Low birth rate in Hong Kong Essay
Presents, the universe population merely over 6 billion and systematically gauge to increase to 9 billion in the following 50 old ages. The growing rate is largely come from those developing states, particularly from Africa. Nevertheless, the birth rate which we would name it as population growing rate is diminishing in Hong Kong. The local birth rate reached the lowest degree in the universe. Harmonizing to the study from the Census and Statistics Department, around 30,000 babes will be generated by mainland twosomes while 69,000 will be born in Hong Kong each twelvemonth. In 2006, 984 babes were produced each 1000 anticipant female parents. The appraisal of the undermentioned 30 old ages, the birth rate will be lower than 900 babes would be born with each 1000 anticipant female parents.
We can utilize the graph from Census and Statistics Department to bespeak the alteration by birth rate. In the fig. 1.1, the lines are stand foring the population in 1996 while bars are stand foring the 2006s. We would see that the population in Hong Kong is traveling to organize a contrary trigon as fewer are born in the base. Furthermore, we would see that the birth rate was go oning lessening from 1981 to 2006. Basically, the authorities has been put cognizant on the issue. In one of a meeting of legislative council, the councilors have put out this as one the points of docket.
The lessening in birth rate may assist to salvage the sustainable resources in the universe, but it would do out many society jobs every bit good. Actually, aging job is a serious issue go oning in the society. And, this would do out many effects to do the society become hapless. Aging job will take the revenue enhancement remunerator holding a heavy revenue enhancement. As the diminishing birth rate cause out, fewer revenue enhancement remunerators will necessitate to fall into the revenue enhancement system. While the figure of aged would increase to organize an unhealthy population, the Government would hold a fiscal job on lessening them. The authorities demand to bear heavy costs on medical services, aged wellness attention and retirement such as societal security allowance.
On the other manus, the instruction system may necessitate a reform. The demand would diminish as fewer kids come ining the instruction system. Those schools will be terminated by a low birth rate, and employers like instructors will be being unemployed. This is already happened in the society in 2006. Many schools are warned to close down by deficient pupils. As a consequence, promoting the birth rate is a must. Recently, the authorities noticed that the importance of holding a good birth rate and formed a commission to set concern and happening out solutions in low birth rate issue. The effectual manner is the authorities promote the citizens to better the birth rate.
1.2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
In this survey, we would wish to assist to happen out the ground of doing low birth rate.
Besides, we would non merely want to cognize the causes but besides want to happen out solutions and the ways of authorities would able to give a manus. Therefore, our research aims will be set as the followerss:
Understand the ground of low birth rate occur
Measure the effectivity of assorted methods to increase birth rate
Understand the value of holding babe ( publicity intent )
Measure the impact of assorted media on the determination to hold a kid
Obtain the demographic of response
Through this selling research, we would specify clear why the low birth rate was caused out. Afterwards, we can happen out the most effectual solution to better the birth rate, in order to forestall the following coevals to pay the heavy revenue enhancement to the authorities which is our coevals and beyond. On the other manus, we would the study will be indicated out that the effectual manner of publicity by the authorities which he citizens would believe it does work. It is good to the authorities whether the aging job is solved, the fiscal load will reform. The authorities is able to set the subsidies on the other ways that make Hong Kong going a most successful metropolis that people would wish to populate.
2.1 EXPLORARATY RESEARCH
To get down our research, we may necessitate to utilize explorative research to supply the penetrations of the low birth rate jobs. From the assorted types of explorative research technique, we have used secondary informations analysis and concentrate group when making this undertaking.
Low birth rate which is a large issue for the Hong Kong authorities, so there are plentifulness of informations about this issue on the web site of the Census and Statistics Department and besides the newspaper. The grounds why we are utilizing the secondary informations are because they are low cost and utile as background information. Besides, some of the informations are realistic as those informations are collected from the official section of Hong Kong Government. As the authorities extremely concern about the low birth rate, there are policies and publicities about how to better low birth rate, which helps us on making the inquiries for our questionnaire.
Focus group is a signifier of qualitative research in which a group of people are asked about their attitude towards a merchandise, service, construct, advertizement or thought. And there will be a moderator to present the subject of treatment and to promote the group to discourse. Using focus group can let the participants to discourse their true feeling and strong beliefs, fast to roll up informations, easy to put to death and flexible with low cost.
Forming this focal point group, our intent is to understand the ground of low birth rate, measure the effectivity of assorted methods to increase the birth rate, understand more the value of holding a babe, measure the impact of assorted media on the determination to hold a kid, obtaining the demographic of response. After making the focal point group, we can unite the observations to understand the civilization, the societal group, trying the sites to analyze, and making intelligence issues or subjects we did n’t believe of.
