Organisational Culture Essay Example
Organisational Culture Essay Example

Organisational Culture Essay Example

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  • Pages: 11 (2898 words)
  • Published: September 14, 2017
  • Type: Case Study
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Few issues have a greater impact on organizational outcomes than culture. Culture shapes the behavior, beliefs, and values of its members.

The essay contends that leadership is a crucial element of a strong internal culture within an organization, which effective leaders utilize to achieve a competitive advantage. This, in turn, supports the notion of an inclusive and multicultural administration.

The attack taken is dual in nature, being both theoretical and experimental. It consists of three subdivisions: first, the concept of observable civilization, which includes nucleus values and the preparative position of diverseness management.

Secondly, there are discussions on 'Multiculturalism, diversity management, and the central role of leadership', and also, 'A critical reflection on multiculturalism and leadership within a known organization'. These topics revolve around discernible culture.

According to Schein (2010), organizational culture encompasses three elements: nucleus values, a pr


eparative position, and diverseness direction.

The text discusses three aspects related to workplace behavior: the behavior of employees, the learning style within the organization's development, and the beliefs and values of new members and leaders. Leadership is considered a crucial element in fostering a strong internal culture (Schein).

According to Schermerhorn et al. (2010), the strength of the internal civilization is a reflection of the administration's leadership.

According to Schermerhorn et al. (2014), the year 2014 serves as an example of a self-fulfilling prophecy. Chatman and Cha (2014) explain that leadership determines whether an internal culture is beneficial or harmful to an organization.

Strong organizational cultures are inclusive and cohesive, intertwining employees with shared values and beliefs. Furthermore, in 2003.

According to Deal & Kennedy as cited in Ross (2000), a strong civilization is characterized by directors actively communicating organizational goals to members and closel

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aligning the organizational structure with those goals. However, there is a contrasting viewpoint.

According to Smircich (as cited in Ross), weak civilizations display fragmented values and beliefs. Though individuals may associate with a supervisor, colleague, or sub-culture, there is a lack of cohesive commitment to the larger goals of the organization.

According to Ross (2000), weak civilizations rarely provide the necessary support and achieve the strategic objectives of the administration. Typically, this is the case.

According to Schein (2010), the attitudes of the administrations' founders or leaders play a crucial role in the evolution of internal civilization. Thus, emphasizing the significant impact of leadership in cultivating a strong internal culture. Competent leaders are able to identify any dysfunctional aspects of culture and take action to implement change initiatives (Schein, 2010).

In bending steering the administration towards increased performance and sustainable competitive advantage ( Chatman ; A ; Cha. 2003 ), directors achieve strong internal culture and competitive advantage by incorporating a three-pronged approach. First.

The text suggests three ways to create a positive work environment. Firstly, it recommends establishing shared values and beliefs. Secondly, it emphasizes aligning operating procedures with established rules. Lastly, it suggests demonstrating commitment to individuals and teams within the internal environment.

Members, clients, and stakeholders are mentioned by Schermerhorn et al. (2014) and Ross (2000).

While organizational culture can be examined at various levels (Schein, 1984), it is commonly categorized into two levels: 'observable' culture and 'core' culture (Schermerhorn et al., n.d.).

According to Schein (1984), discernible culture refers to the way the environment is created and the behaviors exhibited by its members. This culture is observable, meaning it can be seen and heard within

the environment (Schein, 1984; 2014).

The office layout, mode of dress, and manner of communicating all serve as illustrations of the organization's culture. It is through these visible aspects that the values and beliefs of the administration are reinforced among current members and learned by new members (Schermerhorn et al.).

. 2014) . The customs of the members of a discernible civilization are reflected, including narratives and heroes.

Symbols and rituals are discussed by Schermerhorn et al. (2014) as an initial topic.

