Chapter 1 Introduction
Myanmar Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement was set up in the twelvemonth 1953 and the authorities take the duties of many societal public assistance activities and besides maintain spread outing, in close coaction with may United Nations bureaus and international Non-governmental organisation. Nowadays, United Nations bureaus, Government Organizations and both local and international NGOs are transporting out the societal public assistance services in Myanmar in add-on to the authorities societal public assistance sections.
The section was formed 5 old ages during the parliamentary democratic authorities epoch shortly after the state independent from the British colonial. After that as the Myanmar undergoes for many changing of the authoritiess, such as democratic authorities, socialist authorities and military junta so the societal public assistance theoretical account of Myanmar is besides altering from one authorities to another. It is of great involvement for societal work field to analyze what is the societal public assistance theoretical account that Myanmar is practising.
In this paper, I will seek to discourse whether the Myanmar societal public assistance theoretical account can be explained by either Richard Titmuss theoretical accounts or Esping-Anderson theoretical accounts or combination or different from both. In chapter 2, I would wish to make the literature review upon different definitions and theoretical accounts of societal public assistance in this chapter. In chapter 3, I would wish to explicate some information about the Social Welfare in Myanmar and seek to place which societal public assistance theoretical account can explicate the pattern. Chapter 4...
will consist the of import of understanding Myanmar societal public assistance theoretical account and possible pertinence of different theoretical accounts which might be best suited to state state of affairs and civilization so that the public assistance services can supply the more efficiency towards the community.
Chapter 2 Literature Review
Definitions of Social Welfare
`` Social public assistance includes those non-profit-making maps of society, public or voluntary, which are clearly aimed at relieving hurt and poorness or at bettering the conditions of the casualties of society '' ( R Dolgoff & A ; Feldstein, ( 2007 ) .
The another definition is `` all societal intercessions intended to heighten or keep the societal operation of human existences '' ( R. Dolgoff, Feldstein, & A ; Skolnik, 1997 ) .
The National Association of Social Work ( NASW ) defined `` Social Welfare as the full scope of organized activities of voluntary and governmental bureaus that seek to forestall, relieve, or contribute to the solution of recognized societal jobs, or to better the wellbeing of persons, groups, or communities '' . ( NASW, 1971 )
United Nations defined `` Social public assistance as an organized map is regarded as a organic structure of activities designed to enable persons, households, groups and communities to get by with the societal jobs of altering conditions. In add-on to and widening beyond the scope of its duties for specific services, societal public assistance has a farther map within the wide country of a state 's societal development '' . `` Social public assistance should play a major function in lending to the effectual mobilisation and deployment of human and material resources o
the state to cover successfully with the societal demands of alteration, thereby take parting in nation-building '' . ( United Nations 1967 )
Different theoretical accounts of societal public assistance
Richard Titmuss ( 1970 ) introduced 3 theoretical accounts of societal public assistance which includes residuary theoretical account, industrial-achievement theoretical account and institutional theoretical account.
In residuary theoretical account, it is charity and supplying aid in nature and the proviso of societal service is based upon selective either by average testing or eligibility standards. So, people can be socially stigmatized for the people who are having the societal public assistance services. The political orientation of the residuary theoretical account is based on the person is responsible for seeking to run into with the market economic system and the public assistance province is something to be avoided.
In industrial accomplishment theoretical account, it chiefly focuses on the individualist upon meritocratic and the proviso is upon the single virtue. Hence, the nature of societal public assistance service is like workfare. In a meritocracy, society wagess ( via wealth, place, and societal position ) those who show endowment and competency as demonstrated by past actions or by competition. There is no societal stigma and the public assistance is upon the individual 's self-responsibility.
In institutional theoretical account, Social public assistance is seen as a normal and `` legitimate map of modern society '' ( R. Dolgoff, et al. , 1997 ) . There is no stigma in this attack as it is regarded as a right of citizenship and most of the plans are cosmopolitan and no more selective.
Again, on the other manus, Esping-Anderson ( 1990 ) proposed that there is another three types of theoretical account viz. conservative theoretical account, broad theoretical account and societal democratic theoretical account which are in fact tantamount to the Richard Titmuss ( 1970 ) 3 theoretical accounts of residuary theoretical account, industrial-achievement theoretical account and institutional theoretical account severally. The residuary and industrial accomplishment theoretical accounts are similar in objecting inordinate public assistance.
Table 1: Explanation of different theoretical accounts from different positions and the states that are presently patterns
- Richard Titmuss Model
- Industrial Achievement
- Esping-Anderson Model
- Social Democratic
- Rehearsing State
- France, Germany, Austria
- UK, USA, Australia
- Sweden, Denmark, Norway
- Charity, aid
- Citizen right
- Footing of proviso
- Selective ( e.g. means trial, eligibility )
- Individual virtue
- Universal entitlement
- Social stigma
- May carry stigma
- No stigma
- Political orientation
- Free market, single duty
- Individualist, Meritocratic
- Collectivist, State duty
- Government Role
Chapter 3 Myanmar Social Welfare at a glimpse
Background of Myanmar Ministry of Social Welfare ( YCDC, 2003 )
In Myanmar, the societal public assistance services are provided either from the authorities section, the section of societal public assistance or straight from UN, INGO and NGO services towards the community and vulnerable people. But still, as the authorities is military junta, every service either from the authorities or from the bureaus need the authorities functionary blessing in anterior to any activities/services.
