahili city-states -Hangzhou -Calicut -Melaka 2. There was continued diffusion of crops and diseases throughout the Eastern Hemisphere along the trade routes. -Bananas in Africa -New rice in East Asia -The spread of cotton, sugar, and citrus throughout Dar al-Islam and the Mediterranean basin Changes: 1. With the organization of large-scale empires at the beginning of the period, the volume of long-distance trade increased dramatically. Much of this trade resulted from the demand for raw materials and luxury goods. -Eurasian Silk Roads -Trans-Saharan caravan routes -Indian Ocean sea lanes -Mediterranean sea lanes 2. The growth of interregional trade in luxury goods: -Silk and cotton textiles -Porcelain -Spices -Precious metals and gems -Slaves -Exotic Animals 3. Increased cross-cultural interactions also resulted in the diffusion of scientific and technological traditionals. -The influence of Greek and Indian mathematics on Muslim scholars -The return of Greek science and philosophy to Western Europe via Muslim al-Andalus in Iberia -The spread of printing and gunpowder technologies from East Asia into the Islamic empires and Western Europe 4. Commercial growth was facilitated by state practices, trading organizations, and the state-sponsored commercial infrastructures like the Grand Canal in China. -Minting coins -Use of paper money -Hanseatic League
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ANALYZE HOW POLITICAL TRANSFORMATIONS CONTRIBUTED TO CONTINUITIES AND CHANGES IN THE CULTURES OF THE MEDITERRANEAN DURING THE PERIOD CIRCA 200 CE TO 1000 CE
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CHANGES: Rome: Roman Principate -> feudalism -Roman principate: one ruler over society -With the fall of the Roman Empire, feudalism emerged -feudalism: monarchs give land to loyal followers (vassals) *the change*: roman principate had one sole ruler who administered land to people, while during the feudalistic society there were multiple monarchs giving land to people Eastern Europe: Byzantines: Berbers -byzantine emperor: Justinian 2 makes an alliance with an Umayyad Caliphate and reestablishes territory in Cyprus (this is an example of the relationships rulers held during the Byzantine Empire) -byzantine empire: the army only used in times of war to avoid them gaining political power -main focus during byzantine empire was on the emperor for ruling: he held many relationships with foreign lands to gain protection -emperor used Eastern Orthodoxy to legitimize rulership: used bureaucracy (to administer and supervise territory) -berbers: "nomads"- fragmented society -Byzantines invaded berbers and put influence on society *the change*: the byzantine empire remained a unified society, while the berbers switched from a unified state to a fragmented place Islamic Caliphates: Umayyad and Abbasid -Umayyad: Arabic becomes the official language and Islam becomes the principal religion of the lands unified under one empire -Shift of power to Abbasid: political power is shifted to Iraq *the change*: The Umayyad is conquered by Abbasid, which leads to a more fragmented Africa. CONTINUITIES: Christianity and Islam -present throughout the Mediterranean states -religion is constantly diffusing through the Mediterranean NOTE: (*this can also be seen as change due to the fact that the influence of religion changed from Christianity to Islam*) trade -boats/ roads taken across the Mediterranean Sea to different states *(jewelry, clothes, ect) remain a constant throughout the trading routes along the Mediterranean Sea*
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Compare and contrast the political and economic effects of Mongol rule on TWO of the following regions Middle East China India
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Mongols: Genghis Khan - unified Mongols Kublai Khan - Khanates (independent of any sort of leadership from homeland in Mongol) Not one of culture, but territory and conquest Didn't absorb culture of those they conquered Brought the world together China Kublai Khan ruled dismissed Confucian scholars, forbade marriage between Mongols and Chinese Chinese not allowed to learn the Mongol language MONGOLIZE Middle East Genghis Khan captured Baghdad (center of culture, learning) - Il Khan Sunni Islam Rashid Al Din Buddhism No navy Weren't as harsh on the Persian government, allowed them to handle tax collectivization and distribution - maintaining government Mongols destroyed Persian irrigation system, economic delice Mongols made it safer and easier for merchants to trade along routes such as the Silk Road, helped maintain economic stability and cultural diffusion Russia Golden Horde Treated as a VASSAL STATE didn't unify or culturally develop as quickly as European neighbors World trade, cultural awareness and diffusion grew Transmission of Black Death in 14th century SIMILARITIES: Unified China and Russia Silk Road trade DIFFERENCES: Chinese not allowed to learn language Dismissed Confucian scholars Russia seen as a vassal state Comparison: Both China and Russia were politically subordinate to Mongol Rule Both China and Russia benefited from the Silk Road trade Extracted taxes from the peasants Facilitated the Black Plague Contrast Russian government was not occupied by the Golden Horde, while China's government was greatly influenced by the Mongols Mongols exercised toleration for the Russians, while being culturally and socially indifferent to the Chinese Russian princes extracted taxes while foreigners or Mongols bureaucrats controlled politically and economically