Methods for collection and analysis Essay Example
Methods for collection and analysis Essay Example

Methods for collection and analysis Essay Example

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  • Pages: 8 (1936 words)
  • Published: September 30, 2017
  • Type: Analysis
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Question 3: Conduct an extensive study on information aggregation and analysis.
Introduction: All research projects begin with inquiries that determine the evaluation of the research and its outcome. The selection of evaluation questions is crucial, as it defines what a researcher aims to accomplish. These questions guide a researcher's work and its evaluation, and may vary based on individual areas of interest. Data aggregation involves gathering relevant information on variables to enable answering research questions, testing hypotheses, and evaluating results. It is widely used in various fields such as physical and social sciences, arts, business, and related disciplines. The purpose of data aggregation is to gather high-quality evidence to construct a convincing response to the examined questions. The research process includes gathering accurate information from sources like studies, interviews, focus groups, questionnaires, etc., followed by analysis o


nce the data has been collected.Analysis is the systematic study of a complex subject to gain a comprehensive understanding. There are different types of analysis, including analyzing gathered data. This involves examining, cleaning, transforming, and modeling data to extract useful information. By reviewing all the collected data, researchers can propose conclusions and provide support for decision-making.

In addition to analysis, gathering information and synthesis are essential aspects of a research project. Researchers aim to find steps for designing and implementing an evaluation relevant to their study's subject. They can borrow elements from successful previous efforts or create new ones specific to their study.

Gathering information involves collecting data about the issue at hand and how other organizations and communities have addressed it. This information can come from existing sources like printed materials from previous researchers. Resources can be easily obtained by browsin

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the internet or reading old articles and magazines for news updates related to the subject of study. The library also offers various books and journals that consist of studies and thoughts provided by previous scholars on studying a specific subject.

Furthermore, there are natural examples of interventions developed to address community issues which provide insight into successful program implementation by identifying causes and effects. Observing events initially provides understanding for further data collection.Stakeholders involved in community programs or interventions can include participants, staff, decision makers, those impacted by the issues, researchers, local officials, and activists. Once relevant information is gathered, synthesis involves combining sources to analyze collected data and generate new insights that align with research objectives. It is crucial for all participants to contribute in accurately compiling comprehensive information.

Data Collection Methods
Data collection can be done through questionnaires, surveys, checklists interviews, document reviews observation focus groups and case studies.

1) Questionnaires, surveys, checklists:
This method allows for gathering a large amount of information quickly and easily from individuals in a non-threatening manner. Advantages of this approach include collecting anonymous responses, low administration costs, ease of comparison and analysis. It also scales well for a large number of participants while providing access to abundant data. Additionally it is adaptable to various formats such as online,paper ,verbal. There are also many available sample questionnaires.
However there are challenges associated with this method including the possibility of not receiving thorough feedback due to potential bias in respondents' answers caused by the wording of questions. This method also has an impersonal data collection process which may limit capturing the full story behind the data. Adapting existing surveys may also require additional timeIn summary,

interviews are used to gain a comprehensive understanding of individuals' feelings or experiences and gather further insights into their survey responses. Interviews provide benefits such as obtaining a wide range and depth of information, establishing relationships with stakeholders, and flexibility in questioning. However, they can be time-consuming and challenging for analysis and comparison, with associated costs and potential interviewer bias. Overall, this method requires moderate-high resources.

Another method is document review, which is used when researchers want to understand how a strategy operates without disrupting it. This involves reviewing applications, funds, memos, and proceedings. The advantages of document review include obtaining comprehensive and historical information without disrupting the strategy or stakeholders' routines while utilizing existing information. However, challenges exist such as the time-consuming nature of the process, potential for incomplete data, need for clarity in research objectives, limited flexibility in gathering information, and reliance on pre-existing data. Overall, this method requires moderate resources.

On the other hand, focus groups are another method used to gather information.This text discusses the usefulness of focus groups in deeply exploring a topic through group discussions. Focus groups provide insights into various aspects, such as reactions to experiences or suggestions and understanding common ailments. They also offer the advantage of quickly obtaining common sentiments and providing extensive information in a short timeframe, while conveying important details about a scheme. However, there are challenges associated with using focus groups, including effectively analyzing responses and ensuring the presence of a skilled facilitator for safety and closure during discussions. Additionally, scheduling a group of 6-8 individuals together can be challenging.

In summary, both observation and focus groups have advantages and disadvantages in gathering research information. These

methods require varying levels of resources or capacity. Another method mentioned is using case studies to understand stakeholders' experiences within a scheme and conduct comprehensive examinations through cross-comparisons if applicable. Case studies have the advantage of depicting stakeholders' involvement in all aspects of a scheme and serving as a powerful tool for illustrating it to external parties. However, they can be time-consuming to collect, organize, and describe, providing detailed information rather than breadth.The resources or capacity needed for this method are high. To effectively organize the collected information, it is suggested to follow these steps:
1) Gather relevant data from various sources and observations.
2) Create duplicates of recording forms, documents, audio or video recordings, and other materials to prevent loss.
3) Enter narratives, numbers, and other data into a computer program for organization and manipulation.
4) Perform necessary calculations for quantitative analysis preparation.