The purpose of narratives is to transmit and reinforce civilization by illustrating a history of organizational life (Karathanos, 1998). It has been demonstrated that there is a positive connection between the number and type of narratives shared and organizational commitment (Wilkins, as cited in Karathanos).

In 1998, heroes are individuals who exemplify the fundamental values of an organization. They act as role models, reinforcing the company's values and setting a standard for performance.

Symbols represent actions, such as agitating hands and specific language used within the organization (Karathanos, 1998). Additionally, last rites and ceremonies symbolize events like Christmas parties.

Award ceremonies and regular meetings serve to strengthen the bond between members within an organization (Schein, 2010). A symbolic leader is someone who incorporates these four elements of visible culture into their leadership, ultimately encouraging others to do the same (Schermerhorn et al.).

. 2014) . The explanation for members' behavior in an organization is more difficult to determine than the reasons behind discernible civilization, which focuses on the 'how' and 'what' of internal civilization (Schein, 1998).

p. 3). In order for directors to comprehend why individuals and groups exhibit specific characteristics, they must examine the "second and deeper level of culture," referred

to as nucleus civilization.

(Schermerhorn et al., 2014, p. 67).

The core values of an administration go beyond the beliefs or 'norms' to include implicit premises or "taken-for-granted qualities" (Schein, 1984, p.).

3). The underlying premises are formed through group experience, which strengthens member behavior, work, and the integration of new members (Martin, 2003).

Though nucleus values may often be unconscious, they play a crucial role in determining member interactions within the internal environment (Schein, 1984). The strength of these values greatly influences organizational performance. Numerous studies have demonstrated that an organization's commitment to its nucleus values is a key factor in achieving long-term success (Schermerhorn et al.).

In 2014, directors must ensure that core values meet three criteria. First, are the core values relevant to the organization's objectives? Second, have the core values been effectively communicated throughout the organization and widely understood by all members?

In addition to establishing and maintaining strong distinct culture and core values, directors must also acknowledge organizational subcultures as a vital and interconnected component of internal culture. Furthermore, it is important to inquire whether the nucleus values have been unanimously accepted by all members (Schermerhorn et al., 2014). Similar to the existence of subcultures within society.

They exist within administrations, subcultures typically fall into four categories (Schermerhorn et al., 2014). First.

Occupational subcultures are built on hierarchical degrees. Functional subcultures, on the other hand, revolve around divisions within an organization, such as sections (Jermier).

Slocum, Fry, and Gaines (1991) found that it was the third factor.

"Ethnic or national" subcultures encompass demographic distinctions, such as ethnicity and gender (Schermerhorn et al., 2014, p. 75).

First, second, third, and fourth generational subcultures are the coevals spreads among the "baby boomers," "generation

Xers," "generation Yers," and the "next generation" (Schermerhorn et al.).

. 2014. p. 75). Understanding the differences between subcultures is crucial for directors when implementing effective cultural change initiatives (Linnenluecke & Griffiths.

According to Schermerhorn et al. (2010), directors face the challenge of implementing change initiatives when one subculture holds a majority position within the organization, while others are in the minority in terms of representation.

In order to answer this question, it is necessary to have a historical understanding of Equal Opportunity (EO) (Moss, 2010). Equal Opportunity policies were implemented during the 1960s and 1970s (Kirton & Green, 2014, p. 76).

as mentioned in Moss (2010), in the 1980's.

With the rise of "expanding equal opportunity laws and increased concerns about discrimination lawsuits," diversity management initiatives have emerged (Dobbin; Kelly ; Dobbin, as cited in Roscigno ; Wilson).

;A; Berrey (2014, p. 349) argues that equality policies have typically focused on adhering to legal requirements and promoting equality through the idea of sameness (Gagnon ; A; Cornelius, 2000).

According to Alvesson and Billing (as cited in Moss, 2010, p. 4), this mindset accepted the notion of "white, non-disabled."