When looking at the Ministry degree, it has instituted three sections, the societal public assistance section, fire services section and alleviation and relocation section.
In add-on to the
three sections, the authorities has designated the Ministry of Social public assistance, Relief and Resettlement as three national focal points Myanmar national Committee for adult females 's personal businesss, National Committee on the Rights of the Childs Myanmar and National Committee on Social Development.
Social Welfare in Myanmar claimed that they aim at assisting towards a common accommodation of vulnerable and their societal environment. The ministry has the undermentioned aims of societal public assistance:
- To help the vulnerable groups so as to reintegrate into the society through societal work methods.
- To resettle and rehabilitate victims of catastrophes.
- To do our state free from fire jeopardy.
- To promote the non-governmental organisations to take part in national motion for societal development.
- To develop and organize the fire service forces and voluntary fire-men to go the modesty force to safeguard peace and stableness of the province.
In add-on to the above aims, the followerss are the adoptive policy of the Ministry.
- Equalization of chances fore vulnerable group in Myanmar society.
- The authorities attaches a high precedence to the public assistance of kids, young person, adult females, national races shacking in the handicapped, the aged, socially handicapped and disadvantaged groups.
- Responsible for rendering alleviation and relocation services to victims of natural catastrophes such as temblors, storms, inundations and fire catastrophes.
The Union of Myanmar has besides promulgated Torahs to guarantee the rights and to protect the Citizen. Among the Torahs three are some footing Torahs which are straight concerned with Department of Social Welfare ( DSW ) to implement Social public assistance programmes and for the protection of the socially disabled citizens. These Torahs and ordinance are Prostitution Suppression Act, 1949, Disabled Persons Employment Act, 1958 and The Child Law, 1993 under basic jurisprudence. There are besides 3 other related jurisprudence nowadays which are Registration of Kittima Adoption Ad, 1941. , Myanmar Maternal and Child Welfare Association Law ( MMCWA ) , 1991 and Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substance jurisprudence, 1993.
The DSW implements societal public assistance services in eight different countries of societal demands by both direct and indirect agencies. The different types of societal public assistance services includes child public assistance service, youth public assistance service, adult females welfare service, attention of the aged, rehabilitation of handicapped, rehabilitation of ex-drug nuts, rehabilitation and socialisation of Vagrants and grant-in-aid to voluntary Organization.
Harmonizing to local demands and state of affairss, the part of societal services has been made by the Non-governmental organisation ( NGOs ) with the coaction of community. At present, with the encouragement of the authorities at that place has been copiousness of NGOs in Myanmar national every bit good as international NGOs.
Myanmar National Committee for Women 's Affairs ( MNCWA ) was formed on 3 July 1996, to implement activities for the promotion of adult females consistently. Subsequently, the Myanmar National Working Committee for Women 's Affair ( MNWCWA ) was formed on 7 October 1996, to ease the activities. The authorities besides designated the Ministry of Social public assistance, Relief and Resettlement as the National Focal Point for Women 's Affairs.
Myanmar has acceded to the convention on the Rights of the Child in 1991
and the Child Law was enacted in 1993. The National Committee on the Rights of the Child ( NCRC ) was formed in October 1993, headed by the Minister of Social Welfare.
The Department is implementing societal development programmes in coaction with the Asia and Pacific every bit good as ASEAN member states.
In add-on to the above services provided by Ministry of Social Welfare, the section is besides involved in carry oning the Post Graduate Diploma in Social Work which was late started in 2006. Previously there is no societal work preparation in the state even though the nonsubjective figure 1 of Ministry which includes supplying the services with societal work methods. This class is funded by UNICEF, articulation with Department of Social Welfare and Department of Psychology ( Yangon University ) .
Analysis of the Myanmar Social Welfare Model
Even thought the ministry set up the aims, we can establish out that they did non hold clear nonsubjective upon how to assist and supply services towards the vulnerable and laden people. And besides the policy and the aims are merely at the policy degree and ne'er make to the execution degree. The staffs from the section of societal public assistance are civil retainers and they are non motivated at all due to their low wage wage and no acquisition chances for their services.
The nature of the Myanmar Social Welfare is mixed in nature as the authorities did non supply the direct services to the people. The services are coming largely from the UN/INGO/NGO and some community based organisations with in footings of charity and human-centered aid. Even though the Government claimed that the services are cosmopolitan to all but still far off from the existent coverage as there is no citizen rights at all in the state.
The footing of proviso of societal public assistance either universal or selective is besides depend upon in the undertaking understanding with the giver bureaus and their support policy. Compulsary instruction of up to 5th class is funded by Unicef so it is cosmopolitan to all the kids of the state. Universal immunisation programme ( UCI ) and expanded programme for immunisation ( EPI ) are funded by Unicef, JICA, Japan Vaccines, AusAid so all the kids under 5 old ages of age received the all the inoculations under the wellness programme free.
