Olympic Weightlifting Essay

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Olympic Weightlifting

The competitory side of weightlifting can be dated back to the antediluvian Egyptians and ancient Greeks. Ancient Egyptian sculptures depict work forces raising bags of sand over their caputs, and sculptures of work forces keeping rocks over their caputs in ancient Grecian civilization. Even Chinese texts dating back 5,000 old ages Tell of possible soldiers, before they can fall in the ground forces, holding to go through a series of raising trials. Weight-lifting competitions can be dated back to the early 19Thursdaycentury in the European states such as Germany, Russia, and France. The first clip that competitory weightlifting was seen during the Olympics was in the 1896 games that were aid in Athens. Olympic weight-lifting stayed as an event in 1900 and 1904, but was so suspended because it was non regulated, but returned in 1920 after the International Weightlifting Committee ( IWF ) was asked to oversee the events.

The IWF was formed in 1905 and was originally called the Federation Haltephile International ( FHI ) . This organisation was asked to oversee the Olympic weight-lifting events and set regulations and ordinances. The IWF set into topographic point that for each lift, the jock is allowed three efforts to successfully finish the lift. Each effort is granted a one minute clip span in which the lift must be completed with right signifier in order to be counted. If the contestant is non able to finish the lift within the given three efforts, an overall arrangement will non be received, but the other lift may still be completed. The heaviest lift completed is the lone 1 that is recorded for judging. There are besides three referees that judge the competition. Each ref is in control of a ruddy and a white visible radiation, white bespeaking a successful lift, and ruddy bespeaking an unsuccessful effort. When the visible radiations are activated, a horn will sound to allow the rival know that it is clip to drop the weight. In order for a lift to number and be recorded, two Judgess must choose the white light index.

When competitory weightlifting was foremost introduced into the Olympic Games, it was non done how we know it today. The events used to be broken up into two classs, one and two handed lifts, and consisted of three lifts, instead than two. The bit and the clean and dork were portion of it, but besides the clean and imperativeness was one of the events. The clean and imperativeness was eliminated in the 1972 games, and Olympic weightlifting became what it is today. The one-handed lifts were besides done away with in the 1928 games, go forthing merely ambidextrous lifts to be performed. Once weight classs were set up, eight different groups were formed, the 56kg class, the 62kg, the 69kg, the 77kg, 85kg, 94kg, 105kg, and the over 105kg class.

All equipment is regulated by the IWF, this includes the barbell, the phonograph record used to increase weight, and the neckbands used to maintain the weight in topographic point. For the men’s saloon, the weight is precisely 20kg and made from steel. The weights of the phonograph record scope from 0.5kg up to 25kg and are specific colourss so they are easy identifiable. The weights and colourss are as follows: 25kg ( ruddy ) , 20kg ( blue ) , 15kg ( yellow ) , 10kg ( green ) , 5kg ( white ) , 2.5kg ( ruddy ) , 2kg ( blue ) , 1kg ( green ) , and 0.5kg ( white ) . The neckbands used to procure the phonograph record each weight 2.5kg. The platform that the competition takes topographic point on can be made of wood, plastic, or any stuff with a non-slip surface and must mensurate four metres by four metres.

In the Olympic weightlifting event, there are three winning topographic points: gold, Ag, and bronze, which are first, 2nd, and 3rd severally. The topographic point for each jock is determined by who lifts the highest combined sum from both lifts. In the opportunity that there is a tie, the lifter that weighs the least will take the higher topographic point. If a rival is within 10kg of the universe record, they are granted a 4th effort to seek and interrupt the record. In order to put a new universe record, the weight lifted must be at least 0.5kg heavier than the current universe record. If a new record is set on the 4th effort, even if it is their heavy weight lifted during the competition, it is non recorded into their overall runs.

During the bit lift, the motion must completed in one, fluid motion. The saloon begins on the land and is lifted to arm’s length above the caput with the jock being able to travel his pess or knee bend under the barbell during the lift before returning to the standing place for the lift to be complete. Enoka provinces in his article that the lifter pulls the saloon up to his thorax and so knee bends under the saloon before it begins to come back down to the land ( Enoka, 1979 ) . Once the jock has finished the lift, he must keep his place for two seconds, until the referees signal that the lift is complete and he may so put the weight back down.