According to Tomaskovic-Devey and Stainback, heterosexual men believe that their experiences and interpretations of organizational life can be applied universally. However, despite progress in promoting minority groups and women in professional positions, they still remain largely underrepresented compared to their male colleagues (as cited in Roscigno and Wilson).

;A; Berrey (2014, p. 349) highlights the challenge faced by managers today – the need to utilize "modern management approaches" to eliminate workplace inequality (Schermerhorn et al.).

According to Roscigno et al. (2014, p. 46), diverseness management presents a solution to the challenge mentioned in the previous


. 2014). While equal opportunity is based on legal and policy compliance, diversity training is based on organizational initiative and the concept of "equality through difference" (Gagnon ; Cornelius.

2000. p. 69). The presence of diversity includes ethnicity, race, and gender.

"the handicapped and any other under-represented group" (Gagnon ; A; Cornelius, 2000, pp. 68-69).

A civilization built on diverse management meets members' "self-actualisation needs" (Schermerhorn et al., 2014, p. 44), thereby creating an internal environment allowing individuals and groups to reach their maximum potential (Schermerhorn et al.).

In 2014, the responsibility for leading cultural change initiatives does not solely rest on a select group of individuals who hold key leadership positions (Schermerhorn et al.).

The text states that in 2014 on page 68, some information was found from Stanford in 2011.

p. 106) It is the responsibility of the top management to establish the cultural model for all directors.

Regardless of rubric and place, individuals are accountable for "change leadership" (Schermerhorn et al., 2014, p. 440).

Multiculturalism, diversity management, and the essential role of leadership are all related concepts. Diversity refers to the various differences among individuals, often referring to age.

The aspects of gender, race, ethnicity, and nationality are discussed by Schermerhorn et al.

According to Schermerhorn et al. (2014), embracing belief and respect, diversity is an integral part of internal culture. As a result, managers need to be responsive to changes in "environmental trends".

. 2014. p. 60 ) and modifying operations as administrations become more diverse ( Moss.

With the increase in diversity in administrations, the organization's "specific environment" also expands (Schermerhorn et al., 2010).

In 2014, directors must ensure that the administration delivers a more diverse work force in response to the increased

culturally diverse consumers (Allen, Dawson).

According to Wheatley and White (2008), integrating the differing positions of members enhances decision-making and creative problem-solving. This is supported by Schermerhorn et al. (2014), who suggest that integrating differing positions expedites these processes.

In today's business world, organizations are expected to be more inventive and offer innovative products and solutions in order to effectively cater to their customers and other stakeholders. (Gardenswartz, Cherbosque, & Rowe, year)

In 2010, on page 74, it was mentioned that adapting to diversity in this way helps to uphold a long-term commitment to "total quality management" (Schermerhorn et al., 2014).

p. 71) showing the administration with an important competitive advantage. To capitalize on the competitive advantage created by diversity, leaders are urged to create multicultural organizations.

A multicultural administration is one of three types of administration, each with different implications for diversity (Msibi, 2011, p. 170).

First, there is the massive administration. Second, there is the plural administration. And eventually, there is the multicultural administration (Cox, 1991).

According to Cox (1991), the massive administration has a high level of homogeneity and lacks structural integration (pp. 36-37).

The plural administration promotes inclusiveness among individuals through conformity to workplace laws (Cox, 1991). However, it presents a slanted model of integration due to its reliance on legal conformity (Gagnon & Cornelius, 2000).

This presents a significant flaw by isolating it from the multicultural management (Cox, 1991). The multicultural management, as pointed out by Sales and Mirvis (as cited in Cox).

In 1991, being multicultural does not simply mean having culturally diverse individuals. Instead, it refers to having a pluralistic administration that recognizes and embraces diversity.

In opposition to the plural administration, which is attempting to comply

with equity policies with certain limitations, the multicultural administration has surpassed these restrictions (Msibi, 2011, p. 170) (Cox).