We would organize 2 focal point groups which consist of 6 respondents each. Besides, we need to engage a professional analyst to take the focal point group on the discoursing path. Then, we need to book a one-way mirror room to detect the advancement of the focal point group. The most of import is we should jot down the treatment by notes as an alternate manner if the picture entering devices does non work. The subject of treatment was focus on five chief issues we focused on grounds impacting the birth rate, methods to better birth rate, value on birth rate, ways to advance coevals, demographic. To get the information we need, an analyst is needed to take the focal point group to discourse on the facets. We did put the suggest inquiries:
How do you believe to bring forth a kid?
What are the costs to bring forth a kid?
What do you believe the effect to bring forth a kid?
Which ways do you propose to promote coevals?
How do you believe the policies of authorities publicity?
Summary of Findings Section
We have been held focal point groups in the March. After the focal point group, we were given out some thoughts of the low birth rate issue.
In the focal point groups people are all agree the late matrimony is the tendency in Hong Kong, many ladies are become concentrating on their work. But they conclude that the cost of holding a babe is the chief cause of low birth rate. They need to discontinue their occupation, after the babe growing, their occupation chances will be likely lower as they disconnected with the society. They discussed that the birth rate from the in-between category is of import to improved.
Subsequently, they discuss that the method to better the birth rate. Most of them thought that the authorities subsidies are the ways to assist. Education allowance is the most effectual as most of them agreed. It is because they think it is a long-run subsidy that their kids need to analyze about 10 old ages. It is benefit if it would salvage their cost. However, no 1 concern on public lodging because they thought that it is relate to the marry cost, non related to holding a babe. They would believe that the value of holding a babe is to bring forth their strain. Most of them think that the Television commercial is the effectual manner to encouraged by authorities. It is because life and sound would give them memorized.
2.2 QUNATATITIVE RESEARCH
To take a suited method to suit with our instance, we would wish to utilize the promenade intercept personal interviews for roll uping primary informations. The procedure involves halting the marks, testing them for rightness, and either administrating the study on the topographic point or ask foring them to a research installation located in the promenade to finish the interview. And, we decided to put up in Women Health Centre and the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong etc, therefore we are able to acquire the consequence that related to our outlook and intent.
The feature of the method is confined topographic point to carry on the study but velocity of informations roll uping is fast, and music directors are easier to make the assigned measure with a specific clip. It will hold the highest grade of interviewer influence of replies. Although geographical flexibleness is confined in a choice topographic point, we can canvass a big figure of mark respondents with a successful planning. There will hold low namelessness of respondents nevertheless, the respondents may non actively to collaborate. It is hard to follow up or name back but it is non an existent job. Basically, interviewers can supply clear accounts for the inquiries asked, respondents will be clearer to reply the inquiries through face-to-face interview. So, the possibility of respondent misinterpretation will be the lowest.
On the other manus, if the respondent cooperation is non plenty to run into the planned measure, we may besides utilize phone study to endorse up promenade intercept personal interview. The advantages of utilizing phone study is competitory cut down cost and the answering cooperation are good. So, it is a good back-up proposal for anything goes incorrect in the promenade intercept personal interview.
There are some measurings steering us in design our questionnaire. We should concern that each inquiries should hold a ground behind inquiring and the type of replies you would wish to have y open-ended or close-ended. Subsequently, we should concern on the questionnaire diction. In planing our questionnaire, we have avoided long inquiries that will give people confounding by utilizing short and clear diction. Second, we avoid emotional and socially desirability response by laden and premise inquiries. So, the cogency will be increased. Be certain all reply picks are reciprocally sole, look into for ambiguity in give voicing the inquiry, and guarantee if the respondents can construe the significance of words otherwise. We besides put cognizant on the personal pronouns ( gender mentions ) – ne’er use merely him ( his ) or her ( her ) unless you are mentioning to a specific gender. Be specific, instead than general inquiries and word them so that they communicate unvarying significance. Avoid utilizing dual negatives, particularly possible when utilizing Agree/Disagree.
2.3 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
There are several graduated table in puting questionnaire, interval graduated table, nominal graduated table, ordinal graduated table and ratio graduated table.
We used Interval Scale in Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4 in our questionnaire. An interval graduated table is a measurement graduated table in which a certain distance along the graduated table means the same thing no affair where on the graduated table you are, but where “ 0 ” on the graduated table does non stand for the absence of the thing being measured. The Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature graduated tables are illustrations. It is uniquely classifies, in conserves order and equal intervals.
We used Nominal Scale in Q.5B, Q.5C, Q.5D, Q.5E in our questionnaire. A nominal graduated table is truly a list of classs to which objects can be classified. For illustration, inquiring the gender and give “ Male ” and “ Female ” , for inquiring position, given “ Single ” “ Married ” and “ Divorce ” . The informations so classified are termed categorical informations, which are reflecting the categorization of objects into different classs.