On the other manus, the clean and dork is a two portion motion that does non necessitate to toss off continuously. For this lift, the barbell besides starts on the land in forepart of the lifter. Encyclopedia Britannica states that one time that barbell has been lifted to the shoulders and the jock has control of the saloon, it is so jerked operating expense to arm’s length, with the whole organic structure to the full vertical. The jock must keep this place for two seconds until the referees signal that the lift is complete and he may put the weight down.

Fitness Components

For an Olympic weightlifter, there are several fitness constituents that are comparative, but tow stand out as the most of import, that is power and strength. These two constituents will be the chief focal point of an athlete’s preparation, but others such as power endurance, strength endurance, velocity, and flexibleness will hold a little function in the early phases of preparation to assist construct a base for the jock to work away of.

If the jock wants to go successful in Olympic weightlifting, muscular power is bar none, the most of import constituent to develop. This is because both lifts during Olympic events require really high degrees of muscular power, where explosiveness is cardinal. Both the bit and the clean and jerk require maximum power end product throughout the full organic structure in order to put to death each lift decently. Power allows the jock to bring forth a big sum of force to be able to raise the saloon off the land and operating expense every bit rapidly as possible. Upper organic structure power is indispensable to be able to raise the saloon operating expense and be able to keep T at that place, and lower organic structure power is indispensable because it is the driving force throughout the lift. Having as much lower organic structure power as possible, allows to the jock to drive the saloon up after he catches it in the chunky place. The weight lifter is normally highly heavy, sometimes several times heavy than the athlete themselves. The force per unit area of the weight is invariably applied throughout the lifters body down to their pess, this is why lower organic structure power is so of import. Sokolov negotiations about a term called support reaction, where the force through the pess is pushed down to the land, where an equal and opposite force is pushed back ( Sokolov, 1970 ) . This occurs when the jock uses his ain generated force in order to raise and keep the weight he is trying. Maximal power end product is needed because each lift merely requires one repeat, with equal remainder being allowed in between lifts and efforts.

Muscular strength is another major constituent when preparation for Olympic weightlifting. Since weightlifting is a strenuous athletics, where heavy tonss are being moved about, a high degree of strength is needed to be able to execute these lifts. Since strength is the overall weight being lifted over clip, being able to keep signifier or travel out of a sticking point requires a big sum of strength to be able to get the better of the force being exerted onto the jock. With adequate muscular strength, the lifter will be able to easy get the better of the barbell at remainder and maintain their force end product throughout the lift, particularly if the lift takes somewhat longer than an expected.

Strength and power work manus in manus when executing the bit and the clean and dork. Power is needed during the beginning of the lift, when maximum musculus enlisting and being able to raise the weight every bit speedy as possible is necessary. From at that place, strength becomes of import while crouching back up to the unsloped, vertical place, and being able to keep the right position until the Judgess signal that the weight can be dropped. If either of these constituents is missing during the lift, the jock will non be able to successfully finish their lifts.

While velocity and flexibleness are non indispensable to an Olympic lifter, they are still needed to assist be successful. Speed is of import, because both lifts are needed to be done every bit rapidly as possible, and flexibleness is needed to do certain that the jock has proper scope of gesture in the hips and shoulders so there is no trouble during the knee bend or keeping the weight operating expense. In footings of velocity, the jock must develop in finishing lifts rapidly, so that the organic structure can set to the speedy motions needed to be performed. For flexibleness, if the jock does non hold proper scope of gesture in the hips or shoulders, they risk the opportunity of going injured, or hazard non holding proper signifier during the lift and holding the effort non count as successfully being completed.

Aspects of preparation such as legerity, balance, and endurance are non required for an Olympic lifter. Agility is non needfully required because the jock does non necessitate to be able to rapidly alter waies since he is by and large stationary. He does non necessitate to travel about much, merely little stairss to be able to maintain the weight operating expense and non drop it prematurely. Endurance is besides non required since during competition, the jock ne’er performs more than one rep of a lift at a clip and equal remainder is ever given between efforts. When it comes to equilibrate, since the jock ne’er moves to one pes, and ever has their centre of gravitation over the center of their organic structure with both pess planted, there isn’t much hazard of losing balance.