The following text presents examples of tasks that can be performed to analyze data. These include entering numerical observations into a chart or spreadsheet, calculating measures like mean, median, and mode from numbers, generating a written version of audio or video recordings, converting non-numeric qualitative data into a format compatible with specific software programs or statistical analysis tools, and arranging data in a manner that facilitates manipulation and analysis.

The approach employed for these tasks depends on the research design and evaluation questions at hand. Researchers may categorize observations based on factors such as the dependent variable, individuals/participant groups, time periods, activities performed etc., utilizing multiple grouping methods to examine interactions among variables. Statistical techniques can also be used to determine relationships between variables while comparing data with other groups can assist in drawing

conclusions.There are two types of methods available for displaying information. Quantitative information analysis involves mathematical examination, while qualitative information analysis utilizes descriptions, anecdotes, sentiments, quotations, and readings.
Qualitative Data Analysis seeks understanding of attitudes, feelings, behaviors, etc., delving deep into situations. Grounded theory patterns are frequently utilized to explain causality and give attention to individual cases.
Information for qualitative data analysis can be obtained through questionnaires or surveys, interviews, focus groups, or observation of individuals or groups performing specific tasks. Discourse analysis encompasses various approaches to analyzing written, spoken, or signed language usage.
Qualitative data analysis offers advantages such as providing detailed insights into a study and fostering openness among respondents. It also allows for simulating individual experiences in order to understand motivations behind certain actions and associated emotions. However,
it has disadvantages including requiring more time and budget due to fewer participants involved. Making systematic comparisons can be challenging due to the subjective opinions and actions being studied.
On the other hand,
quantitative data analysis is a systematic approach that converts collected data into numerical form.The text discusses the focus of quantitative data analysis, which is to answer "what" and "how many" questions in different situations or events. This type of analysis involves measuring or counting properties in order to find evidence that supports or refutes an idea or hypothesis. The initial steps of gathering quantitative information include using questionnaires, conducting interviews, making observations, keeping logs, and researching documents. Analyzing quantitative information has benefits such as greater objectivity and accuracy in obtaining results and the ability to identify bias through the use of standards. However, there are drawbacks to this type of analysis, including creating an artificial environment that may

not accurately reflect real-world situations and providing limited results that offer numerical descriptions rather than detailed narratives. Examples of displaying quantitative data include measuring behavior frequency and duration, examining test scores, and collecting and analyzing survey results on various aspects, such as individuals with specific characteristics like a diagnosis of diabetes or a particular level of education. The process of data collection begins by determining the method to obtain the data through direct observation, interviews, surveys, experiments, or other methods. Once a plan is established, observers must carry out the collection accordingly while considering intact.When collecting data, there are additional considerations to keep in mind. For instance, if conducting observations, the researcher must define what will be observed and schedule them appropriately. It is important to organize recorded observations in a way that is most useful, which may vary depending on the type of information being collected. The method used for data collection should be relevant to how it will be analyzed and utilized. Ideally, recording should occur simultaneously or shortly after data collection to prevent loss or fading memory.

In addition, researchers have the opportunity to obtain archival data from various sources like government agencies, research organizations, schools, businesses, etc. Archival data can come in different forms such as paper files or electronic storage devices like computer discs or CDs. This includes photographs, audio recordings, video recordings, and various types of information related to issues, demographics of populations, behavior patterns health outcomes and developmental outcomes.The text discusses various aspects related to research and hypothesis testing. It mentions that environmental conditions and factors can influence the risk or protection of a population. Additionally, archival data

is important for comparing results between current and past participants, as well as understanding the context of the study. Findings from previous studies can serve as benchmarks for comparison purposes. In hypothesis testing, there are two types of hypotheses: null and alternative. A sample is taken to support either hypothesis. The researcher's objective is not to confirm or disprove a hypothesis but collect evidence that supports or contradicts it. To evaluate a hypothesis, concepts must be converted into measurable factors and considered as variables with measurement scales. Understanding different types of variables involved is necessary for analyzing their relationship.The researcher deliberately manipulates the independent variable, while the dependent variable is measured to determine the outcome of this manipulation. Control variables are other potential independent variables that remain constant during an experiment. According to Wikipedia, there is an assumption that independent variables have a causal impact on dependent variables. Causality refers to a necessary relationship between one event (cause) and another event (consequence), where the consequence directly results from the cause (Griffiths et al., 2002). Additionally, O'NEILL (2008) discusses both qualitative and quantitative research methods' advantages and disadvantages. You can find this information at Furthermore, Polit D Beck C and Hungler B's book "Necessities of nursing research: Methods, assessment and use" provides additional insights into research methods. The fifth edition of this book was published by Joule B Lippincott in Philadelphia and can be accessed at (Retrieved on April 3, 2015).

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