We used Ordinal Scale in Q.5A, Q.5F and Q.5G in our questionnaire. An ordinal graduated table is a measurement graduated table that assigns values to objects based on their ranking with regard to one another. For illustration, Q.5G, we are inquiring about the monthly income of each mark regulation, from [ 1 ] Less than $ 5000 to [ 5 ] above $ 30,000. While you know that [ 5 ] is holding more income than [ 1 ] , but there is no deduction that [ 5 ] is twice times more than [ 1 ] . All we know is that there are 5 classs, with evidently that [ 2 ] are holding more income than [ 1 ] , [ 3 ] are holding more income than [ 2 ] , etc. The higher the value assigned, the higher the class.
2.3.2 Pretest Procedure
It is really of import for us to make the pretest before the questionnaire being publicized ; the purpose of pretesting questionnaire is to guarantee that it can be clearly understood. Since the questionnaire may hold a batch of errors, hence, we need to carry on and happen out the information on that issue. Correct all the errors in the questionnaire are necessary, if the study did non decently set, the intent will non be achieved to carry on the accurate information what we looking for.
For our questionnaire, in order to accomplish the effectivity of pretest, we are traveling to read the questionnaire for at least 15 times after puting. Besides, we are besides traveling to inquire for 15 respondents to prove our questionnaire. Finding right and relevant respondents can assist to increase the efficaciousness of pretest. The assortments respondents would be desire for our Low Birth Rate questionnaires are the professionals, such as English instructors ; lectors, classmates from universities, and besides our parents. We chose them for the questionnaire pretest process, since some of them have sufficient cognition to province out our jobs, for illustration, English instructors can rectify our grammar and spelling errors, rectify the inquiry give voicing into more format type. Lectors can look into the flow of inquiries and give suggestions on the inquiry, guarantee that we are utilizing the multiple-grid format and have been separated them into assortment of groups before carry oning. And, some of them are easy to make, like our classmates, their feedbacks help us to foretell our mark regulation reaction to the questionnaire, they besides may assist to gauge the time-taking. After all, we can rearrange the follow up and one by one.
Use our questionnaire as an illustration, after the pretest process ; we rectify the inquiry give voicing to do the questionnaire go more clarify. Such as, utilizing “ Very Unimportant ” and “ Very Important ” to replace “ Most Important ” and “ Least Important ” . Use full sentence, “ Are you working now? ( If yes, delight go on to reply the undermentioned inquiries. Otherwise, leap to i??Hi?z ) ” alternatively of a individual word “ Occupation ” etc. ( Appendix fig. 2.2, fig. 2.3 )
Sampling is the simple manner to make out marks with a subset of the population alternatively of making the full population. Compare with making the full population, trying will assist to salvage clip, cutting cost for budgeting and work force. First, we should calculate the mark group out. Our mark group is work forces and adult females who have visited Women Health Centre and the Family Planning Association. It is because they will hold a brief concern and cognition on the birth rate issue. To make our mark group, we would utilize the convenience trying so. There is no trying frame while it is really a non-probability sampling method. Those respondents are unknown member organize our mark group because of utilizing the non-probability sampling. Our interviews will choose the most available marks arbitrary. However, we would put the 200 respondents as our sample size.
As the promenade intercept personal interview is suited to tie in with our research, it has many advantages so. First, the promenade intercept personal interview can be conducted faster and cheap. Besides, the promenade intercept can canvass a big figure of respondents and command the velocity of the study. As we want to canvass a big figure of respondents in mark group, we decided to interview in Women Health Centre and the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong within 3 yearss. As the promenade intercept is a face-to-face contact with the interviewees, it will take us easier followup and do corrections of the ill-defined or misconstruing replies. These advantages will promote us to carry on a better study.
Unfortunately, there is no perfect method bing in the universe. We would merely take the method which consist the least disadvantages. In the promenade intercept, we would necessitate a batch of labour force to carry on. This will take the research cost ascent higher by engaging cost for interviewers. Furthermore, low truth of the study is besides a disadvantage of this method. It is hard to follow up if we find out any job while analysing the replies. Further, the consequence sampling may non stand for the full population in a topographic point. Therefore, we would happen out some solutions to repair them. We would non use voluntaries as our group members can be the voluntaries in the research. Possibly, cost of the employment will be comparatively lower. In order to better the truth, puting up more intercept topographic points for interview can heighten the representative degree of the consequences. Besides, after carry oning the study, interviewees would courteously to inquire the respondents to go forth their contact information if they are willing to make that. Hopefully, it may better the disadvantages of the study method.
We would make the study over 3 selected topographic points within 3 twenty-four hours. On 28th April, we would carry on in the Family Planning Association at Wan Chai while carry oning in the Women Association in Tuen Mun in the undermentioned twenty-four hours ( 29th April ) . Finally, we would make the Family Planning Association at Wong Tai Sin in 30th April. These 3 locations will be assigned a squad to play the function as interviewers. Each squad will dwell of 3 member do remain within the topographic point in the operation hours. The choice of those 3 topographic points is due to bettering the truth of the sampling over districts. In add-on, easy to make who concern birth rate, prepare to hold a kid or even avoid holding kid every bit good.