There are besides several trials that can be done in order to see where the athlete bases in respect to where he should be. Non-fatiguing trials such as skinfold, girth measurings, and flexibleness are needed to be conducted at regular intervals. Tiring trials such as 1-RM for back knee bend, front knee bend, bench imperativeness, overhead barbell imperativeness, clean and dork, and bit are besides needed to be conducted to see the athlete’s betterments. For non-fatiguing trials such as skinfold and girth measurings, the jock needs to do certain that they stay within a healthy scope. Even though an Olympic weight lifter is by and large really bulky, their fat mass to nonfat mass demands to be in cheque. If their organic structure fat per centum becomes excessively high, their weight may non be decently declarative of their weight category and the sum of weight they can raise. Flexibility is needed to be tested on a regular footing to do certain that the jock does non go excessively tight so they do non put on the line going injured during their lifts. The 1-RM trials are needed to be done at regular intervals every bit good to guarantee that the jock is come oning throughout their preparation to be able to raise the most sum of weight as possible during completion. These trials make certain that the preparation is traveling good, or if things need to be changed in order to do betterments.

Macrocycle Goals

For the twelvemonth taking up to the Olympic Games, this macrocycle’s overall end is to develop a strong base of a lifter’s power and strength, every bit good as technique. Flexibility and velocity is besides traveling to be portion of this to do certain that the jock is in top for when competition begins. Throughout the bulk of preparation, power and strength development will be the chief constituents to work on, with velocity and flexibleness playing little functions throughout, and technique being focused on taking up to the clip of competition. The macrocycle will be broken down into four mesocycles: off-season, pre-season, in-season, and post-season. The twelvemonth dislocation for each mesocycle is as follows:

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Off-season

This mesocycle will concentrate on set uping a baseline for the jock, every bit good on developing some constituents non wholly needed for competition, but needed for doing the most additions as possible. The type of developing done here will be at a high volume to better strength, but at a low strength to construct up to the type of preparation to do power betterments is needed. This mesocycle will concentrate to a great extent on hypertrophy and strength. This will be in order to construct musculus mass taking the development of power. The off-season mesocycle will be broken into several smaller mesocycles to be able to properly addition in volume and strength taking into the pre-season. The off-season will get down not athletics specific preparation, taking into more sport specific preparation and will imply lower volumes at higher strengths ( Stone, 1980 ) .

At the beginning of the off-season, a series of pretests will be performed to place where the jock stands and be able to make proper ends for the macrocycle ( Harman, 2008 ) . The ground for pre-tests is to set up a baseline for an jock. With baseline consequences, proper ends and ways to increase burden for the preparation, every bit good as to be able to see betterments throughout the macrocycle through follow up trials. Bing able to decently prove the jock will let for both the strength and status manager and the lifter to cognize what betterments were made and what still needs to be done.

Pre-Season

This is the longest mesocycle for the jock during the full preparation twelvemonth. The pre-season will tag when the jock moves into more sport-specific preparation for his athletics. It is here that safety becomes far more of import, because any hurt that occurs during this mesocycle may prevail into the competition and negatively impact the jock. Hazard of hurt is indispensable to be cognizant of, and all safeguards to avoid this must be taken. This means that move power type exercisings will be done at lower volumes, but at much higher strengths. This will guarantee that when the competition ( in-season ) period comes about, the jock will be able to bring forth every bit much power, as rapidly and expeditiously as possible. This mesocycle will besides be broken up into three smaller mesocycles, each with equal remainder in between to do certain the jock does non overtrain or ache themselves. It is here that power becomes the most of import constituent of the preparation, with technique besides going an of import focal point taking up to completion clip.

In-Season

This mesocycle is the shortest 1, merely last a few hebdomads. This is because the Olympic Games do non last more than two hebdomads. It is during the yearss taking up to the events, that the jock will work on honing his technique and making the maximal power end product possible for both the bit and the clean and dork. This means that the preparation will be done at highly high strengths, near to competition strength, but at a low volume similar to the competition every bit good. The clip taking up the competition yearss is when the apogee of the full preparation plan comes together. It is indispensable that the jock has developed their power and strength every bit much as possible to be able to execute at peak public presentation. Merely athletics specific exercisings will be performed here.

Post-Season

The post-season mesocycle is where the jock will be undergo active remainder. This is where the jock will be able to retrieve both physically and mentally from the twelvemonth of intense traini

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