But on the other manus, in public lodging, it is non provided to general populace. The authorities provided merely to the authorities civil retainers but even non all the civil retainers received the lodging. Merely the higher degree functionaries received the public lodging. But all the military retainers receive the public lodging. So, we can term it as extremely selective with prejudices and might non term it as societal public assistance service.
Social security is besides received merely the civil retainers particularly towards the military retainers and the authorities did non take into history of the general populace or community. The authorities wellness attention is cost sharing in nature and all the patients need to supply the cost of the medical specialties and diagnostic and research lab charges. The other charges such as physicians ' fees,
nurses ' fees, room fees are free when they are admitted to the authorities infirmaries.
There is a section called Medical Social Work section in most of the large infirmary but they are no more operation at all now. They merely present as a one of the needed construction for the infirmary. The staffs are besides non trained by proper societal work techniques but if the patient is excessively hapless to purchase the needed medical specialties or something, they can reach to this medical societal worker. If there is any money, donated by anybody, is present in this medical societal work section, they provided to this hapless patient. If non, they can non supply any support and it is some signifier of charity based aid.
Family, kids and young person services are based upon the residential attention attack as the section of societal public assistance has many preparation schools for young person, kids and even for adult females. In fact, these preparation schools are the same as the detainment Centre or attention Centres and non all the young person and kids remaining there are allowed to travel out of this so called preparation school. There is no proper service puting supplying towards household force and kid maltreatment even though there are high rate of such instances inside the state. As the authorities accede the UNCRC, and they formed National CRC, province and divisional CRC and even township CRC all over the state but all these are non working at all.
There are some authorities owned NGO ( GONGO ) such as Myanmar maternal and kid public assistance association ( MMCWA ) and Myanmar Women Affairs Federation ( MWAF ) but they are besides merely the political figures and assisting towards some instances of household force, gender based force ( GBV ) and child maltreatment but as they are besides non trained societal workers in their organisation, the services that they provided are besides like stuff supports based upon the charity and human-centered aid attack. There is no consistently assisting towards the vulnerable.
One of the of import constituents of the societal public assistance services, the aged services are besides provided by INGO/NGO chiefly. The authorities supply really little sum of money and official enrollment to these place for aged. The section of societal public assistance did non hold any residential attention installations towards the elderly.
Social services provided towards disablement peoples and rehabilitation service is besides one of the weak countries in Myanmar. The rehabilitation is chiefly towards the disable from the military retainers who has lost their legs due to mine in the frontiers. INGO/NGO are now seeking to work towards the community based rehabilitation programme with the permission of the authorities.
Many of the community development are organized and implemented by the UN/INGO/NGO and authorities Ministry of Progress of Border Areas and National Races and Development Affairs. But this authorities ministry is chiefly focused upon the stuff development such as route, bridges etc and non stress on the human and societal capital development.
There are no specialized services or bureaus working for the ex-prisoner or wrongdoer. The authorities has correctional section under the ministry of
Home Affairs which is besides known as section of prisons. After the wrongdoer release from the prison, there is no follow up or societal public assistance services towards them. And besides there is no bureaus working upon these peoples.
There is merely one preparation school for the whole state where all the juvenile delinquent are detained and provided the correctional preparation. Still the staffs assigned in this preparation school are non trained societal workers.
There is no societal stigma upon having the societal public assistance services and even the people are proud of having the societal public assistance service aid because really few peoples received these services.
Government political orientation upon societal public assistance is to do the societal control upon the community. The authorities did non implementing services or even non they implemented, they are non expeditiously implemented. They did extra intercession towards policy upon the supplying the services by the bureaus.
Chapter 4 Decision
Harmonizing to the situational analysis of the societal public assistance services nowadays in the state Myanmar, the current theoretical account that the authorities implementing is non either residuary or industrial accomplishment or institutional theoretical account. And besides there is no specific theoretical account because the section does the services at ad hoc basic depending upon the undertaking proposed by the UN/INGO/NGO. Due to the opinion by the military junta, the section of societal public assistance did non hold budget for their public assistance services and so the section stands merely as a focal point/liaison between the bureaus and the authorities. And most of the bureaus need to supply the services under the name of the section of societal public assistance.
On decision, it is hard to place what is the societal public assistance theoretical account of Myanmar presently. But the state is in the passage phase from military junta to the multi-party election in the twelvemonth 2010. And the general fundamental law is already drawn but still specific policies and regulations will put up in the following freshly elected authorities. So, we all hope that there will be a proper theoretical account for Myanmar societal public assistance in the manus of new authorities.
- Dolgoff, R. , & A ; Feldstein, D. ( ( 2007 ) . Understanding Social Welfare: A Search for Justice ( 7th ed. ) . Boston: Allyn & A ; Bacon.
- Dolgoff, R. , Feldstein, D. , & A ; Skolnik, L. ( 1997 ) . Analyzing a societal public assistance plan: Structural constituents, alternate plan features, and rating ( 4th ed. ) . New York: Longman.
- NASW. ( 1971 ) . Encyclopedia of Social Work ( Vol. II ) .
- YCDC. ( 2003 ) . Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement.
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