As equal chance policies were introduced in 1991, a passage commenced off from massive administrations (Moss, 2010).

While directors today mainly operate within plural administrations, the question is how do administrations transition from pluralism to multiculturalism (Cox, 1991)? In response, administrations must expand beyond legal conformity and instead fully incorporate diversity management as part of the administration's "value chain" (Schermerhorn et al.).

2014. p. 49). This positions diversity as an important component of the corporate strategy (Moss, 2010). It also supports an organization's shift towards multiculturalism.

Cox (1991) outlines six schemes, including the first scheme which involves establishing pluralism, where cultural identities, values, and behaviors are preserved in accordance with legal conformity. The second scheme is...

The text asserts the eradication of any connection between minority members of society and their occupation status. It also emphasizes the provision of assistance for career development through mentoring and support groups. Additionally, it calls for the elimination of cultural prejudice, specifically discrimination and bias.

To support these six schemes, the fifth scheme ensures that members of the administration personally identify with and specify themselves as members. Additionally, the sixth scheme aims to eliminate conflicts between minority and majority members.

Roosevelt (2011) outlines four essential components for the design and implementation of a diversity management program: a comprehensive understanding of the diversity context, effective strategic planning for diversity management.

Third, it is essential to strategically and effectively implement a diversity program. This includes critically reflecting on multiculturalism and leadership within a specific organization. In this section, I will share my personal observations of multiculturalism at my current workplace.

As the

Human Resource and Compliance Manager for my organization, I understand that historically, leadership has not taken enough action on embracing multiculturalism. However, this is changing as we are currently witnessing significant changes within our company. It's important to note that although the organization operates as a Defence contractor, the administration itself is civilian.

43% of members, including 30% of the direction, have a military background. This means that the administration's culture is heavily influenced by the military mindset.

The administration's operations have always been massive. It has been characterized by a high presence of white males and a low presence of women and culturally diverse individuals in management roles (Cox, 1991). Recruitment and selection is one area where management has historically failed to promote multiculturalism.

The act of enlisting has promoted the phenomenon known as the "similarity-attraction effect" (Chatman ; A ; Cha, 2003, p. 26). In support of this concept, 92% of the members are male.

Only 4% of members come from culturally diverse backgrounds, and only 2% of females hold positions in management. This shows that there is a lack of inclusiveness in the company and that it has not taken sufficient action to promote multiculturalism. There is virtually no "structural integration" and a medium to high level of "intergroup conflict" within the organization (Schermerhorn et al., [year]).

Member individuality is closely aligned to past rank or current place rubric (2014, p. 74).

For example, since February 2014, ex-military members have been imposing prejudices on other ex-military members based on their old rank. Additionally, non ex-military members have expressed reluctance to use promotional places.

A culture survey has been conducted to measure cultural attitudes and promote multiculturalism. The methods employed

have been inclusive, including the formation of a "quality circle" (Schermerhorn et al.).

Although we referred to it as a 'survey advisory committee' (2014, p. 72).

The study was developed by a commission of 16 voluntary members who worked independently. By mid June 2014, the study consequences will be codified and an additional commission will be formed to make recommendations on suitable alteration initiatives. This approach is a bottom-up approach to direction (Schermerhorn et al., 2014).

Despite opposition from my equals within the direction group, the enterprise has been well received by other staff (Schermerhorn et al., 2014, p. 440).


This essay has shown that effective leadership combined with multiculturalism, inclusiveness, and diversity management create a cohesive bond, resulting in a robust organizational culture. This is particularly important in an ever more diverse world.

Advanced directors promote multiculturalism and inclusiveness by adapting to changing circumstances, moving away from conformity-based leadership, and evolving towards a multicultural administration. This administration incorporates diversity management into its corporate strategy. Multicultural administrations achieve better business results and gain competitive advantage in the end.

Organizational excellence relies on managers' commitment and capability to build a workforce that embraces inclusiveness and multiculturalism.


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